Графични страници
PDF файл
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

LATE FELLOW OF ST. CATHERINE'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; BARRISTER-AT-LAW; AKD
OFFICIATING STANDING COUNSEL TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.

[graphic]

CALCUTTA:

THACKER, SPINK AND CO.,

$ufilisi)tts to tfjc Calcutta Uniimrifg.

Bombat: THACKER, VINING & Co. Madras: HIGGINBOTHAM & Co.

London : W. THACKER & Co.

CALCUTTA: PRINTED BY THACKEB, SPINK & CO.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

LECTURE I.

THE HINDOO PEBIOD.

Scope of the present subject—Nature of sources of information—Express Hindoo

law as to land—Menu does not show extenfrof rights in land—Obligation of

cultivator to cultivate—The king's share—The village as referred to in

Menu—The village as inferred from observation and analogy—Lord Met-

calfe's description of the village communities—Such communities found in

all parts of India—The village lands and homesteads—A self-governing cor-

poration—The development from the joint family—The lands at first held

in common but divided at an early period—Immigrants—Servile dependants

—Three classes of cultivators with interests in the land—Khoodkashts

Their rights regulated by custom—In Southern India—Their right to occupy

so long as they cultivated and paid the customary revenue—The transfer-

ability of their rights—Rates paid by them—Paid a higher rate than other

cultivators formerly—Their privileges—The second class of cultivators

Their rights in the land—What occupation sufficient—Less complete rights

than khoodkashts—Assessment upon them—The mere pyekashts—Rates paid

by them—Precarious nature of their rights—The village constitution The

village officers—Mode of payment—The servile labourers of the village—The

headman—Partly elective and partly hereditary office—The State could dis-

miss—His functions—His emoluments—In Orissa villages—Dismissal Mode

of assessment of revenue—Mode of payment—When headman refused to

agree to assessment—Headman not a farmer of the revenue—But he and the

village responsible—Headman long recognised—The putwarry and canoongoe

—The zemindar—The chowdhry—The amount of the king's share—Pro-

prietary rights ......

LECTURE II.

THE MAHOMEDAN PEBIOD.

The transition from the Hindoo to the Mahomedan period not a sudden one—The

Mahomedan invaders of India—Their system non-hereditary—The Hindoo

system hereditary—Struggle between the two systems—The Mahomedan

system a centralised one—The Mahomedan land theory—The Khiraj—The

Page

VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page

Ooshr—The Sowad of Irak—Proprietary rights according to Mahomedan law

—The two kinds of khiraj—Implied ownership in different persons—Resem-

blance of wuzeefa khiraj to the tax paid by the khoodkashts—Extent of pro-

prietary right—Power of alienation—Amount of khiraj—Remission of khiraj

—Mode of enforcing payment—Procedure when cultivator made default-

Waste land—Similarity between Mahomedan and Hindoo systems—The

Mahomedans continued the Hindoo system—The khiraj not formally imposed

—Attempted changes—Proprietary rights not disturbed—Proprietary rights

gradually affected by the Mahomedan system—The revenue machinery—The

headman—The origin of the zemindar—The village community—Summary

—The crory—Influence of Mahomedan and English ideas—The zemindar—

Descent of a zemindary and talook—Jageerdars—Ala-ood-deen's attempt to

curb the zemindars . . . . . .40

LECTURE III.

AKBAR'S SETTLEMENT.

