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the middle of the season by warmth; the respective proportions being like those which obtain in autumn, while their positions are reversed.
"The mean temperature of the season in the country is 37.76 degrees. The medium temperature of the twenty-four hours, descends from about 40 to 34J degrees, and returns again to the former point.
"The mean height of the barometer is 29.802 inches, being .021 inches above that of autumn. The range of the column is greatest in this season; and in the course of twenty winters it visits nearly the two extremities of the scale of three inches. The mean winter range is however 2.25 inches.
"The predominating winds at the beginning of winter are the south-west: in the middle these give place to northerly winds, after which the southerly winds prevail again to the close: they are at this season often boisterous at night.
"The mean evaporation, taken in situations which give more than the natural quantity from the surface of the earth, (being 30 467 inches on the year,) is 3.587 inches. This is a third less than
the proportion indicated by the tsMr, temperature; showing the dimpnai of the air at this season.
"De Luc's hygrometer averages iM 78 degrees.
"The average rain is 5.868 inche". The rain is greatest at the commencement, and it diminishes in rapid proportionit the end. In this there appears a salutary provision of divine intelligence: for had it increased, or even continued as beuj as in the autumnal months, the water isstead of answering the purpose of irrfition, for which it is evidently designed, would have descended from the saturatti surface of the higher ground in perpetual floods, and wasted for the season it plains and valleys.
"Notwithstanding the sensible indications of moisture, which in the intend of our short frosts attend this season. * actual quantity of vapour in the atrncphere is now, probably, at its lowest pro- portion, or rather it is so at the mencement of the season; after which gradually increases with tie temperati. and evaporation."
* Howard's Climate of I/radim.
This is the eldest of the seasons: he
Moves not like spring with gradual step, nor grows
Literary P. Bkl
Hairy Achania. Aehania pilosa.
The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. St. Romaric, Abbot, A. D. 653. The winter season of the year 1818, was extraordinarily mild. On the 8th of December, the gardens in the neighbourhood of Plymouth showed the following flowers in full bloom, viz.:—Jonquils, narcissus, hyacinths, anemonies, pinks,
stocks, African and French roarst'1-
Arbor vita?. Thuja occidentalit. Dedicated to the Conception of the B. V. Mary.
St. Leocadia, A. D. 304. The Seven Martyre at Samotata, A. D. 297. St. me hilde, A. D. 990.
A remarkable instance of premature inerment, is related in the case of the rev. tfr. Richards, parson of the Hay, in lerefordshire, who, in December, 1751, *as supposed to have died suddenly. His friends, seeing his body and limbs did not stiffen, after twenty-four hours, sent for it urgeon, who, upon bleeding him, and not >being able to stop the blood, told them that lie was not dead, but in a sort of trance, ind ordered them not to bury him. They laid no attention to the injunction, but committed the body to the grave the next lay. A person walking along the churchard, hearing a noise in the grave, ran sand prevailed with the clerk to have the ;rave opened, where they found a great Weeding at the nose, and the body in a profuse sweat; whence it was conjectured hat he was buried alive. They were now, owever, obliged to let him remain, as all ppearance of further recovery had been precluded by his interment *
A writer in the " Gentleman's Magaine" some years before, observes, " I have undoubted authority for saying, a man was Jtely (and I believe is still) living at lustley, nearWinchester,December,l747, mo, after lying for dead two days and two nights, was committed to the grave, nd rescued from it by some boys luckily laying in the churchyard!"
Corsican Spruce. Pimu Laricio.
t. Melchiadet, Pope, A. D. 314. St. Eulalia.
On the 10th of December, 1741, died [r. Henry Wanyford, late steward to the irl of Essex. He was of so large a ze, that the top of the hearse was
obliged to be taken off before the coffin could be admitted, and it was so heavy, that the attendants were forced to move it along the churchyard upon rollers.'
Portugal Cyprus. Cupremts Lmitanica. Dedicated to St. Eulalia.
St. Damaitws, Pope, A. D. 384. St*. Futcian, Victorious, and Gentian, A. D. Mr. St. Daniel, the Stylite, A. D. 494.
BT. NICHOLAS IN RUSSIA.
A gentleman obligingly contributes the subjoined account of a northern usage on the 5th of December, the vigil of St. Nicholas. He communicates his name to the editor, and vouches for the authenticity of his relation, " having himself been an actor in the scenes he describes.
(For the Every-Day Book.)
In the fine old city of Leewvarden, the capital of West Friezland, there are some curious customs preserved, connected with the celebration of the anniversary of this saint. From time immemorial, in this province, St. Nicholas has been hailed as the tutelary patron of children and confections; no very inappropriate association, perhaps. (In the eve, or Avond, as it is there termed, of this festival, the good saint condescends, (as currently asserted, and religiously believed, by the younger fry,) to visit these sublunar spheres, and to irradiate by his majestic presence, the winter fireside of his infant votaries.
