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majesty into a duchy. These new on the ministers of divine worship, re- . triumphs also gave the emperor Napo. quired the cessation of anti-religious Jeon an opportunity of rewarding the masquerades, in the convention, inov. fidelity of some other princes of his ed for the organization of public in. family. His adopted son, prince Eu- struction, and the national festivals, gene Beauharnais, after having married which he termed the bread of reason, a princess of Bavaria, united Dalmatia , and even proposed to consecraté a day and the country of Venice to the king to the Supreme. Deing; “ for,” said dom of Italy which he governs; and he, “ we did not strive to annihilate prinče Joseph, after having directed supers:ition for the sake of establishthe army, which penetrated into the ing the reigo of Atheisin.” states of Naples, in the month of Fe- By these words he accused Hebert bruary, 1806, was appointed king of and Chaumcire, who were marked Naples and Sicily. An imperial de. supporters of materialisın, and he cree, passed at the same period, adop- leagued with Robespierie to bring ted the princess Stephanie, a relation them to the scaffold, but this league of the empress; the emperor gave her lasted not long, the emothered ennuity
hand to the electoral prince of Baden, subsisting betwixt them was already . and this marriage was celebrated ear'y beginning to attract the notice of
in April at the palace of the Tuileries, every body. When Danton, on the · in the presence of a numerous and 3d of September, was beginning 10 - brilliant court.
suggest to the Jacobins," that they
ought to be independant of all autho. Memoirs of J. G. DANTO.1, rity, and distrust those who wanted to One of the Members of the French Con.
hurry the people beyond the limits of
the revolution," he was received vention.
with murmurs ; astonished at the dis(Continued from our last, page 137.) approbation we met with, and remem.
He then called for a plan to raise bering the accusations that had been an army capable of crushing the ene- directed agaist liimp already, he insisted my.' On the 3d of September he on justifying him-elf in the sight of the supported the law for fixing the price people. “I defy my enemies," said of corn, in order to prevent the peo. he, “ to bring the proof of any crime ple from foucing from the rich and against me ; you shall try me in the powerful what the law ought to grant presence of the people ; I shall no them; he voted for the formation of a more tear the page of my luistory than revolutionary army, to be followed by you will hear the pages of yours," a tribunal, which should pass imme. Robespierre, who was not yet prepared diate judgment on conspirators and to attack liim, declared bim innocent monopolizers ; and obtained a decree of those projects of loyally attribute for paying forty sous to every citizen to hion by the arist crais. On the 5! who should be present at the asscn- of Ja.ruary, 1797, whe:: accusdilluns blies of the sections. On the bih of were directed asinst Philipprallx 111 September, he was again elected a the Jacobin society, he declanied member of the committee of public against the separatisik: “Lot 15" safety, and on the 9th declared his said he, s have societing to be done continued resolve not to accept this by the guidetine of public opinion ; office. On the 26th of Noveniber, let iis render our puizale batreci substr. the festivals, called those of Reason, vient to the general interest, and let
at which the Hebertists pre.ided, in- us grant to aristocrats only the priority • duced hum to declaim once more a. of the poniard.” Ile afte: Waids de.
