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entrance to its haunt, and it then displays striking signs of consternation. It is only on such occasions that it will take refuge in trees. Its hole is formed with great skill, having several branches from the principal passage, each of which is terminated by a store house, in which its winter food is deposited : in one is contained acorns, in another nuts, in a third maize, and in a fourth chestnuts, which are its favourite food, and of which it sometimes collects not less than two hats full. In Siberia, ten or fifteen pounds weight of the kernels of the stone pine have been taken out of one of these hoards.
During harvest, they fill their mouths so full with corn, that their cheeks are quite distended; and in this manner carry it to their concealed store. They give great preference to certain kinds of food; and if after filling their mouths with rye, they chance to meet with wheat, they discharge the one, that they may secure the other. These animals seldom stir out during winter, nor so long as their provisions last: when those fail, they sometimes work their way into places where apples are laid up, or into barns where maize is stored, and make great havoc.
This animal is marked with a stripe of black, which runs along the ridge of the back; and on each side a yellow stripe, bordered with black : its head, body, and tail, are of a reddish brown; breast and belly white; its nose and feet of a pale red colour: its eyes full and lively. It is very wild, bites severely, and is tamed with difficulty. Its skin is of but trifling value, and is chiefly sold to the Chinese,
The Armadillo is a native of South America, in which country there are several varieties of them. They are all covered with a strong crust or shell, and are distinguished from each other by the number of flexible bands of which it is composed.— It is about twelve inches long, and eight broad, and is a harmless inoffensive animal, living in burrows under ground, which it seldom quits but at night; roots, fruits, and other vegetables are its food; it grows very fat, and is greatly esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh.
The Indians hunt it with small dogs, trained for that purpose.- When surprised, it runs to its hole, or if it cannot reach that, it attempts to make a new one, which it does with great expedition, having strong claws on its fore feet, with which it adheres so firmly to the ground, that, if it should be caught by the tail, whilst making its way into the earth, its resistance is so great, that it will sometimes leave it in the hands of its pursuers : to avoid this, the hunter has recourse to artifice; and, by tickling it with a stick, it gives up its hold, and suffers itself to be taken alive. If no other means of escape be left, it rolls itself up within its covering, by drawing in its head and legs, and bringing its tail round them as a band, to connect them more forcibly together: in this situation it sometimes escapes by rolling itself over the edge of a precipice; in which case it generally falls to the bottom unhurt. When found in its hole, it is either smoked out, or
expelled by pouring in water. When its pursuers, however, begin to dig for it, it eludes them by digging at the same time, and throwing the earth behind it, which it does so effectually, as to prevent smoke from penetrating.
This animal differs from the preceding in its size, which never exceeds that of a young pig; and in the number of its bands being less. Its tail is thick at the base, tapers to a point, and is shorter than in the rest of its species. It is found in Brazil and Guiana.
To give a minute description of the shells or coverings of the Armadillos, would be extremely difficult, as they are all composed of many parts, differing greatly from each other, in the order and disposition of the figures; but in general there are two large pieces that cover the shoulders and the rump, between which lie the bands, which are more or less in number in different kinds. These bands are not unlike those in the tail of a lobster; and being flexible, give way to the motions of the animal.
These singular quadrupeds are naturally harmless, unless they find their way into a garden, where they do much mischief, by eating the melons, potatoes, and other vegetables. Their motion is a swift walk, but they can neither run, leap, nor climb trees ; so that if pursued in an open place, their only resource is to gain their holes as quickly as possible.
THE Pangolin, or Manis, of which there are two species, the long-tailed and the short-tailed, is a native of Africa and the East Indies. The latter is thicker in proportion to its length than the former, and has a much shorter tail, and five toes on each foot, instead of four. In all other particulars they agree. To no other animal, not even the porcupine, has nature given such power of passive resistance as to the Pangolin, which may, in fact, be almost considered as invulnerable. All the upper parts of its body are closely covered with scales of different sizes, which, as they are attached to the skin only by the lower extremity, it can erect at pleasure, opposing to its adversary a formidable row of offensive weapons. They are sharp. at the point, and so hard as, on collision, to strike fire like a flint. The moment it perceives the approach of an enemy, it rolls itself up like a hedgehog, and by that means secures all the weaker parts of its body. Its long tail, which at first view, might be thought easily separable, serves still more to increase its se
curity: for being lapped round the body, and defended with shells even more cutting than any other part, the creature remains in perfect safety, and sets at defiance the efforts of the panther, the leopard, or the tiger.
Like the ant-eater the Pangolin is toothless, and has a long cylindrical tongue, which it uses in the same manner as that animal to procure the insects on which it subsists. When the Pangolin approaches an ant hill (for these are the insects on which it chiefly feeds), it lies down near it, concealing as much as possible the place of its retreat, and stretching out its long tongue among the ants, keeping it for some time immoveable. These little creatures, allured by its shining appearance, and the unctuous substance with which it is smeared, instantly gather upon it in great numbers; and when the Pangolin supposes that it has a sufficiency, it quickly withdraws the tongue, and swallows them at once. This operation it repeats till it be satisfied, or till the ants, grown more cautious, will be no longer allured to their destruction.
The Pangolin chiefly resides in the most obscure parts of the forest, and digs itself a retreat in the clefts of rocks, where it brings forth its young in security. It is about three or four feet long, or taking in the tail, from six to eight. Like the lizard, it has a small head, a very long nose, a short thick neck, a long body, short legs, and a tail of considerable length, thick at the insertion, and terminating in a point. The negroes of Africa, when they find it, beat it to death with clubs, and consider its flesh as a peculiar delicacy. The scales are used for a variety of purposes.
From the external appearance of the Pangolin, it might be supposed to belong to the lizard tribe. It is, however, a mammiferous animal, and brings forth its young alive.