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point of experiencing a new shock; injure him. On the 19th of Brumaire, the authority appeared to be in the the legislative body being assembled hands of the demagogue party, but at St. Cloui, general Bonaparte, acthe public opinion was far from being companied by some grenadiers, prein their favour; and this state of sented hiinself, bare.headed and un. things could not exist long. It was ar med, in the council of 500, at which under these circumstances that Bova. his brother Lucian presided. His parte conceived and quickly executed presence did not excite che less tumol: the project of his return to Europe. on that account. Some representatives He assembled with great secrecy those of the demagogue party pressed rouod who he intended should return with him, and se. med to threaten him; him, traversed the Mediterranean but general Lefévre suddenly appeared, without obsta eles, landed at Fréjus, on followed by several grenadiers, and im. the 9th of October, 1799, with a mediately extricated him, Bonaparte small number of officers' of his staff, then went to the antieots, where be · and went without delavto Paris, where made a long extempore speech, after
the directory received him, on the which the council of 500 was dissolre] 16th of the same month. His pre- by the arıned force which entered the sence at Paris in some degree suspend- hall. A voice cried out: " And the ed every dissension, and all parties constitution !” “ The constitution!"
appeared to noite to welcome bim, replied Bonaparte, “ you violated it • and to expect from him alone the ter. On the 18th of Fructidor, year 5,
mination of all the intrigures then (4th of September, 1797.) on the going on.
298 of Floréal, &c. ic has long ceased It was under these circumstances to exist; and continuing, he unfolded that the events of the 19th of Brun the vecessity of pursuing the measures maire were preparing, Bonaparte, determined on to save France from aware of what was passing, awaited anarchy. After the dispersion of the the result in his own house, surrounds council of 500, a part of its members ed by a number of staff-officers. When united again, and, in concert with he was informed that the decree which the council of ancients, declared those was to transfer the legislative body to deputies excluded from the legislative St. Cloud was passed, and that the body, whu had made themselves re. execution of it was intrusted to him, ma kable for their opposition to th3 he inmediately went to the bar with event. The resignation of the director all his retinue. The decree was read Barras has been received; he cungta. to him, and be pronounced a discourse tulated France on the fate which which was heard in the midst o sume Bunaparte was preparing for it, and tun:uit. The president of the council separated from his colleagues Gobier of ancients then announced that the and Moulin. Immediately a new proorder of the day would take place on viional government was formed, * tive morrow, at Sc. Cloud, at noon, the head of which were placed Dirk and the assembly was broken up parte, Sieyes, and Roger Luca, ainidot the cries of " Long live the re. under the titles of ti si, xcond, si public !” Bon parte devoted the re. third consul, and on the Stibu mainder of that day and the morning Primaire (ljih of Dec aber fullos of the next to securing the sucess of ing,) the few constituiing was pats his enterprize; he reviewed the troops lished. In the beginning of the same which were asse...bled in the Tuileries, month, the beastlit's of deportasir had several conferences with the com. taken at first, against several das nittees of inspectors, and forgot guished individuals in the Jacoa..! nothing to render the directors, at party, were recalled. As soon as the ; tached to the opposition, unable to reins of government were in the hands" of general Bonaparte, his first care consul, rapidly driven, was already
was to offer peace to England and to sheltered from this terrible machine, with the other powers ; but his proposals when it burst, and the extraordinary
were rejected. His measures for in- quiekness of his coachman had thus LO ternal pacification were more succes, deceived the expectations of the conte
ful, and the Vendée, which had made spårators. This crime, at first attri, S a new explosion, was not long in lay- buted to the Jacobins, determined the
ing dowo its arms. Bonaparte then deportation of a great number of them ; employed himself only with putting some days after, however, several France in a condition to make her Chouans were arrested, who were also
enemies repent of having prolonged accused of it ; and many proofs hav. E dhe miseries of war; and the astonish. ing concurred against thựm, the courts an ing passage of Mount St. Bernard, condenaued four of them to tbe punish