gainst the poseasonable attacks made fended Camille Desmoulins, Ciled on
him not to be alarmed at the somewhat that he had been forewarned of his severe lessons of Robespierre, and arrest, buc had not been able to credi warned the society to beware, lest in it. " What," answered hus coikaye judging Desmoulins, a severe attack “ you were forewarned and ret $0 should be made on the liberty of the fered yourself to be taken ; your indopress. When Fabre d'Eglantine was lence and self-indnigence have indeed arrested, he proposed that he should ruined you! how often have you beca be heard at the bar, and tried before cautioned against this event." all the people, and that the convention Onlis reinoval to ihe Concierge. should reflect on means to do justice rie, his air become gloomy and feroto all the victims of arbitrary arrest, cious, he appeared more particularla without impeding the course of revo- humiliated at having been the dupe of lutionary government. At the same Robespierre, and all he said sheved time he voted for the exclusion of the a strange mixture of repentance at: nob'es from every employment, and pride. At the time of his examinating moved that every revolutionary com- he answered with calmness, “ I ap mittee should be compelled to send to Danton, well known in the revolutieri the committee of general safety a table. my home will shortly be anubilatioa, of its members and its measures. After but my name will live in the Pantbeos the death of Hebert, the hatred which of history." The revolutionary tribo. sub isted between Robespierre and mal condemned him to death on the Danton was converted into open war. 5th of April, 179+, “ as an accorDanton was desirous of overturuing plice in a conspiracy tending (ba the despotism which Robespierre exer- could suppose it!) to restore munas cised over the committee, and Robes. chy.” It appears that a party of · pierre with more address sought to Cordeliers had resolved to save their destroy Danton, in order to free him- chief at the moment of execution, but self from a dangerous rival. An at. ibis design failed from the rapidity of tempt was at first made to reconcile the steps taken at his trial Hs them, and they were bronght to a friends also accused a certain general, dinner together, when Danton said to who had vill then been his creature, of his antagonist, “ It is just to restrain having thwarted those measures for the royalists, but we ought not in our resistance which he might easily kare justice to confound the innocent with orgauized. It was said of him, tha: the guilty, and our power should ex- Robespierre had overreached him, and Tend no farther than to strike for the indeed, Danton was greatly his supxegiod of the republic.” Robespierre, rior in courage, in political and refowith a frown, answered, “ Who told lutionary resources ; was equal to her you that any innocent person had been in popularity, and inferior caly sa execured ? From this instant all hopes cunning and hypocrisy. of réconciliation was done away, and in the discussions of his canse the Danton on going out, said, “I most judges made use of every device is shiew myself; there is not a moment keep back liis defonce. The pred to be lost." But the measures of his dent of the tribunal reproached tuen rival were already taken ; Saint Just with his boldness : “ Individual bosta todged an information against him with ness,” said he, “is doubtless repre. the commiitee of public safety, and hensible ; but national boldness, of he was arrested in the night of March which I have giren so many cran. the Slot, 1791, with those who were ples, is allowable and even necessary, called his accomplices. When impri- and I gkry in possessing it." soned in the Luxembourg, he aliucted desired to cease from recriminatica. a forerd ziety, and owned to Lacroix, and to address the jury, be answered
