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changes among the members of the government, greatly diminished the profit, which, far from immense on some occasions, was in the end reduced to very little, in consequence of being diminished by a number of expensive concomitants. Confined in their country, these merchants, a continual prey to anxiety, and too often not without cause, were a striking example of what the desire of gain can affect, being obliged to forego their own habits, and assume the oriental garb. Woe to the European, who shall venture to thew himself in the street in the dress of his own country'! he would infal. libly have been knocked on the head, or torn to pieces,
But to wear the long garments used in the East was not sufficient. It was necessary that some part of the dress should be a distinguishing mark, or, to speak more properly, a signal of contempt and profcription. The head of the European was to be covered with the tal. pack, a sort of high, hairy cap, peculiarly assigned to the Franks. For some time the more enterprising English had introduced among them the felte, or head-dress of the Drules, which consists of a large piece of striped filk of various colours, and decorated with fringe, which is rolled round the head in the manner of a turban. The French, however, had not ventured' to follow this innovation, which, by giving them a greater relemblance to the people of the East, would have foftened the mark of infamy, with which the most ferocious tyranny abafed them, and which exposed them to inevitable insults, Another indispensable care was to refrain from wearing garments of green, or any thing green about the dress. To have infringed this rule would have been to be guilty of profanation, and the punishment of the crime would have been as prompt as terrible. Green was the favourite colour of Mahomet; and is still reserved exclusively for his descendants, and for those who have merited a place among the number of the Prophet's choicest disciples by the performance of several pilgri. mages to his comb.
CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH MONTHIN THE YEAR, Chiefly extracted from the New Edition of Dr. Aikin's
Calendar of Nature,
CALENDAR OF NATURE.
Now the leaf
THOMSON, 1. THE fall of the leaf distinguishes the present.
I month; hence this declining season of the year is, in common language, most expressively denominated the fall. 2. The gradual death of vegetable nature suggests, to the reflecting mind, an apt comparison for the fugitive generations of man. 3. The quick fuc. cellion of springing and falling leaves has been thus beautifully applied by Homer :
Like leaves on trees, the race of man is found,
POPE'S HOMER. 4. The loss of verdure, shortened days, diminished warmth, and frequent rains, justify the title of the gloomy month of November. 5. This gloom felt not by man only, but also by other animals. 6. Intervals
there are of clear and pleasant weather. 7. Autumnal months are, in our island, softer and less variable than the correspondent ones in spring. It long continues
“ The pale descending year yet pleasing still !” 8. In fair weather mornings sharp; but the hoar-froft or thin ice, vanishes before the rising fun :
The lengthen’d night elaps’d, the morning shines
THOMSON, 9. Sudden storms of wind and rain strip the trees of their faded leaves, and reduce them to their state of winter nakedness. 10. One of the first trees becoming naked is the walnut. II. It is quickly succeeded by the mulberry, horse-chesnut, fycamore, Time, and ath. 12. The beech and oak are the latest deciduous foresttrees in casting their leaves. 14. Apple and peach trees remain often green till the latter end of the month. 15. Pollard, oaks, and young beeches, lose not their withering leaves till they are pushed off by the new ones of the succeeding spring. 16. Woodpigeon or stock-dove, the latest in its arrival of the winter birds of passage, makes its appearance about the middle of the month. 17. It feeds on young tops of turnips, but beech mast the favourite food. 18. When our old beech woods were standing, the multitudes of them resorting annually here, probably from Sweden and the north of Germany, were almost incredible. 19. Might be seen like rooks, in long strings, directing their evening flight to the thick woods, where they were shot in great numbers. 20. Salmon afcend the rivers in order io spawn; an extremely active fiih. 21. Hence Sal.
mon Leaps, as they are called in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, where, failing in their leap, they are taken by nets or baskets.' 22. Farmer endeavours to finith his ploughing in the course of this month, then lays up his instruments till the next spring. 23. Cattle and horses taken out of the exhausted pastures and kept in the yard or stable. 24. Hogs put up to fatten. 25. Sheep turned out into the turnip field, or, in storiny weather, fed with hay at the rick. 26. Bees required to be moved under shelter, and the pigeons in the dove-houses to be fed. Thus, even gloomy November, has many things of importance which claim our serious attention.
EXCURSION INTO THE WEST OF ENGLAND,
BY THE REV. JOHN EVANS, A. M.
LETTER III. DEAR SIR, TN my last letter a sketch was given of the rural beauI ties of Sidmouth and its vicinity., Exeter, Honiton, and Taunton, must now engage our attention. The TOWN and the COUNTRY poffefs their respective charms; nor should the advantages of either be fafti. diously rejected.
EXETER is an ancient city, and may justly be denominated the metropolis of the western part of our illand. Its name is a contraction of Excester, which signifies a Custle on the Ex. Athelftan, one of the West Saxon kings, first gave it the name of Exeter; having before
that period been called Monckton, from the great pumber of monasteries with which it abounded. The Castle of Rougemont, in this city, is fupposed to have been built by the West Saxon kings, and to have been the place of their residence. It lies on an eminence, whence opens a beautiful prospect towards the English Channel, about ten miles to the south. Here is also a fine terrass walk, with a double row of elms, much frequented by the inhabitants. The ancient part of the building is considerably decayed ; but on this spot, in a neat and convenient hall of modern erection, are held both the aflizes and quarter-feflions. In the centre of the court by which it is surrounded, was beheaded Henry Penruddock, Esq. in the time of Oliver Cromwell, for having attempted to raise an insurrection in behalf of the exiled monarch Charles the Second. It is rather singular, that this event is unnoticed by Hume, in his History of England.
The aflizes were held at Exeter during my stay there before Sir Nash Grose and Sir Archibald Macdonald. I attended both courts, which were much crowded. Ac the criminal bar I saw three men tried for ftealing stores from his Majesty's dock-yard at Plymouth. They were found guilty, after a trial of some hours. I conversed with them immediately after their conviction, and found them much atfected with their situation. They seemed unapprised of the enormity of the crime they had committed, and, consequently, were unapprehensive of the serious consequences which followed. lt is to be regretted, that better means were not devifed for the promulgation of our criminal laws, in every parith throughout the kingdom. The principal crimes, with their affixed punithments, ought to be inscribed upon a tablet, in legible characters, and so placed in a conspicuous situation, that it might excite universal at. tention. To prevent, rather than to punish crimes, Mould be the object of a wise policy ; nor will the hu. mane mind ever fuffer itself to be indifferent to the