which was crowned by the victory of ment of death. At the same time i Marengo, soon secured the peace of Bonaparte was labouring without in 15 the continent in the most glorious termissiou for a general peace ; already . manner. The first cousul, after having had a treaty been concluded with the i reestablished the Cisalpine republic, United States of America. That
past through Lyons, where the with Austria was at last signed at people, in their enthusiasm, would Luneville, on the 20th of Pluviose, draw his carriage themselves. Return. year 9, (9th of February, 1811,) and ing to Paris, he was received there in secured to France the preservation of the same manner, on the 13th of a part of her conquests ; Russia and Messidor, year $, (2d of July, 1800,) the Ottoman Porte also ceased to be in the midst of the public acclamations. her enemies, and England was not The greatest tranquillity seemed to be long in following their example. enjoyed in the interior, but hatred was Peace was concluded at Amiens with far from being suifed; and as the this power, on the 25th of March, fate of France appeared to be attached 1802. It was also in the month of to the life of the first consul, it should Germinal that the convention between have been foreseen that all the efforts the repu' lic and the pipe, ratified on pf hatred and envy would be directed the 26th Thermidor, year 9, (!5th of against his person. On the 10th of July, 1801,) was adopted by the October, 1800, several individuals, legislative body, and re-established the accused of such a project, were ar- catholic religion, which was declared rested at the opera, and Aréna, Cè. by chis compact to be that of the goraccbi, Demerville, and Topineau. vernment, and the majority of the Lebrun; having been summoned before Freoch nation. It still remained to the courts as chiefs of this conspiracy, restore peace to families, by recalling were condemned to death.
unhappy fugitives into their busom : On the 3d of Nivose following a decree granted an amnesty lo emia (24th of December) his happy star, grants, and authorized them to rewhich had saved him from so many turn to France. In the interval be. dangers, again preserved him from the tween the peace of Luneville and that most imminent perhaps that he ever of Amiens, passed another inportant encountered. When he was going to event, which is the result of the jour"The opera a cart like ilial of the wa. ney of the first consul to Lyon, ter carriers, but full of fire-works, ex- , where he was proclaimed president of fluded almost at the moment in which the Italian republic, by the assen.bly he was passing, and scattered terror which had been convened there. At and death through the whole neigh- this same period the department of bourhood. The carriage of the list the Seine had presented to him the
plan of a triumphal portico on the him in it were not sanctioned by their state of the Grand-Chatelet. To suffrage. In consequence, the French tbis offer he replied: " I accept with people were consulted on this ques. gratitude the offer of the monument tion : “ shall Napoleon Bonaparte be that you wish to erect to me ; let the consul for life?" An affirmative aa. place remain planned, but let us leave swer having been solemnly published, to future ages the care of construct. Bonaparte was proclaimed irst consu! ing it, if they ratify the good opinion for life. In consequence of this nee which you have of me." Whilst arrangement, Bonaparte and the tito peace 'was concluding with England, other consuls went, on the 21st of Bonaparte was employing himself to August, to the palace of the Luses. reconcile the colonies to the system of bourg, and opened the first sessiva of government which was unfolding ic. the senate, at which the organic de self in the metropolis. In conse. cree calied upon them to preside. At quence he wrote a flattering letter to the end of the republican year, 91: Toussaint Lonverture who governed of September, he showed himself at ac St. Domingo, to persuade him to the exhibitiou of the produccions of submit to general Leclerc ; and prais. French industry at the Louvre, visi ing his past conduct, to which he el the picture gallery, and ordered attributed ihe restoration of the cre the finest pieces to be bought fir hin. lony, he informed him that all resis. Two days after, he distribute : at the tance would be useless. An army of Tuileries the medals decreed to dide 40,000 mert vas transported into that rent manufacturers ani artists who island by a formidable squadron. On had distinguished themselves in these the 18th of April, *1802, which was exhibitions. It was