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from these voracious animals, but for their destruction. The method most in use consists in sticking into the trunk of the tree old blades of knives, standing upwards, scythes, and pieces of pointed iron, disposed circularly round it, when the tree is straight, or at the place of bending, when the trunk is crooked. The bear has commonly dexterity enough to avoid these points in climbing up the tree; but when he descends, as he always does, backwards, he gets on these sharp hooks, and receives such deep wounds, that he usually dies Old bears frequently take the precaution to bend down these blades with their fore-paws as they mount, and thereby render all this offensive armour useless.

Another destructive apparatus has some similitude to the catapulta of the ancients. It is hxed in such a manner that, at the instant the bear prepares to climb the tree, he pulls a string that lets go the machine, whose elasticity strikes a dart into the animal's breast. A further mode is to suspend a platform by long ropes to the farthest extremity of a branch of the tree. The platform is disposed horizontally before the hive, and there tied fast to the trunk of the tree with a cord made of bark. The bear, who finds the seat very convenient for proceeding to the opening of the hive, begins by tearing the cord of bark which holds the platform to the trunk, and hinders him from executing his purpose. Upon this the platform immediately quits the tree, and swings in the air with the animal seated upon it. If, on the first shock, the bear is not tumbled out, he must either take a very dangerous leap, or remain patiently in his suspended seat. If he take the leap, either involuntarily, or by his own good will, he falls on sharp points, placed all about the bottom of the tree; if he resolve to remain where he is, he is shot by arrows or musket balls.


White butterbur. Tressilugo alba.

Sfanuarg 27.

St. John Chrysostom, St. Julian of Mans. St. Mariut.


It is observed in Dr. Forster's "Perennial Calendar," that "Buds and embryo blossoms, in their silky, downy coats,

often finely varnished to protect them from the wet and cold, are the principal botanical subjects for observation in January, and their structure is particularly worthy of notice; to the practical gardener an attention to their appearance is indispensable, as by them alone can he prune with safety. Buds are always formed in the spring preceding that in which they open, and are of two kinds, leaf buds and flower buds, distinguished by a difference of shape and figure, easily discernible by the observing eye; the fruit buds being thicker, rounder, and shorter, than the others—hence the gardener can judge of the probable quantity of blossom that will appear,"—

Lines on Buds, by Cowprr.
When all this uniform uncoloured scene
Shall be dismantled of its fleecy load.
And flush into variety again.
From dearth to plenty, and from death to life.
Is Nature's progress, when she lectures man
In heavenly truth ; evincing, as she makes
The grand transition, that there lives and

A soul in all things, and that soul is God.
He sets the bright procession on its way.
And marshals all the order of the year;
He marks the bounds which winter may not


And blunts his pointed fury; in its case.
Russet and rude, folds up the tender germ.
Uninjured, with inimitable art;
And ere one flowery season fades and dies,
Designs the blooming wonders of the next.

"Buds possess a power analogous to that of seeds, and have been called the viviparous offspring of vegetables, inasmuch as they admit of a removal from their original connection, aud, its action being suspended for an indefinite time, can be renewed at pleasure."

On Icicles, by Cowper. The mill-dam dashes on the restless wheel. And wantons in the pebbly gulf below: No frost can bind it there', its utmost force Can but arrest the light and smoky mist, That in its fall the liquid sheet throws wide. And see where it has hung th' embroidered banks

With forms so various, that no powers of art, The pencil, or the pen, may trace the scene! Here glittering turrets rise, upbearing high (Fantastic misarrangement!) on the roof Large growth of what may seem the sparkling trees

And shrubs of fairy land. The crystal drops That trickle down the branches, fast congealed,

Shoot into pillars'of pellucid length,

And prop the pile they but adorned before.


Earth Moss. Phatcum cutpidatum. Dedicated to St. Chrytoitom.

Sfanuarp 28,

St. Ague*.—Second Commemoration. St. Cyril, A. D. 444. Ste. Thyrtut, Leuchit, and Callimcu*. St. John of Reomay, A. D. 540. Blessed Margaret, Princess of Hungary, A. D. 1271. St. Pauli, A. D. 804. Blessed Charlemagne, Emperor, A. n. 814. St. Glattian, of Fife, A. D. 830. St. Thyme.

