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stone bridge over the Ebro leads Roman times are now to be seen, into the middle of this old town; The churches, palaces, the towoand in these circumstances it btars house, the exchange, are, howeso'ne resemblance to the city of ver, well worthy of observation. London, with its bridge in the The town possesses no less than midst of the present capital. T'hat two cathedrals in which divine ser. Part of the old walls which ran vice is alternately performed by along the river, is sither hidden the same chapeer; the one is a by modern houses, vrentirely re- venerable gothic building, sup, moved; on the outside of the three ported by four rows of clustered other parts of the old walls, runs pillars; the other is a modern a broad open streer in the manner structure of Greek architecture, of the boulevards of Paris, beyond in the form, not of a cross, but which the new rown spreads in of a parallelogram, about five all directions, but chiefly (o the hundred feet long, by two hun: westward ; the ground being con- dred feel broad. It is built of fined on the south and east by the brick, but the intention was to little river Huerva, which falls in-' case it entirely over with some of to the Ebro at the east end of the the valuable marbles with which town, .

Spain abounds. The plan was, to The streets of both the old and eredi a square tower at each angle the new town are tolerably of the parallelogram, a grand straight, crossing each other ac dome in ihe centre, and five other right angles; but they are gene. domes towards the east end; a rally narrow, particularly within design certainly singular and dif, the old or Roman rown.

ferent from what we see adopred Saragossa is very ancient; the for other christian churches. The present name is a gradual corrur inierior is divided by two rows of tion of Cæsarilgusia, a naine massy square pillars, ornamented given to it by Aug 15 lis Cæsar, with pilasters. The chief object who repaired and beautified a in erecting this extraordinary place cilled Saldubi, situated on fotructure, was to provide a suitathe same spor. Pliny mentions ble mansion for ihe miraculous both towns, saying, “ Cæsarau- image of the virgin, there pregusta was a free colony on the served and celebrared far and wide, banks of the Ebro, where former- | in ancient as in modern rimes, ly stood a town called Salduba." under the designation of our Lady It began in the reign of Augustus of the pillar. The origin of this to coin money; and many of irs appellarion was this, that soon afcoins still remain, commeinorat. Jer the ascension of our Saviour, ing the signal favours it received but during the life rime of Mary, froin that Emperor.

when St. James the Elder was en:Saragossa has undergone so ma. ployed in preaching the gospel in ny changes from the various in Spain, and had yet made but very cursions of Gochs, Moors, and few converts, the virgin, transother foreign nations, that unless poried by a choir of angels, passit be the remains of the innered from Jerusalem to the neigh. walls and gaies, no antiquicies of bourhood of Saragossa, and ap:

peared

peared to James, seated on a mar, on the west side of the town, now ble pillar, brought by the angels converted into barracks for troops for the purpose; when encoura contains several noble halls, part aging him to continue his a pose of the palace of the Kings of tolic labours, which would ulti. Arragon, enriched with very demately be crowned with success, licare sculpiure and gilding. she directed him to erect a cha. When Henry VIII. of England pel to her honour, and to place married Catharine of Arrigon, in it the pillar on which she sat, among other presents were sent for an everlasting memorial of het to him from this casile various appearance. The virgin was im- arms, particularly swords marked mediately wafted back to Jeru- with the boat anii dog, and the salem, and a chapel was erected name of Andrew Ferrara, then a at Saragossa by St. James and his celebrated artist in Saragossa. cighe disciples, (for his converis Io a small open place or square, were not more numerous) in in the western part of the old which the sacred pillar was de- town, stands derached from other posited ; and this identical pillar buildings, an octagonal tower of it was, which without intermis- fourteen feet a side, and thirtysion has been, and still is, vene- four feet in diameter, by one rared in Saragossa.