near y at the Easter Sunday, the governinent re. same time that the immense works solved to make public profession of which have given so beautiful an aptheir submission to the catholic reli- pearance to the capital, began by bis gion, awid the three consuls went to orders. At this period, Switzerland the metropolitan church, accompani. was agitated, and the partisans of the ed by the diplomatic bodies, the state ancient constitution appeared on the counsellors, and the ministers. They point of triumphing over the goveritwere received at the entrance of the ment formed under the auspices church by the archbishop of Paris and of the French republic. Bonaparte his clergy: the cardinal legate offi. thouybt it concerned the nauao:1 ciated linself; and after the gospel, honour to interfere in this contest, the new prelates took their oath be- and addressed to them a proclam till tween the hands of che first consul. by which he enjoined the different Io the month of Miy following, the parties to lay down their arins, and project of the legion of honour was to send députies to Paris to teritike sanctioned by the legislatise body. nate their disseusions ; he offered About the same period, the tribunate them his meditation, as the only inte havinir voted a national recompence thod which Providence had reserve! to the pacific.tor of France, the con- to them to prevent them from slavaks sular semate prolonged the duration ering one another, and declared this! of his consulenip for ten years. To he would maintain it by fuice si this testimony of the public gratitude arms. Already the Valaisans, Diet Bonaparte ansivered, thout the wish of ed, proclaimed hun the restorer oi the people having invested him with this independence. All the parti ehen sepienie magistracy, he should which divided Helvetia soon accepied noe shirk himself sure of its confi. the meditation of France, and it w: dence, if the act which was to retain 10: lung befure peace was r5.7 el
among them. Whilst these foreign renewed by the enemies of France, cares were employing him, he alio excited fears for her destiny, which turned his attention to the situation of was attached to the life of a single an important department, that of man, and produced a determination the Seine-Inferieure, which he went to restore hereditary government, with through in November, 1802. His the greatest part of ihe forms of the journey to Rouco was celebrated by ancient monarchy. In May 1806 Kreat rejoicings. On his return he then, the tribunate expressed its wish stopped on the field of battle of Ivry, that Napoleon Bonaparte should be caused the position of the armies to declared hereditary emperor of the be pointed out to him, and command. French, and this proposal was sancti ed the restoration of the monument oned by a decree of the 18th of the in honour of Fienry IV. which had same month. He was consequently been desrroyed during the revolution. c.owned in the church of Notre Dame,
At the beginning of 1903, the les- in Paris, on the 23 of December, gislative body deced that the coin 1804. by his holiness Pius VII. who should be the citizy of Bonaparte, came from Rome for this great cerefirst consi. In April of the same mony. On the 18th of March, year, the declaration of war with Eng- 1805, he was proclaimed king of land replunged Europe into the mice. Italy, and on the 26th of May fulries which could scarcely have been lowing, received at Milan the ancient forgotten in a year's peace. d shiort iron crown of the Lombard kings. time after the rupture with England, returning from his new kingdom, he Bolsparte made an excursion to the went to Genoa,' where the upicn ut coasts, to accelerate the maritime pre- that country with' France was proparations ; and thence traversed an. claimed. Then after having staid cient Belgium and the departinents of some days at Paris, he went again to the Rhine, where he received on his visit the camp' at Boulogne, in order way the homage and the testimonies to hasten the immense preparations for of gratitude of the people. On his invasion, which had been forming for return to Paris, while he was devoting two years, and there, elevated on his himself to the details of ac.ministration, throne, in the midst of a camp of two aucient Chouans, arrested in the 100,000 mer, he distributed to the middle of the c.piral, and on the bravest of his army the decorations of point of being conducted to death, the legion of honor. It was thence declared that they formed part of a that the threatening posture of Ausnumerous band, which had come from tria ; and its invasion of the states e f England, under the orders of Georges, Bavaria, allied 10 France, forced the of Cadoudal, and of the ex. general emperor Napokon