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with a people who, to the impetuous bravery of savages, added all the artifices of civilized warfare. We had to do with an enemy of whose history and resources we knew absolutely nothing. On those heads our information is still but scanty. It is the information which 'the Rath,' or imperial carriage, affords respecting the state of the mechanical arts among the Burmese, that we consider particularly curious and interesting."
Before more minute description it may be remarked, that the eye is chiefly struck by the fretted golden roof, rising step by' step from the square oblong body of the carriage, like an ascending pile of rich shrine - work. "It consists of seven stages, diminishing in the most skilful and beautiful proportions towards the top. The carving is highly beautiful, and the whole structure is set thick with stones and gems of considerable value. These add little to the effect when seen from below, but ascending the gallery of the hall, the spectator observes them, relieved by the yellow ground of the gilding, and sparkling beneath him like dewdrops in a field of cowslips. Their presence in go elevated a situation well serve to explain the accuracy of finish preserved throughout, even in the nicest and most minute portions of the work. Gilt metal bells, with large heart-shaped crystal drops attached to them, surround the lower stages of the pagoda, and, when the carriage is put in motion, emit a soft and pleasing sound.*'* The apex of the roof is a pinnacle, called the tee, elevated on a "pedestal. The tee is an emblem of royalty. It is formed of movable belts, or coroaals, of gold, wherein are set large amethysts of a greenish or purple colour: its summit is a small banner, or vane, of crystal.
The length of the carriage itself is thirteen feet seven inches; or, if taken from the extremity of the pole, twenty-eight feet, five inches. Its width is six feet nine inches, and its height, to the summit of the tee, is nineteen feet two inches. The carriage body is five feet seven [inches in length, by four feet six inches in width, and its height, taken from the interior, is five feet eight inches. The four wheels are of uniform height, are remarkable for their lightness and elegance, and the peculiar mode by which the spokes are se. cured, and measure only four feet
inches: the spokes riddy'stored, w of a very hard wood, called in the as, iron wood: the fellows are cased in hn«. and the caps to the nave! devoutly . signed of bell metal. The pole, aks i iron wood, is heavy and massive; it us destined to be attached to elephants o; which the vehicle was intended to it drawn upon all grand or state occasioK. The extremity of the pole is MBOMri oy the head and fore part of a diasoc: figure of idolatrous worship in the eif, this ornament is boldly executed, at . richly gilt and ornamented; the sol? 'being composed of a curiously colour?: talc. The other parts of the carriagf r the wood of the oriental tamfra re. Which combines strength with lights and emits a grateful odour; and hang tas and elastic,- is easily worked, and culiarly fitted for carving. The body the carriage is composed of twelve past three on each face or front, and these :■ subdivided into small squares of the Of-' and nearly transparent horn of the it ceros and buffalo, and other animi; eastern idolatry. These squares are se broad gilt frames, studded at every K with raised silvered glass mirrors higher part of these panels has > raw rich small looking-glasses, intended reflect the gilding of the upper, or pas* stages.
The whole body is set in, or sop]*E by four wreathed dragon-Uke to* fantastically entwined to answer the f* poses of pillars |to the pagoda ra£ P carved and ornamented in a' vigour and correctness that w»»* credit to a European designer tie*' or body part are of talc, and the sjS' pale ruby stones.
The interior roof is latticed will ^ looking-glasses studded with nth**on the outside panels: the War flooring of the body is-of mattid r covered with crimson cloth, eds • gold lace, and the under or fin*?of the carriage, is of mated cc- panels.
The upper part of each face of tk * is composed of sash glasses, sct|; gilt names, to draw up and let atrial the European fashion, but wiuw; flining to protect the glass from when down; the catches to sees*'*] wiser, up, are simple and curwus. '-■ strings of these glasses are wovecr cotton. On the frames of the much writing in the Burmese d*'
>ut the language being utterly unknown the carbuncle, a stone little known to us,
n this country, cannot be deciphered; it but in high estimation with the ancients.
i supposed to be adulatory sentences to Behind the carriage are two figures; their
he " golden monarch" seated within. lower limbs are tattooed, as is the
The body is staid by braces of leather; custom with the Burmese: from their
he springs, which are of iron, richly gilt, position, being on one knee, their hands
suffer not from the present fashionable C raised and open, and their eyes directed
pring, and allow the carriage an easy, as in the act of firing, they are supposed
nd agreeable motion. The steps merely to have borne a representation of the
iook on to the outside: it is presumed carbine, or some such fire-arm weapon of
hey were destined to be carried by an defence, indicative of protection,
ttendant; they are light and elegantly The pagoda roof constitutes the most
ormed of gilt metal, with cane threads. beautiful, and is, in short, the only impo
A few years previous to the rupture sing ornament of the carriage. The gild
which placed this carriage in the posses- ing is resplendent, and the design and
ion of the British, the governor-general carving of the rich borders which adorn
of India, having heard that his Burmese each stage are no less admirable. These
najesty was rather curious in his car- borders are studded with amethysts,
Haget, one was sent to him some few emeralds, jargoon diamonds, garnets,
rears since, by our governor-general, but hyacinths, rubies, tourmalines, and other
t failed in exciting his admiration—he precious gems, drops of amber and crystal
said it was not so handsome as his own. being also interspersed. From every
[ts having lamps rather pleased him, but angle ascends a light spiral gilt ornament,
le ridiculed other parts of it, particularly, enriched with crystals and emeralds.