Akbar's or Todar Mull's settlement for ten years—Four classes of land—Mode of

ascertaining average produce for one season—Average of ten years then

taken—New assessment lower than former rate—Proportion taken by the

State—The rebba—A fixed money-rate the main object of the settlement—

The position of the ryot not affected—The Assul toomar jumma—The old

methods of rendering the revenue might still be adopted—Remissions and

deductions—The settlement made with the ryots direct—The headman—The

zemindar—Attempted return to the Hindoo system—The settlement only

partially carried out—Commencement of the modern revenue system—Todar

Mull's assessment the basis of all subsequent assessments—The fiscal divi-

sions—Khalsa and jageer lands—Khalsa lands—Jageer lands—Havilly lands

—The soubah—The circar—The chucklah—Three stages of fiscal division—

Zemindaries—A cutcherry attached to each division of the zemindary—Fiscal

organization above the zemindar—The crory—The foujdar aumildar—Claims

of fiscal officers to hereditary rights—Military force employed in revenue

collection—The crory's emoluments—The canoongoe—The putwarry—The

chucklah superseded the circar—Attempts at centralization—Hindoos filled

the lower revenue offices, and Mahomedans the higher—The aumil—His

subordinates . . . . . . .67

LECTURE IV.

THE ZEMINDAE.

Hindoo times—Growth of the zemindar—The office hereditary—Conflict of

authorities—Struggle between opposing principles—The zemindar an here-

ditary revenue contractor—The sunnud—Contents of the sunnud—The arzee

—The furd-sewal—The f urd-huckeekut—The muchulka—The perwanneh—

TABLE OF CONTENTS. VU

Page

Duties of the zemindar—Amount of revenue paid by him—The zemindars

ultimately looked upon as landlords—The Nautwars—Zemindars in Behar—

The sunnuds of Jaffler Khan—A zemindary alienable—The zemindar's emo-

luments—Surplus revenue—Settlement with Government—The hustabood—

Settlement with the ryots—Mode of enhancing the ryot's rent—Customary

rates—The khamar land—Remissions of revenue—Neej-jote and nonkar—

Extent of nankar—The purjote—Julkur. bunkur, ghasskur and phulkur—

Cesses—Allowances to the zemindar—The zemindar's emoluments official in

their origin—Dismissal of the zemindar—Allowances to displaced zemindars—

Under-renting—The proceedings of Jaffier Khan—His attempt to reduce the

zemindar's power—Severe measures adopted—The zemindars regained their

power—Discussion of the zemindar's position . . . .95

LECTURE V.

THE TALOOKDAR AND OTHER OFFICERS. THE ASSESSMENT OF REVENUE AND

RENT AND THEIR AMOUNT.

The talookdar—One class Bprung from the ancient rajahs—Hereditary claim—

Another class of modern talookdars—The talookdar's position—The talook-

dar's emoluments—Subordinate interests—Talooks created by zemindars—

Discussion of the talookdar's position—The oanoongoe—His duties—His

emoluments—Abolition and restoration of the office—The putwarry—His

duties—His emoluments—Mode of assessment—The koot and the tookhem

rezi—The doul bundobust—The hat-hackcut—Net revenue payable by the

zemindar—Khas collection and farming—Accounts—The muzkoorat—Rent

and revenue—Settlement with the ryots—Cesses—The condition of the ryots

—Rates paid by the ryots—Amount of revenue—The assul—Abwabs—Khas-

noveesy—Jaffier Khan's abwabs—Nuzzeranah mocurrery—Zer mathoot—Ma-

thoot feelkhaneh—Foujdarry—Chout Mahratta—Ahuk—Nuzzeranah Munsoor-

gunge—Cossim Ali's abwabs—Serf sicca half-anna—The tuckseem—Propor-

tion of produce taken as revenue . . . . .149

LECTURE VI.

THE PAYMENT OF REVENUE. ASSIGNMENTS OF REVENUE.

Payment of revenue—Payment originally in kind—Mode of ascertaining share to

be paid—Payment in kind fell into disuse—Remedies for nou-payment—

Application of the revenue—Jageers—Lakhiraj—Milk—Practice of assigning

revenue very ancient—Growth of jageers—These grants usually of revenue

and not of land—Zemindar's rights in jageer lands—Milk and muddud-mash

grante—Altumghas—Jageers—Purposes for which jageers were granted—The

jageer now hereditary and alienable—The conditional jageers—The uncondi-

tional jageer—Yetool—Powers and liabilities of the jageerdar—Dues to

« ПредишнаНапред »