to direct his prim. Pichegru. toʻattempt the life of the cipal forces towards that country. In first consul From beinformation which less than a month the French army they gave, the police arrested several of transported itself from the shores of their accomplices, and finally the two the ocean to those of ihe Danube, genrals. General Morean was also and the Austrian army, uuder the oraccused of having had a share in this ders of general Mack, surprised by plot ; and being summoned before the this rapidity, and cut off on the right criminal couit of the Seine, he was from Memmingen, had only time to condemned in two years imprisonment, take refuge in the town of Ulm, which was shortly after changed into where, after some slight contests, babishment. Pichegru destroyed him. 37,000 men yielded themselves up
self in his prison, and Georges, with prisimers. Another budy, which ein - eleven of his accomplices, lost his head deavoured to open itself a passage thro'
va che scalfold. These plots, so often Franconia, uuder the orders of reise. ral Wernek, being pursued by prince to place on the new throne of Italy Murai, was taken and dispersed, and one of the families of Europe, re. an army of 80,000 men was annis moved by the late events. This was hilated in less than a fortnight. It rejected with indignation, and the cangot be doubted that this memora- emperor Napo eon being resulsed to ble event was owing to the activity fight, employed himself tdl the next and the warlike genius of the emperor day in preparing his army, either by of the French, as much as to the panic energetic harangues, or by the most with which his name struck bis ene ekilful dispositions. Alday-break theo, mies. Immediately after he went into the allies having had the imprudeae Bavaria, and after having defeated in to march in a columu upou the files several encounters the remains of the of the French army, were 8001 Austrian force joined to some Russian bruken and driven into marshes, where corps, he was in less than a month their artillery remained jo the power of under the walls of Vienna, at the the French, without having been able head of 200,000 men, and entered to come into play. that capital on the Ilth of Novem. The victory was not for a single ber, 1805. This powerful army soon moment undecided, and the imperid established a communication with that guard of Russia having advance i to of Italy', which, on its part, had also repair these first losses, was iin nediobtained important advantages under ately overthrown by the imperial guard the command of marshal Massena. of France. . The allies, obliged to
The emperor Napoleon did not stay take refuge under the wails of Olmutz at Vienna ; and after some battles no longer thought of any thing but with the Russian general Kutusow, separating their cause, and the empe he seized the fortress of Brunn, 'ror of Germany the very next day travers d Moravia, aud obliged the shewed the most decided intentioa of emperor of Germany to send negoti. making peace on any conditions, wbal. ators to him. The wreck of the ever they might be. He had an interAusirian army, jowed to two Russian view at the advanced posts with the armvies that had hastened 20 their emperor Napoleon ; and the treaty of assistance, and excited by the pre- Presburg soon after put an end to the Bence of the two emperors of Russia short and glorious campaign. Frarand Germany, now for a short time cis II. ceded to the conqueror the belived themselves on the point of Venetian states, the Brisgaw, ik overwhelining the French arıny, which country of Saltzbourg, Dalinatia, and was at iwo hundred leagues distance the Tirol. The electors of Wurtes: from its frontiers ; and without wait, burg and Bavaria, allies of France, ing for the third Russian army, which were acknowledged kings, and united was three days march from Olmutz, to their states the greatest part of those the combined forces presented them. which had just been gained from Aus selves before the French army in an tria. immense line. The emperor Napoleon The court of Berlin, which du appeared at first to dread the result ring these great events had seened of the battle which was offered him, to pursue an indecisive line of conduct, and commanded a retreat to the plains soon also yielded to France the cour: of Austerlitz, where, having remarkof Neufchatel, a part of its possessions ed a very advantageous position, he in Westphalia, and especially the town awaited his enemies with confidence. of "Vesel, which was given to prince On the 1st of December, 1805, Joachim Murat, brother in law :o the pricce Dolgorucki, sent to him by the emperor Napoleon, as well as the sure cinperor of Rusalii, proposed to him rouiding countries, erecied by ho