hundred and forty feet in height, Under the centre dome of the it is constructed of brick like the five on the east end of this new gropter number of buildings in cathedral is erected a magnificent the town, with sundry ornaments, chapel of Greek architecture, and formed by the projection of the of the most precious marbles the bricks in particular places beyond country affords, in the form of a the rest of the walls. The winlit:le temple, in the centre of dow's appear at a distance to be which stands the sacred pillar gothic, but they are not arched, supporting an ancient image of the gradual contraction at the the virgin, with her intant soil, top being produced by advancing of wood now as black as ebony. each superior row of bricks a litThe riches appertaining to this ile beyond he inferior row, as is image are beyond calculation ; seen in some of the most ancient and on account of the miracles edifices of Egypt. The inside of performed at this shrine, i he re this tower contains a stair or sort of pilgrims from distant paris ramp, resembling that in St. not only of Spain, but of Europe, Mark's rower, ** Venice ; and the is even at this day very grear. ascene is so gentle, that a man on

This new cathedral was tound, hors-back may muunt to the top. ed in the end of the 17th centu- The rower is not perpendicular, ry, and in 1753, Ferdinand VI. having a vis ble bend io one side, directed the chapel of our Lady in the manner of the famous hangof the pillar to be constructed; it ing tower ar Pid; but its devia. is probable, however, that this tion from the vertical line is not prodigious edifice will not soon so considerable as that of the larbe brought to a conclusion. ter building. The dare of this The ancient castle or fortress tower is 1504 ; and it is called

che

the new tower, although its con- are established. To the society struction be commonly ascribed of Saragossa, the late King grants to the Moors.

ed one thousand pounds a firs, In Saragossa, is one of those with a yearly revenue of two patriotic institutions which first bundred pounds. took their rise in Biscay, called . The students at the university La sociedad ae los amigos del pays, of Saragossa, in the year 1769, the society of the friends of the amounted to nine hundred and country. The object of these in seventy-six; but this number was stitutions, now numerous in Spain much increased in some following is the general instruction of years, by the influx of young youth, independenily of the ese men from the country, who, 10 tablished schools and universities avoid the service of the Muuia, of the Kingdom; whatever re- fiocked to the university, under lates to the improvement of agri- the pretence of devocing themculture, manufactures, and the selves to the service of the church. fine arts, comes within the scope The Militia service is in Spain of these excellent institutions, called the quinia, because every which are maintained partly by fifth man of a community, or grants from the Government, and discrict, is obliged to serve, if not partly by individual subscriptions attached to the Ecclesiastical life, amongst the more opulent inha- or otherwise legally exempied. bitants of the districts where they

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The Press of Coyne, Capel. means which chey employed in es. streer, has given within the month tablishing the Reformation, and of August, two very interesting the effects produced by the same. publications, « The Grounds of By the late Bishop Challoner." the Old Religion, or Irrefragable This is the first time this very vaArguments in favour of the Ci. luable Work passed through the tholic Church. With an Appen- Irish Press. The Irish public are dix, shewing the invalidity of much indebted to this spirited and Protestant Ordination, and prov- industrious young Bookseller, for ing the uncanonical consecration of the expensive and judicious selecParker, at the Nag's-head, and tion of the Works of eminent Cathe forgery of the Lambech re- tholic Writers he has lacely pub. cords, in answer to Courayer, &c. lished, a: a rime when a vindicaWith Biographical sketches of the tion of Catholicity became a meaChief Retorners, the motives by sure of necessity, against the viowhich they were induced, and the lence of persecution, and the ca•

lumnies

lumnies of Ministers and Legisla. hearts, they gave a welcome in tures.

return, and a place of refuge, The other work is “ An In- and a love approaching to worship. quiry Legal and Political, into the Those humble Evangelists have Consequences of giving to his passed away, crowned with sufMajesty a Negative upon the ferings, works, and glorious ine Appointment of Irish Catholic famy. and I repose upon their inBishops and Priests. by Counseln tercession, now that they are conlor Clinch."

surnmated spirits, in hope, that Their successors will not fall, by the dissembling warfare of any power, such as formerly marked

them our for proscriprion, and EXTRACT FROM Mr. CLINCH's that, on the eve of our deliver PAMPHLET.