hat a portion so exposed to being soiled This pagoda roofing, as well as that of
is the steps, should be folded and put up the great imperial palace, and of the
within side. state war-boat or barge, bears an exact
The Burmese are yet ignorant of that similitude to the chief sacred temple at
jseful formation of the fore part of the Shoemadro. The Burman sovereign, the
arriage, which enables those of European king of Ava, with every eastern Bhuddish
manufacture, to be turned and directed monarch, considers himself sacred, and
with such facility: the fore part of that claims to be worshipped in common with
low under description, does not admit of deity itself; so that when enthroned in
L lateral movement of more than four his palace, or journeying on warlike or
nches, it therefore requires a very ex- pleasurable excursions in his carriage,
ended space in order to bring it com- he becomes an object of idolatry.
>letely round. The seat or throne for the inside is
On a gilt bar before the front of the movable, for the purpose of being taken
>ody, with their heads towards the car- out and used in council or audience on a
iage, stand two Japanese peacocks, a journey. It is a low seat of cane-work,
>ird which is held sacred by this super- richly gilt, folding in the centre, and co
titious people; their figure and plumage vered by a velvet cushion. The front is
ire so perfectly represented, as to convey studded with almost every variety of pre
he natural appearance of life; two others cious stone, disposed and contrasted with
0 correspond are perched on a bar be- the greatest taste and skill. The centre lind. On the fore part of the frame of belt is particularly rich in gems, and the he carriage, mounted on a silvered pe- rose-like clusters or circles are uniformly lestal, in a kneeling position, is the tee- composed of what is termed the stones of 'eater, tit small carved image with a lofty the orient: viz. pearl, coral, sapphire, golden wand in his hands,surmounted with cornelian, cat's-eye, emerald, and ruby.
1 small tee, the emblem of sovereignty : he A range of buffalo-horn panels ornament s richly dressed in green velvet, the front the front and sides of the throne, at each aced with jargoon diamonds, with a end of which is a recess, for the body of riple belt round the body, of blue sap- a lion like jos-god figure, called Sing, a ihires, emeralds, and jargoon diamonds; mythological lion, very richly carved and lis leggings are also embroidered with gilt; the feet and teeth are of pearl; the sapphires. In the front of his cap is a bodies are covered with sapphires, hyaich cluster of white sapphires encircled cinths, emeralds, tourmalines, carbuncles, with a double star of rubies and emeralds: jargoon diamonds, and rubies; the eyes he cap is likewise thickly studded with are of a tri-coloured sapphire. Six small
carved) and gilt figures in a praying or supplicatory attitude, are fixed on each side of the seat of the throne, they may be supposed to be interceding for the mercy or safety of the monarch: their eyes are rubies, their drop ear-rings cornelian, and their hair the light feather of thepeacock.
The chattah, or umbrella, which overshadows the throne, is an emblem or representation of regal authority and power.
It is not to be doubted, that the caparisons of the elephants would equal in splendour the richness of the carriage, but one only of the elephants belonging to the carriage was captured; the caparisons for both are presumed to have escaped with the other animal. It is imagined that the necks of these ponderous beings bore their drivers, with small hooked spears to guide them, and that the cortege combined all the great officers of state, priests, and attendants, male and female, besides the imperial body-guard mounted on eighty white elephants.
Among his innumerable titles, the emperor of the Burmans styles himself "king of the white elephant." Xacca, the founder of Indian idolatry, is affirmed by the Brahmins to have gone through a metampsychosis eighty thousand times, his soul having passed into that number of brutes; that the last was in a white elephant, and that after these changes he was received into the company of the gods, and is now a pagod.
This carriage was taken'with the workmen who built it, and all.'theiri accounts. From these it appeared, that it had been three years in building, that the gems were supplied from the king's treasury, or by contribution from the various states, and that the workmen were remunerated by the government. Independent of these items, the expenses were stated in the accounts to have been twenty-five thousand rupees, (three thousand one hundred and twenty-five pounds.) The stones are not less in number than twenty thousand, which its reputed value at Tavoy was a lac of rupees, twelve thousand five hundred pounds.
