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the northern regions of the old and new world. It has long, slender, branched horns; those of the male are much the largest. In colour it is brown above, and white beneath, but it often becomes of a grayish white as it advances in age. It constitutes the sole wealth of the Laplanders, and supplies to them the place of the horse, the cow, the sheep, and the goat. Alive and dead the Rein-Deer is equally subservient to their wants. When he ceases to exist, spoons are made of his bones, glue of his horns, bowstrings and thread of his tendons, clothing of his skin, and his flesh becomes a savoury food. During his life, his milk is converted into cheese, and he is employed to convey his owner over the snowy wastes of his native country. Such is the swiftness of this race, that two of them, yoked in a sledge, will travel a hundred and twelve English miles in a day. The sledge is of a curious construction, formed somewhat in the shape of a boat, in which the traveller is tied like a child, and if attempted to be guided by any person unaccustomed to it, would instantly be overset. A Laplander who is rich has often more than a thousand Rein-Deer.
The pace of the Rein-Deer, which it can keep up for a whole day, is rather a trot than a bounding: its hoofs are cloven and movable, so that it spreads them abroad as it goes, to prevent its sinking in the snow; and as the animal moves along they are heard to crack, with a pretty loud noise. The females do not begin to breed till they are two years old; but then they regularly continue breeding every year till they are superannuated.
In summer, these animals feed on various kinds of plants, and seek the highest hills, for the purpose of avoiding the gad-fly, which at that period deposits its eggs in their skin, and that to such an enormous ex-' tent that skins are frequently found as full of holes as a cullender. Many die from this cause.
In winter their food consists of the lichen rangiferinus (rein
deer liverwort), which they dig from beneath the snow with their antlers and feet. When the snow is too deep for them to obtain this article, they resort to another lichen that hangs on pine trees; and in severe seasons the boors often cut down some thousands of these trees to furnish subsistence to their herds. Attempts have been made, but without success, to naturalize the Rein-Deer in England. It is probable, however, that this object will ultimately be effected.
The Elk, or Moose Deer, inhabits the northern forests of Europe, Asia, and America, as far as Japan. It is generally larger than the horse, both in height and bulk. Its horns are shed annually, and are of such magnitude that some have been found that weighed upwards of sixty pounds. The neck of the Elk is so short and its legs so long that it cannot graze on level ground, but must browse the tops of large plants and the leaves and branches of trees. It can step without difficulty over a gate that is five feet high. When
disturbed it never gallops, but escapes by a kind of quick trot. None of the deer tribe are so easily tamed as this animal, which is naturally gentle; and when he is once domesticated he manifests great affection for his master. In the state of New York, a successful attempt has been made to employ Elks in the labours of agriculture. The Indians believe that there exists a gigantic Elk, which can walk without difficulty in eight feet of snow, is invulnerable to all weapons, and has an arm growing out of its shoulder, which it uses as we do ours. They consider him as the king of the Elks, and imagine that he is attended by numerous courtiers. With them the Elk is also an animal of good omen, and to dream of him often is looked upon as an indication of long life.
The species that belong to the hog tribe combine the various characteristics of several tribes of animals. They resemble the horse in the number of their teeth, the length of their head, and having but a single stomach; and the cow kind in their cloven hoofs and the position of their intestines; but in their appetite for flesh, their numerous progeny, and their not chewing the cud, they resemble those of the claw-footed kind. Thus they fill up that chasm which is found between the carnivorous and graminivorous kinds; being possessed of the ravenous appetite of the one and the inoffensive nature of the other. They offend no other animal of the forest, at the same time that they are furnished with arms to terrify the bravest.
The Wild BOAR, which is the original of all the varieties, is neither so stupid nor so filthy an animal as that which we have reduced to tameness. He is much smaller than the hog, and does not vary in colour, like the domestic kind, but is always found of a dark iron gray, with black ears, feet, and tail. His snout is much longer than that of the tame hog, and the tusks are considerably larger; sometimes growing near a foot in length : they spring out from both the upper and under jaw, but the lower ones are most to be dreaded, as they frequently inflict desperate wounds.
The chase of the Wild Boar, constitutes one of the principal amusements of the higher ranks, in those countries where it is to be found. Small mastiffs are generally used ; and the Boar, when driven from his covert, goes slowly and uniformly forward, not much afraid nor very far from his pursuers : at intervals he turns round, and stops, as if desirous of attacking the hounds; but, being aware of his ferocity, they keep off, and bay him at a distance; he then resumes his course, till, being completely fatigued, the young dogs close in upon him, at the risk of their lives, while the more experienced ones are content to wait until the hunters come up with their spears, and either dispatch or disable him. This species of hunting is attended with considerable danger, as his tusks are formidable, and he not unfrequently uses them against his pursuers with terrible effect.
The Sow subsists principally upon roots and vegetables, and seldom assails any other animal, being content with such provisions as are obtained without danger: yet it has sometimes been known to attack infants, and, if it happen to meet with a dead and even putrescent carcass, it immediately seizes upon it. It is, indeed, sordid and brutal in its nature, and appears to make choice only of what other animals find the most offensive. Stupid, filthy, inactive, and drowsy, its life is a round of sleep and gluttony; and if supplied with sufficient food, its flesh soon becomes a greater load than its legs are able to support, and it continues to feed, lying down, or kneeling, an helpless instance of indulged sensuality. Yet, as well as the male, it is capable of being taught many things, is attached to its companion, and will hasten to the assistance of any of its kind, as soon as it hears them utter the cry of distress. It has been trained like a pointer, and displayed equal sagacity in finding game. Wind appears to have a peculiar influence on this
uadruped; for when it blows violently, it appears much agitated, and runs towards its sty, screaming in the most violent manner. It has also been remarked