* An accused man, who, like me, would, if successful, defeat its object; knows words and things, answers the because the secrets, sought to be exjury but does not address it.” He tracted, will never be entrusted to the then vchemently insisted that the wit. Priest, if there ceases to be a moral nesses should be heard: “ There are,”?. certainty that they will be religiously. he said, “ a few wretches who would preserved. The public confidence in sacrifice us to their ambition, but they the secresy of private confessions beshall not long enjoy the fruit of their ing once extinguished, there will be ill-gotten and criminal advantage.". an end of unreserved disclosure to the The decree which excluded him from Priest--and no information can be had the debates, transported him with un- from him, who will have none to give s. speakable rage ; he was like a roaring thus, in fact, this rigorous proceeding lion, the names alone of Saint Just, is utterly unavailing 10 any public purof Robespierre, of Billaud, whom he pose, and unprofitable to the general called infamous tyrants, passed his lips. administration of Justice. It merely On his return to the Conciergerie he involves the Bench in an ungracious exclaimed, “ It is the anniversary of and ineffectual struggle, in which the the day on which I caused the insti. public voice will ever sustain the tution of the revolutionary tribunal, Priest suffering in the cause of Duty, for which I implore pardon of God Honour, and Truth, and condemn the and men !! I leave every thing in ill-timed and indiscreet exercise of dreadful confusion : there is not one summary Jurisdiction. . among them who understands any . Certainly, it may be affirmed with thing of government. After all, they perfect confidence, that no Catholic are such brethren as Cain; Brissot Priest in Ireland will be found to yield would have had me guillotined." obedience in this respect, by betraying When somewhat recovered from his the secret trust reposed in him. His first paroxysms, he ascended the fatal conscientious belief is, that the Sacra cart with resolution and without re. ment of Penance is of divine institusistance : his head was raised, and his tion ;. that Confession is one of its looks bespoke pride ; he appeared to essential parts; 'that an inviolable secrecommand the crowd who surrounded sy attaches to the Sacramental Confes; liim at the foot of the scaffold. One sion; that the Confessor is bound to thought, one feeling turned towards suffer death, rather than' reveal (by his family, and affected him a moment: word or sign, directly or in directly) « Oh, my wife, my best beloved,"? any sin or crime, or any circumstance cried he, “ I shall see thee then no attending them, mentioned by the Peo : more !" Suddenly breaking short, nitent in Confession : yea, that the however, he exclaimed, « Danton, whole Confession is to be buried in no weakness !" and immediately as- eternal oblivion; and chat, according to cended the scaffold: "Thongh poor the Laws of the Catholic Church, he and greatly involved before the revolu. would expose himself to degradation tion, at the time of his death he left for life, as a punishment for ihe crime a considerable fortune, great part of of violating of such a trust, and forwhich had been acquired during his feit eternal Salvation, hereafter. He embassy to Holland.
would be immediately deposed from
all bis Priestly functions, and conCatholic Grievances, . . signed to universal abhorrence.. (Continued from page 107 of our la st.)
It was so decreed by the General
« De Pænitentia. Caveat autem Sa. the trial, he was convicted and execut. a cerdos omnino, ne verbo aut signo, aut ed, Lord Kenyon instantly declared, “ alio quovis modo, aliquatenus prodat with a generous disapprobation of « peccatorum_ Qui peccatum in pe. of such a proceeding “ That he would
nitentiali Judicio sibi detectum præ- " have paused before he admitted suck “ sum scrit revelare, non solum a Sa. "evidence as had been there admitted." o cerd, ali officio deponendum decernia In fact, the hardship thus inflicted * mus, verum etiam ad agendum per. upon the Catholic Clergy might easily « petuam penitentiam in arctum monas- be alleviated, without offering any os terium derudlendum."
violence to established principlesWe are thus particular in stating The law has already provided for this Prohibition, because Courts of other cases, perfectly analagous to the Justice in Ireland appear to consider present. For Quakers (who, froa the Catholic Clergy as only bound to conscientious scruples, refuse to take Secrecy, in such cases, by a mere form any oaths) are permitted, in all cinl of Ecclesiastical regulation, which of cases, to make simple affirmation only, course might yield to the pressure of and such affirmation is rendered, by temporal authority, or the supposed express Statutes, of equal credit with exigencies of public Justice. But it the oath of another. Thus we see is far more cogent, and, indeed is in the rigid rule of evidence dispensed yiolable.