Several churches in Spain are dedicated to him. In 777, the queen of Oviedo and Asturia presented one of them with a silver chalice and paten, a wash-hand basin and a pipe, which, according to Butler, is " a silver pipe, or quill to suck np the blood of Christ at the communion, such as the pope sometimes uses—it sucks up as a nose draws up air."


John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, a celebrated printer, letter-founder, and bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in the year 1794: he was born there November 23, 1719. After the perusal of a work by Albert Durer, in which the shape of the letters is deduced from mathematical principles, he endeavoured to fashion them according to the most beautiful models in matrices cut for the purpose. His printing-office and letterfoundery acquired very high reputation. It contained punches and matrices for 400 alphabets, and he employed the types of Baskerville and Didot. Finding that engraving on wood had given birth to printing, and that the latter had contributed to the improvement of engraving, he transferred some particulars, in the province of the engraver, to that of the printer; and represented, by typography, all the marks and lines which occur in the modern music, with all the accuracy of engraving, and even printed maps and mathematical figures with movable types; though the latter he considered as a matter of mere curiosity: such was also another attempt, that of copying portraits by movable types. He likewise printed, with movable types, the Chinese characters, which are, in general, cut in pieces of wood, so that a whole house is often necessary to contain the blocks employed No. 7.

for a single book. He improved typemetal, by giving it that degree of hardness, which has been a desideratum in founderies of this kind; and discovered a new method of facilitating the process of melting and casting. From his foundery he sent types to Russia, Sweden, Poland, and even America. He also improved the printing-press.

Besides this, his inquiries into the origin and progress of the art of printing, furnished the materials of a history, which he left behind in manuscript. He published in 1784, the first part of " An Attempt to illustrate the origin of playingcards, the introduction of paper made from linen, and the invention of engraving on wood in Europe ;" the latter part was finished, but not published, before his death. His last publication was a small "Treatise on Bibliography," &c. published in 1793, with his reasons for retaining the present German characters. With the interruption of only five or six hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed for sleep, his whole life was devoted to study and useful employment.


Double Daisy. Belli* perermie plennt. Dedicated to St. Margaret of Hungary.

Samtarp 29.

St. Francis of Sales, A. D. 1622. St. Sulpiehu Severn*, A. D. 420. St.Oildat the Abbot, A.d. 570. St. GHilar, the Scot, A. D. 512.

This being the anniversary of the king's accession to the throne, in 1820, is a Holiday at all the public office*, except the Excise, Stamps, and Customs.


Flowering Fem. Otmunda regalit.'
Dedicated to St. Fraud* of Sale** J

3amtarp 30.

King Charles's Martyrdom.'

Holiday at the Public Offices; except the , Stamps, Customs, and Excise.

St. Bathildet, Queen of Navarre, A. D. 680.

St. Martins, St. Aldegonde*, A. D. 660.

St. Barsima'us, 'A. D. 114.

St. Martina.

The Jesuit Ribadeneira relates that the emperor Alexander IV., having decreed that all christians should sacrifice to the Roman gods, or die, insinuated to St. Martina, that if she would conform to the edict, he would make her his empress, but on her being taken to the temple, *' by a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part of his temple thrown down, and, with his ruins, were crushed to death; his priests and many others, and. the emperor himself, began to fly." Whereupon St. Martina taunted the emperor; and the devil, in the idol, rolling himself in the dust, made a speech to her, and another to the emperor, and " fled through the air in a dark cloud; but the emperor would not understand it." Then the emperor commanded her to be tortured. The jesuit's stories of these operations and her escapes, are wonderfully particular. According to him, hooks and stakes did her no mischief; she had a faculty of shining, which the pouring of hot lard upon her would not quench; when in gaol, men in dazzling white surrounded her; she could not feel a hundred and eighteen wounds; a fierce lion, who had fasted three days, would not eat her, and fire would not burn her; but a sword cut her head off in 228, and at the end of two days two eagles were found watching her body. "That which above all confirmeth the truth of this relation," says Ribadeneira, " is, that there is nothing herein related but what is in brief in the lessons of the Roman Breviary, commanded by public authority to be read on her feast by the whole church."


On this day, in the year 1649, king Charles I. was beheaded. In the Common Prayer Book of the Church of England, it is called " The Day of the Martyrdom of the Blessed King Charles I. f and there is " A Form of Prayer, with Fasting, to be used yearly" upon its recurrence.