During a residence in the above town, some twenty years agone, in the brief days of happy boyhood, (that green spot in our existence,) it was my fortune to be
I resent at one of these annual visitations, magine a group of happy youngsters sporting around the domestic hearth, in all the buoyancy of riotous health and spirits, brim-full of joyful expectation, but yet in an occasional pause, casting frequent glances towards the door, with a comical expression of impatience, mixed up with something like dread of the imending event. At last a loud knock is eard, in an instant the games are suspended, and the door slowly unfolding, reveals to sight the venerated saint himself, arrayed in his pontificals, with pas
• Gentleman's Magazine, 1791,
• Gentleman's Magazine.
toral staff and jewelled mitre. Methinks I see him now I yet he did " hisspiriting gently," and his tone of reproof, "wot more in sorrow than in anger I"
In fine, the family peccadillos being tenderly passed over, and the more favourable reports made the subject of due encomiums, good father Nicholas gave his parting benediction, together with the promise, (never known to fail,) of more substantial benefits, to be realized on the next auspicious morning. So ends the first act of the farce, which it will be readily anticipated is got up with the special connivance of papa and mamma, by the assistance of some family friend, who is quite au fait to the domestic politics of the establishment. The concluding scene, however, is one of unalloyed pleasure to the delighted children, and is thus arranged.
Before retiring to rest, each member of the family deposits a shoe on a table in a particular room, which is carefully locked, and the next morning is opened in the presence of the assembled household; when lo! by the mysterious agency (doubtless) of the munificent saint, the board is found covered with bone bons, toys, and trinkets.
It may not be deemed irrelevant to add, that on the anniversary, the confectioners' shops display their daintiest inventions, and are gaily lighted up and ornamented for public exhibition, much in the same way as at Paris on the first day of the new year.
These reminiscences may not prove unacceptable to many, who contemplate with satisfaction the relics of ancient observances, belonging to a more primitive state of manners, the memory of which is rapidly passing into oblivion; and who, perhaps, think with the writer, in one sense at least, that modern refinements, if they tend to render us wiser, hardly make us happier! H. H.
Aleppo Pine. Pinvs Halipensis. Dedicated to St. Dumasus.
Sts.Epimachusnnd Alexander,^ A.d.250. St Finian, or Finan, Bp. in Ireland. A. D. 652. St. Columbia, son of Crimthain, A. D. 548. St. Cormac St. Colman, Abbot, A. D. 659. St. EudInirge, A. B. 751. St. Valery, Abbot,
A. V. 622. St. Corentin, 1st. Bp. of
Quimper, 5lh Cent. Another Si. Co
renting, or Cury, A. n. 401.
An intoxicated Servant.
In Lloyd's Evening Post of December 12-14, 1781, there is the following advertisement :—
AYOUNG MAN having yesterday left his master's service in Smithfield, on a presumption of his pocket being picked of one hundred pounds, his master's property, when he was in liquor; this is to inform him, that he left it in the shop of his master, who has found it; and if he will return to his master's service he will be kindly received.
Such was the state of society, in lie year 1781, that a drunken servant wouH be "kindly received" by his employer. We are so far better, in the year 1815, that if such a servant were kindly received, he would not be permitted to enter ra his duties till he was admonished not it repeat the vice. Drunkenness is no* S properly reprobated, that no one but i thorough reprobate dares to practise iand the character of sot or drunkard invariably attaches to him.
In the subjoined extract taken from a old author, without recollection of to name, there is something apt to the occasion.
THE TRADE OF BREWING.
By a writer, in the year 1621. Of all the trades in the world, a bre«ff is the loadstone which draws the car tomes of all functions unto it. It is * mark or upshot of every man's ayme, the bottomless^ whirlepoole that I** lowes up the profits of rich and p*» The brewer's art (like a wilde kestrel * lemand hawke,) flies at all games; or In* a butler's boxe at Christ masse, it is go to winne, whosoever loses. In a word. rules and raignes, (in some sort,) as Asgustus Caesar did, for it taxeth tl**""1 earth. Your innes and alehouses W brookes and rivers, and their clients W small rills and springs, who all, (IE7 dutifully) doe pay their tributes to]t< boundless ocean of the brewhouse. r* all the world knowes, that if men «^ women did drinke no more tbanssfK^ nature, or if it were but a litileeii""' dinaiy now and then upon occasios.f: by chance as you may terme it; if d«6'" ingwere used in any reason, or any'* soil used in drinking, I pray ye *^ vould become of the brewer then? surely we doe live in an age," wherein he seven deadly sins are every man's rade and living.