ance, when the palsied knee should

be braced, and the faint heart le-must be remembered, not- should be resolure, they will not withstanding, that we owe much suffer that light to go out, offento Catholic Episcopacy in Ireland sively, which burned and gleamed -It is to the constancy, zeal and in the tempestuous night of a long laborious devotion to cheir sacred captivity, as the lamp of prophecy calling of Irish Bishops, we are before the morning star, and as a indebred for the present increase beacon to the troubled and sinkof the Catholic name, which, era. ing faith of nations. dicated by the axe of law from But I do not think our present year to year, derived growth and Bishops degenerate have known vigour from perpetual wounds; their innocence, faith, religiousand, at this day overspreads the ness and pairio:ism, by many soil, like an unmeasurable ruin. proofs, and I am justly anxious Selected from the Priesthood, not for what they may become hereby the profane reconnoitring of after. They are not fashioned, I Court Intrigue, but by the halo allow, on the deep, rugged stamp lowed test of venerable life, of their predecessors, whose daily marked out for peculiar severity exercise was to wrestle with death and disgrace by the laws, presents nor would indeed the times allow ed by Grand Juries as infamous the funereal display of those virMen, contemning safety, disdain tues, which persecurion demanded by power those ancient Pre- ed formerly. The soldiers of Ceelates confined their ambition to sar knew how to fight, though their Apostleship, and addressed perfumed and wearing chaplets ; their labours to them, on whom and, were our Bishops called upon the Gospel was first and expressly by Religion, to suffer. I presume bestowed; to che poor, to the chat they could suffer greatly, prisoner, to the weeping. Nor without the pomp and circumwere the poor ungrateful for the stance of martyrdom. heavenly comforts. From beg. Yet they will consider that garly means, and rich swelling not all their virtues will be admite

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ted either to justify or to accone most falsely I declare, but mosi for an hour's deserrion from the unanswerably, as to general cona Universal Church ; and that in an viction, that it was not more from office, such as they hold, of un- the attraction of duty than the bounded confidence and most free atrraclion of gold, they turned and compulsive authority; suspi- their backs on their slaughtered cion is more faral than crime, fock, and that they barred up and, of all crimes, subverviency heaven against the dying, in the is the greatest, and when joined horrible contemplation of wages. to the possibility of a bribe, is My attachment to an order of beyond cure and expiation. They men, I have reverenced from my wilt remember that wlien their early days, to some of whom I duty required, they magnani- am hound by their good offices, mously came forth to oppose rebels and several of whom ought to be lion against the state, and to rein- bound to me by mine, has wrung force, by the awe of spiritual from me these words, in which, condemnation, the necessary, yet if they should be led to think thai frightful justice, which desolaied I have overstepped the general the land. It is strange to think; feeling, they will err, and, pero that such heroism as that which haps limentably. Though mute they then displayed, should noć in appearance, 'this feeling is not have gained them implicit confi. inexpressive ; and though withdence! Sıravge, that men who out agitation, it is already decide had thus cast away, for righre ed, with many syinpoms of irreousness sake,- all the imperious vocable choice. I have representfeelings of sympathy, and still ed this feeling, lest our Bishops more powerful reinembrances of should be the last to know, what paternal love, should not every now they would be the first to experibe trusted with the choice of their ence, most solemnly protesting own colleagues ! But, they op, that their seats are tortering at posed the crimes of the people; this moment, under the well comand such is the force of virtue; bined force of appearances and they were thought to oppose them probabilities, upon which public froin Bishop-like motives. A new causes are usually determined and more serious cause of offence without ar peal. They are to asis now before the Public, which, semble, as I understand, in a few yoless ir be encountered openly, weeks I pray that their resurrec. and without elusion, will asperse tion may be full of glory, and ibat oiher proceeding; I do not tbeit determination may be say, with disgrace, but only not prompt. Their place, their ho. with homicide. Should it here. nour, their innocence, demand a after appear; that the negociation loud vindication. It is impatient. with the then government was a ly expected n01min a monili

voluntary advance on their part, hence it may be a posthumous not the reluctant assent of terri- apology. fred men, it will be inferred,

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