The sheet, which received the head of Charles I. after its decapitation, is carefully preserved along with the communion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in this county; the blood, with which it has been almost entirely covered, now appears nearly black. The watch of the unfortunate monarch is also deposited with the linen, the movements of which are still perfect. These relics came into the possession of lord Ashburnham immediately after the death of the king.—Brighton

Lord Orford says, "one can scarce conceive a greater absurdity than retaining the three holidays dedicated to the house of Stuart. Was the preservation of James 1. a greater blessing to England than the destruction of the Spanish armada, for which no festival is established .' Are we more or less free for the execution of king Charles? Are we at this day still guilty of his blood? When is the stain to be washed out? What sense is there in thanking heaven for the restoration of a family, which it so soon became necessary to expel again V

According to the " Life of William Lilly, written by himself," Charles I. caused the old astrologer to be consulted for his judgment. This is Lilly's account: "His majesty, Charles I., having intrusted the Scots with his person, was, for money, delivered into the hands of the English parliament, and, by several removals, was had to Hampton-court, about July or August, 1647; for he was there, and at that time when my house was visited with the plague. He was desirous to escape from the soldiery, and to obscure himself for some time near London, the citizens whereof began now to be unruly, and alienated in affection from the parliament, inclining wholly to his majesty, and very averse to the army. His majesty was well informed of all this, and thought to make good use hereof: besides, the army and parliament were at some odds, who should be masters. Upon the king's intention to escape, and with his consent, madam Whorewood (whom you knew very well, worthy esquire) came to receive my judgment, viz. In what quarter of this nation he might be most safe, and not to be discovered until himself pleased. When she came to my door, I told her I would not let her come into my house, for I buried a maid-servant of the plague very lately: however, up we went. After erection of my figure, I told her about twenty miles (or thereabouts) from London, and in Essex, I was certain he might continue undiscovered. She liked my judgment very well; and, being herself of a sharp judgment, remembered a place in Essex about that distance, where was an excellent house, and all conveniences for his reception. Away she went, early next morning," unto Hampton-court, to acquaint his majesty; but see the misfortune: he, either guided by his era by

in the nighttime westward, and surrendered himself to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight. Whilst his majesty was at Hamptoncourt, alderman Adams sent his majesty one thousand pounds in gold, five hundred whereof he gave to madam Whorewood. I believe I had twenty pieces of that very gold for my share." Lilly proceeds thus: "His majesty being in Carvbrook-eastle, in the Isle of Wight, the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose in arms, and joined with the lord Goring; a considerable number of the best ships revolted from the parliament; the citizens of London were forward to rise against the parliament , his majesty laid his design to escape out of prison, by sawing the iron bars of his chamber window; a small ship was provided, and anchored not far from the castle to bring him into Sussex; horses were provided ready to carry him through Sussex into Kent, that so he might be at the head of the army in Kent, and from thence to march immediately to London, where thousands then would have armed for him. The lady Whorewood came to me, acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer (who was a most ingenious locksmith, and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to saw them, and aqua fortis besides, His majesty in a small time did his work; the bars gave liberty for him to go out; he was out with-his body till he came to his breast; but then his heart failing, he proceeded no farther: when this was discovered, as soon after it was, he was narrowly looked after, and no opportunity after that could be devised to enlarge him." Lilly goes on to say, " He was be

headed January 30, 1649. After the execution, his body was carried to Windsor, and buried with Henry VHIth, in the same vault where his body was lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, affirm, had he not come unto this untimely end, he might have lived, according unto nature, even unto the height of old age. Many have curiously inquired who it was that cut off his head: I have no permis. sum to speak of such things; only thus much I say, he that did it is as valiant and resolute a man as lives, and one of a competent fortune. For my part, I do believe he was not the worst, but the most unfortunate of kings."