Pride is the maintainer of thousands, which would else perish; as mergers, aylors, embroydrers, silkmen, cutters, Irawers, sempsters, laundresses, of which unctions' there are millions which would starve but for Madam Pride, with ler changeable fashions. Letchery, what i continual crop of profits ityeelds, appears by the gallant thriving and gawdy mtsides of many he and she, private and mblicke sinners, both in citie and subirbs. Covetousnesse is embroydered vith extortion, and warmly lined and urred with oppression; and though it be L divell, yet is it most idolatrously adored, lonouted, and worshipped by those sim)le sheep-headed fooles, whom it hath indone and beggared. I could speake of >their vices, how profitable they are to a :ommonwealth; hut my invention is hirsty, and must have one carouse more it the brewhouse, who (as I take it) hath i greater share than any, in the games which spring from the world's abuses.
If any man hang, drowne, stabbe, or )y any violent meancs make away his ife, the goods and lands of any such person are forfeit to the use of the king ; and ! see no reason but those which kill themselves with drinking, should be in the >same estate, and be buried in the highways, with a stake drove thorow them; md if I had but a giant of this suite, I vould not doubt but that in seven yeeres if my charity would but agree with my vealth,) I might erect almes-houses, freechooles, mend highways, and make bridges ; for I dare sweare, that a num>er (almost numberlesse) have confessed lpon their death-beds, that at such and inch a time, in such and such a place, hey dranke so much, which made them ■urfeite, of which surfeite they languished tnd dyed. The maine benefit of these superfluous and manslaughlering expenses, comes to the brewer, so that if a jrewer be in any office, I hold him to be a very ingrateful man, if he punish a drunk ird; for every stifle, potvatiant drunkard
* Some make a profit of quarreling; Rome )ick their livings out ol'contentions and debate; tome thrive and grow fat by gluttony ; many ire bravely maintained by bribery, theft, cheatnK. roguery, and villiany ; but put all these together, and joine to them all sorts of people 'lse, and they all in general are drinkers, and :onscqaently the brewer's clients and custom
is a post, beam, or pillar, which holds up the brewhouse; for as the barke is to the tree, so is a good drinker to the brewer.
Crowded Heath. Erica conferta.
St. Lucy, A. D. 304. St. Judoc, or Josse, A. D. 669. St. Kenelm, King, A. D 820. St. Aubert, bp. of Cambray and Arras, A. D. 669. B. John Marinoni, A. D. 1562. St. Olhilla, A. D. 772.
This saint is in the church of England calendar and the almanacs. She was a young lady of Syracuse, who preferring a religious single life to marriage, gave away all her fortune to the poor Having been accused to Peschasius, a heathen judge, for professing Christianity, she was soon after barbarously murdered by his officers.
Transatlantic Verses. The following effusions are from America. The first, by Mr. K. H. Wilde, a distinguished advocate of Georgia; the second, by a lady of Baltimore, who moots in the court of the muses, with as much ingenuity as the barrister in his own court.
That opens to the morning sky,
Is scattered on the ground to die.
My life is like the autumn leaf
That trembles in the moon's pale ray, Its hold is frail, its date is brief,
Restless, and soon to pass away.
My life is like the prints which feet
Soon as the rising tide shall beat
Yet, as if griev ing to efface
All vestige of the human race,
On that lone shore loud moans the sea;
But none, alas ! shall mourn for me.
* Audley's Companion to the Almanac.
The dews of night may fall from heaven,
Upon the wither'd rote't bed, And tears of fond regret be given,
To mourn the virtues of the dead:
The tree may mourn its fallen leaf,
And friends may heave the sigh of grief,
Yet soon will spring renew the flowers,
And time will bring more smiling hours;
In friendship's heart all grief will die.
And even love forget to sigh.
The sea may on the desert shore,
Lament each trace it bears away;
O'er cherish'd friendship's fast decay:
Cypress arbor site. T«>ya cuprariaiu.
St. Spiridion, Abp. A. D. 348. AiJiicathu, 9th Abp. of Rheims, vd ■■• Companions, 5th Cent.
einbe r Mtth
This is an ancient fast, wherein mocks were enjoined to great severity of abstinence preparatory to the festival ofCbist
Floral Directory. Swamp Pine. Pituu pa/turrit. Dedicated to St Spiridion.
St. Eutebiut, Bp. of Vercelli, A. B. 311
There is a class of those who are so to "dearly love the lasses, oh ?" by who the verses below may be readmits danger of their becoming worse.
A Winter Piece.
"Oh! cruel was my father, that shut his door on me,
"Hush, hush, my lovely baby, and warm thee in my breast;
"Cold, cold, my dearest jewel! thy little life is gone:
Then down she sunk despairing upon the drifted snow,
Pitch Pine. Pinw retinosa.
St. Ado, Abp. of Vienne, A. D. 875. St.
tion, and some have imagined tia'." Sapientia" was a saint and nnrtrr.f^ of the celebrated eleven thousand nits of St Ursula. Mr. Audley, however.!* rightly observed that, "This day » K called from the beginning of an sj*fj in the service of the Latin church, used to be sung for the honour oi&«ii' advent, from this day till Grose* eve."—The anthem commenced *iJ these words, "o Sapientia que O * altissimi prodidisti," &c.