with, in order to accommodate persons We find, too, a peculiar respect to who are governed by inviolable price wards a trust of this nature evinced ciples of a sacred nature. by the established Church. In the.Again, Barristers and Attornies may 113th Canon of the Church of Eng. refuse, when examined in the Court land, (see the Body of Canons, drawn of Justice, to answer any question up in 1603) there appears the follow. tending to a Disclosure of any Costa ing clause : “ provided always, that dence reposed in them by their clients; in if any man confess his secret and nay, they are not permitted to answer a hidden sins 10 his Minister, for the such questions ; this is the Privilege er unburdening of his conscience, and of the Clients, not theirs. : is in order to receive Spiritual consola Surely, then, a similar protection it
tion and ease of mind from him, we due to the Catholic Clergy and Pere
do not any way bind said Minister ple. Equal respect and tenderness “ by this our Constitution, but we do ought, in justice and in courtesy, to s strictly charge and admonish him, be shewn towards their just scruples “ that he do not at any time reveal and of Conscience, so necessary to be er es make known to any person whatsoe. tertained, so ancient and long esta. os ver, any crime or offence so com blished, and so obligatory upun every * mitted to his trust and secresy, &c. feeling of Morality, Honor, and Re
Here we fell pleasure in adverting ligion. to the sentiments of the late Lord III. “ The Catholic Clergy are Kenyon, Chief Justice of England, “ liable to be punished, by upon a casc dearly similar to the pre
o civil Action, for excomms sent. A case having been cited be. « nicating unworthy members fore him, (the King mv. Sparkes). « of their own Communion." where the prisoner being a Catholic, The Power of Excommunication had made a confession before a Pro. forms a subject, upon wbich very grest testant Clergyman, of the crime, for pains have been taken of late years, which he was afterwards indicted, but fruitlessly, to excite odium against and, that confession having been per. the Catholic Clergy of Ireland. mitted to be given in evidence upon Lord Redesdale, who had no inter
course with any Irish Catholics, or to embrace every supposable temporal any means of obtaining correct infor- case ; they are construed with great mation, confidently declared in a great indulgence, and accepted with every public Assembly, that “ Excommuni. Latitude. The Excommunicated
cation from the Catholic Church is, person retains his claim to all the offices . 6 in Ireland, not simply a separation of Clarity, to relief in his necessities, 6 from the Body of the faithful, but, to employment for his Industry, to 6 to all intents and purposes, an In- associate with others for all useful or 56 terdiction, ab aqua et igni : that no necessary purposes, and to maintain « Catholic dares to administer a cup the ordinary Relations of Society, as * of cold water, or a crust of dry Master, Husband, father, soldier, ** Bread, or any other necessary sus Trader, &c. &c.
tenance to an excommunicated per- As for Excommunication of any " son; and that the offeuce which person for associating with the expelle : s draws down this heavy sentence, is, ed Member, or even for encouraging or any friendly intercourse which a and abetting him, we believe that no s Catholic may be found to hold with instance of the kind has occurred: at * Protestants.”
least, none with the sanction of any All those assertions, we must dis Catholic Bishop in Ireland. , tinctly say, are directly contrary to · The Catholic Clergy have been una the fact, ';
'... justly accused of pronouncing this The truth is, that this Punishment, Sentence in light and frequent cases. 80 much misrepresented, is actually Now, on the contrary, it is reserved liinited to the Separation of a Chris. as the punishment of crimes of gross " tian, leading a disorderly Life, dis- enormity or turpitude. Only two " gracing his profession, from the instances of it have occurred, during # Christian Congregation, and a the last 24 years, in the populous * banishment of such person from the Arch-Diocese of Dublin, wherein, * Church." .
from the vicious habits of a great Ca. It amounts to neither more 'nor less pital, the most numerous instances of than the removal of a Member of any
nber of any the exercise of this power may natuother Religious Society from that So. rally be supposed to have existed. ciety, for disorderly and disgraceful During the preceding 17 years only conduct, would amount to. There two other instances of the like nature ensues no Interdict against any other
occurred-Yet none of the persons, person communicating with the expell. So excommunicated; appear to have ed Member in Temporals, except so far suffered any temporal injury from the as such Communion may extend to a sentence. They have continued in wanton and contumacious encourage
their respective Trades and occupa. ment and approbation of the conduct tions: have not been in any manner so punished. On the contrary, the
molested : and they have met their Catholic Discipline expressly declarés Catholic Neighbours, and been dealt several kinds of temporal communion with, as before. to be wholly unaffected by Excomınd). So discreetly, too, is the exercise nication. They are compressed, for of this Power limited, and so jealously brevity's sake, in the following Line : e following Line: is it watched, by the Catholic Hier.
archy, that, according to the Disci* Utile, Ler, Humite, res ignorata, necesse.”
pline of the Catholic Church in Ire
land, no Clergymaw of the second These five Heads of Exception to order can issue an Excommunication the temporal consequences of Excom. without previously laying the case munication are 80 womprehensive, as before the Bishop of the Diocese, and