Lilly elsewhere relates, "that the next Sunday but one after Charles I. was beheaded, Robert Spavin, secretary unto lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, invited himself to dine with me, and brought Anthony Pierson, and several others, along with him to dinner. Their principal discourse all dinner-time was, who it was beheaded the king: one said it was the common hangman; another, Hugh Peters; others also were nominated, but none concluded. Robert Spavin, so soon as dinner was done, took me by the hand, and carried me to the south window; saith he,' These are all mistaken, they have not named the man that did the fact; it was lieutenant-colonel Joice: I was in the room when he fitted himself for the work, stood behind him when he did it; when done, went in again with him. There is no man knows this but my master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ireton, and myself.'—' Doth not Mr. Rushworth know it? said I. 'No, he doth not know it,' saith Spavin. The same thing Spavin since hath often related unto me when we were alone." •


Shrove Tcesday regulates most of the moveable feasts. Shrove Tuenlay itself is the next after the first new moon in the month of February. If such new moon should happen on a Tuesday, the next

Tuesday following is Shrove Tuesday. A

* -^-.-j—, a;

list, the introduction of which on the next page puts the reader in possession of serviceable knowledge on this point, and affords an opportunity for affirming, that Mr. Nicolas'S book contains a va-' riety of correct and valuable information not elsewhere in a <


"Tables, Calendars, Ifc for the use of Historians, Antiquaries, and the Legal Profession, by N. H. Nicolas, Esq."

Advent Sunday, is the nearest Sunday to the feast of St. Andrew, November 30th, whether before or after.

Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, is the Thursday in Rogation week, i. e. the week following Rogation Sunday.

Ash Wednesday, or the first day in lent, is the day after Shrove Tuesday.

Carle, or Care Sunday, or the fifth Sunday in lent, is the fifth Sunday after Shrove Tuesday.

Corpus Christi, or Body of Christ, is a festival kept on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday; and was instituted in the year 1264.

Easter Day. The Paschal Sabbath. The Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, is the seventh Sunday after Shrove Tuesday, and is always the first Sunday after the first full moon, which happens on or next after the 21st of March.

«» M u. j 1 are the Monday and *

Easter Monday Ulesd following

Easter Tuesday /Easte/day. 8

Ember Days, are the Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, after the first Sunday in lent; after the Feast of Pentecost; after Iloly-rood Day, or the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, viz. 14th September; and after St. Lucia's day, viz. 15th December.

Ember Weeks, are those weeks in which the Ember days fall.

The Eucharist. See Easter day.

Good Friday, is the Friday in Passion

I Week, and the next Friday before Easter day.

Holy Thursday. See Ascension day.

Lent, a Fast from Ash Wednesday, to the Feast of Easter, viz. forty days.

Lord's Supper. See Easter day.

Low Sunday, is the Sunday next after Easter day.

Maunday Thursday, is the day before Good Friday.

Midlent, or the fourth Sunday in Lent, is the fourth Sunday after Shrove Tuesday.

Palm Sunday, or the sixth Sunday in Lent, is the sixth Sunday after Shrove Tuesday.

Paschal Sabbath. See Easter day.

Passion Week, is the week next ( after Palm Sunday..

Pentecost or Whit Sunday, is the fif. tieth day and seventh Sunday after

Easter day. Quinquagesima Sunday, is so named

from its being about the fiftieth day 'before Easter. It is also called shrove


Relick Sunday, is the third Sunday after Midsummer-day.

Rogation Sunday, is the fifth Sunday after Easter day.

Rogation Days are the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday following Rogation Sunday.

Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday "next be, fore Shrove Tuesday. It is also called

Quinquagesima Sunday. Septuagesima Sunday, so called from t its being about the seventieth day before Easter, is the third Sunday before Lent.

Sexagesima Sunday, is the second Sunday before Lent, or the next to Shrove Sunday, so called as being about the sixtieth day before Easter.

Trinity Sunday, or the Feast of the Holy Trinity, is the next Sunday after Pentecost or Whitsuntide.

Whit Sunday. See Pentecost.

{are the Monday and
Tuesday following
Whit Sunday,
the three days above-

Whit Monday Whit Tuesday

Whitsuntide, is mentioned.

The Vigil or Eve of a feast, is the day before it occurs. Thus the Vigil of the feast of St. John the Baptist is the 23d of June. If the feast-day falls upon a Monday, then the Vigil or the Eve is kept upon the Saturday preceding.

The Morrow of a feast, is the day following: thus the feast of All Souls, is November 2d, and the Morrow of All Souls is consequently the 3d of November.

The Octave or Atlas of each feast, is always the eighth day after it occurs; for example, the feast of St. Hillary, is the 13th of February, hence the Octave of St. Hillary, is the 20th of that

In the Octaves, means within the eight days following any particular f


It the ninth Sunday before Easter Sawkf.

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