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earthed the coin with the blade of a knife, and oftentatiously displayed it as an incontestable proof of the truth of his pofition. He font an account of the discovery to his owul country, where it did not meet with much credit, and indeed hardly could, with persons who knew the column. The Greeks, it is true, from the time of Adrian, had diffused over Egypt the principles of a beautiful architecture, and of elegance in all the arts. A judgment may be formed of this from the remains of the city which that very emperor had caused to be built in the upper part of that country, in honour of Antinous, a young man celebrated in ancient history for his extraordinary beauty of person, and his generous devotedness to a Roman who has been more cried up than he deserves. The columns which still fubfist at Antinöe are cut with greater delicacy, and have forms more elegant than that of Alexandria. Not lhat this last wants beauty ; but its principal merit confifts in the prodigious magnitude of its dimensions, and the truly astonishing enormity of its mass.
6. The same confiderations which suggest a doubt respecting the afcription of this pillar to the time of Adrian, apply still more forcibly to that of the Emperor Severus. Abulfeda, quoted by Savary, only says, “ Alexandria possesses a renowned pharos, and the column of Severus *.” He adds not a word more, and does not so much as point out the spot where the column of Severus was reared. The city of Alcxandria contained such a number of columns, that it is impos. fible to ascertain to which of them the passage of the Arabic historian is applicable. Alexander Severus traced his pedigree up to Alexander the Great: it was natural for him to prize a city founded by the conqueror his ancestor, and it is by no means wonderful, that he should endeavour farther to embellish it by works of various description, to supply the place of such as had been thrown down or destroyed, with those which had already rendered it so magnificent. On the other hand, on comparing the column dedicated to Severus, and still ex. isting in the ancient city of Antinöe, with that of Alexandria, we shall find it imposible to conclude that they are both of one and the same period. The hieroglyphics with which the granite-pivot, the immoveable support of the column, is sculp
* Description of Egypt, Savary's translation.
tured, farther appear a new proof of the period of its elevation, much more ancient than the reigns of Adrian and Severus, and they indicate a production of the most remote antiquity. This consideration, united with the filence of historians on the subject, seem to throw back to an Era more diftant than that of the defeat of Pompey, the construction of the column which bears his name. If amidst these uncertainties, which, in dehance of the researches of the learned, frequently involve the past and the future in the same obfcurity, I durst venture to hazard an opinion of my own, I should be tempted to ascribe the honour of the erection of the column of Alexandria to the ancient times which produced so many prodigies in Egypt, to mole Æras when myriads of men were employed, for years together, in transporting masses of Atone, the movement of which leemed to exceed human strength, and to demand the exertons of beings more than mortal.
“Whatever be in this sentiment, it would be difficult now to Change the appellation so long affixed to the column of Alexandria, and, whatever good reasons may be alleged to the contrary, it is very probable it will still retain the name of Pompey's Column. Nevertheless it is likewise probable, that pulterity will recollect that this column was the head-quarters, from whence Buonaparte issued orders for the escalade and capture of Alexandria; that the bodies of the herocs who peTiibed as the victims of their own bravery, are deposited round The pedestal, and that their names are engraven upon it; it is likewise probable that, more ftruck with the genius of the victory, and of the sublime combinations connected with it, than with that which has conferred celebrity on ancient Egypt by her works of stupendous magnificence, absorbed in the immortality of the French nation, shall be disposed to fix the Æra of this dawning glory, and that to future ages the column of PomHey shall be the column of the French Republic!!
Rosetta is another town of celebrity in Egypt, and we must indulge our readers with an account of it; the length of it will not be displeasing to the inquisitive
“Rossetta not having, like Alexandria, an immediate communication with the sea, you do not find it swarming with
those multitudes of foreigners, of adventurers, of dangerous men, whose agitation, tumult, and uproar are their element, and which render a reliance, at the city last named, so very disagreeable. Remote from the bustle of sea-ports, and from the frequent political convulsions of Cairo, its inhabitants were abundantly peaceable. Not that the European was there secured entirely from insult: he had, at times, disagreeable circumstances to encounter, but they were night in comparison with those which perfecuted him at Alexandria, and which absolutely oppressed him at Cairo. The filly and ridiculous pride which persuades the Mahometans that they alone of mankind are adopted by the Deity, that they are the only perfons to whom he ought to open his bosom, a pride which the doctors of the law or the priests, the vainest and most intole. rant of all men, took great care to foment, was the principal source of those unpleasant attacks. The Turk describes the European by no other epithet than that of infidel; the Egyptian Muflulman, Itill coarser, treats him merely as a doga With him, Christian and dog were two terms so exactly synonimous, and in such frequent use, that no attention was paid to the difference, and that they were indiscriminately employed by persons who had no intention to offer an insult. Europeans, in the usual dress of their own country, were like. wise exposed, at Roffetta, to be hooted at, in the more populous quarters of the town, and to be pursued with repeated fhouts of Nouzrani, Nazarene, The Jews likewise underwent there those petty persecutions, and, though stationary inhabitants of the country, were much worse treated in it than the Chriftians of Europe. But that nation is composed of degraded individuals, and deserves to be despised, inasmuch as insensible to contempt, to the disgrace accuinulated on them by wave upon wave, they suffered themselves, if I may use the expression, to be deluged with it, provided you left them the facility of glutting their vile and insatiable thirst of gold. Habited in the oriental (tyle, they were obliged, in Egypt, to wear a head-dress, and to be shod, in a peculiar and appropriate manner; but what principally diftinguished them, was the tufts of hair, or of beard, which they were forced to let grow, and to keep up, close by the ear, on both fides of the face. Most of the merchants were Turks or Syrians; there were some likewise from Barbary. The Cophts, that degene.
rate race, descended from the ancient Egyptians, resided there in confiderable numbers. Some Arabs too were domesticated in that city, and the plains adjacent were inhabited and cultivated by the fellahs; a term which, in Egypt, conveys an. idea of contempt, as in ancient times that of peasant was with us, to which it corresponds, when the intention is to express rude vulgarity and gross ignorance. The chief command was entrusted to an officer of the Mamelucs, to whom they gave the title of Aga,
“ The most ordinary pastime here, as well as all over Turkey, is to smoke and drink coffee. The pipe is never fron the mouth from morning to night : at home, in the houses of others, in the streets, on horseback, the lighted pipe is ftill in hand, and the tobacco-pouch hangs always at the girdle. There constitute two great objects of luxury; the purses which serve to contain the provision, are of silken staffs richly embroidered, and the tubes of the pipes, of an exceflive length, are of the rarest, and, for the most part, of the sweetest scented wood. I brought home onc made of the jasmine-tree, which is more than fix feet long: it may convey an idea of the beauty of the jaímines of those countries, seeing they push out branches of tha: length, straight, and fufficiently large to admit of being bored. The pipes of more common wood are covered with a robe of Glk tied with threads of gold. The poor, with whom the smoke of tobacco is a necessary of first rate importance, make use of simple tubes of reed. The top of the pipe is garnished with a species of mock alabaster, and whire as inilk: it is frequently enriched with precious stones. Among persons less opulent, the place of this is supplied by faucets. What goes into the mouth is a morsel of yellow amber, the mild and sweet favour of which, when it is heated or lightly pressed, contributes toward correcting the pungent flavour of the tobacco. To the other extremity of those tubes are adapted very handsome cups of baked clay, and whcih are commonly denominated the nuts of the pipes. Some of them are marbled with various colours, and plated over with gold-leaf. You find them of various fizes : those in most general use through Egypt are more capacious ; they are, at the same time, of greater diftention. Almost all of them are imported from Turkey, and the reddish clay of which they are formed is VOL. VIII
found in the environs of Constantinople. There was a Turk at Rossetta who excelled in this species of manufacture. I took great pleasure sometimes to look over him while at work: a great diversity of small sharp-pointed tools served him to impress, with exquisite delicacy, various designs on the clay in its state of softness; but the process was long and tedious: his pipe-nuts accordingly sold very dear. I had some from him which cost me so high as fix franks (five shillings) a piece. Some of them were covered with a capital pierced full of holes, in form of a perfuming pan. This Turk, who had lived a good deal at Constantinople, was not deftitute of address; his ihop was the resort of the most confiderable personages of Rose setta; he was a great friend to the French, and he employed his credit to procure for me the means of travelling comfort. ably through Lower Egypt. .
so It is difficult for Frenchmen, especially for those who are not in the habit of scorching their mouth with our short pipes and strong tobacco, to conceive the possibility of smoking all day long. First, the Turkish tobacco is the best and the mildest in the world; it has nothing of that sharpness which, in European countries, provokes a continual disposition to spit ; next, the length of the tube into which the smoke ascends, the odoriferous quality of the wood of which it is made, the am. ber tip which goes into the mouth, the wood of alocs with which the tobacco is perfumed, contribute more towards its mildness, and to render the smoke of it totally inoffensive in their apartments. The beautiful women, accordingiy, take pleasure in amusing their vacant time, by presling the amber with their rosy lips, and in gently refpiring the fumes of the tobacco of Syria, embalmed with those of aloes. It is not necessary, belides, to draw up the smoke with a strong suction, it ascends almost spontaneously. They put the pipe aside, they chat, they look about, from time to time they apply it to the lips, and gently inhale the smoke, which immediately makes its escape from the half-opened mouth. Sometimes they amuse themselves by sending it through the nose; at other times they take a full mouthful, and arifully blow it out on the extended palm, where it forms a spiral column, which it takes a few instants to evaporate. The glands are not pricked, and the throat and breast are not parched by an in