It was in August, 1824, that the expedition was placed under the command of lieutenant-colonel Miles, C. B., a distinguished officer in his majesty's service. It comprised his majesty's 89th regiment, 7th Madras infantry, some artillery, and
her native troops, amounting in the hole to about one thousand men. The real force, under the command of capin Hardy, consisted of the Teignraoutn, ercury, Thetis, Panang cruiser Jesse, ith three gun boats, three Malay prows, id two row boats. The expedition sail1 from Rangoon on the 26tn of August, id proceeded up the Tavoy river, which
full of shoals and natural difficulties, n the 9th of September, Tavoy, a place
considerable strength, with ten thou<nd fighting men, and many mounted ins, surrendered to the expedition. The ceroy of the province, his son, and other srsoDS- of consequence, were among the risoners, and colonel Miles states in his espatch, that, with the spoil, he took a new state carriage for the king of va, with one elephant only." This is le carriage now described. After subseuent successes the expedition returned
> Rangoon, whither the carriage was also anveyed; from thence, it was forwarded
> Calcutta, and there sold for the benefit f the captors. The purchaser, judging lat it would prove an attractive object of curiosity in Europe, forwarded it to Lonon, by the Cornwall, captain Brooks, nd it was immediately conveyed, to the Egyptian-hall for exhibition. It is not Jo much to say that it it a curiosity. •. people emerging from the bosom of a smote region, wherein they had been oncealed until captain Symes's embassy, nd struggling in full confidence against tritish tactics, must, in every point of iew, be interesting subjects of inquiry, 'he Burmese state carriage, setting aside s attractions as a novelty, is a remarkble object for a contemplative eye.
Unlike Asiatics in general, the Burthese are a powerful, athletic, and intellient men. They inhabit a fine country, ch in rivers and harbours. It unites the tritish possessions in India with the imlense Chinese empire. By incessant enroachments on surrounding petty states, ley have swallowed them up in one wast inpire. Their jealousy, at the preponerance of our eastern power, has been manifested on many occasions. They ided the Mahratta confederacy; and if le promptness of the marquis of Hastings ad not deprived them of their allies efore they were prepared for action, a ivcrsion would doubtless have then been lade by them on our eastern frontier No. 49.
Burmah is the designation of an active and vigorous race, originally inhabiting the line of mountains, separating the great peninsula, stretching from the confines of fartajy to the Indian Ocean, and considered, by many, the Golden Chertonenu of the ancients. From their heights and native fastnesses, this people have successively fixed their yoke upon the entire peninsula of Aracan, and after seizing successively the separate states and kingdoms of Ava, Pegue, &c.,have condensed their conquests into one powerful state, called the Burmah empire, from their own original name. This great Hindoo-Chinese country, has gone on extending itself on every possible occasion. They subdued Assam, a fertile province of such extent, as to include an area of sixty thousand square miles, inhabited by a warlike people who had stood many powerful contests with neighbouring states. On one occasion, Mohammed Shar, emperor of Hindostan, attempted to conquer Assam with one hundred thousand cavalry; the Assamese annihilated them. The subjugation of such a nation, and constant aggressions, have perfected the Burmese in every species of attack and defence: their stockade system, in a mountainous country, closely'intersecled with nullahs, or thick reedy jungles, sometimes thirty feet in height, has attained the highest perfection. Besides Aracan, they have conquered part of Siam, so that on all sides the Burmese territory appears to rest upon natural barriers, which might seem to prescribe limits to its progress, and ensure repose and security to its grandeur. Towards the east, immense deserts divide its boundaries from China; on the south, it has extended itself to the ocean; on the north, it rests upon the high mountains of Tartary, dividing it from Tibet; on the west, a great and almost impassable tract of jungle wood, marshes, and alluvial swamps of the great river Houghly, or the Ganges, has, till now, interposed boundaries between itself and the British possessions. Beyond this latter boundary and skirting of Assam is the district of Chittagong, the point whence originated the contest between the Burmese and the British.
The Burmese population is estimated at from seventeen to nineteen millions of people, lively, industrious, energetic, further advanced in civilization than most of the eastern nations, frank and candid, and destitute of that pusillanimity which characterises the Hindoo?, and of that revengeful malignity which is a leading trait in the Malay character. Some are even powerful logicians, and take delight in investigating new subjects, be they ever so abstruse. Their learning is confined to the male sex, and the boys are taught by the priests. Females are denied educatfbn, except in the higher classes. Their books are numerous, and written in a flowing and elegant style, and much ingenuity is manifested in the construction of their stories.
The monarch is arbitrary. He is the sole lord and proprietor of life and property in his dominions; his word is absolute law. Every male above a certain age is a soldier, the property of the sovereign, and liable to be called into service at any moment.
The country presents a rich and ( beautiful appearance, and, if cultivated, would be one of the finest in the world. Captain Cox says, " wherever I have landed, I have met with security and abundance, the houses and farmyards put me in mind of the habitations of our little farmers in England."
There is a variety of other information concerning this extraordinary race, in the interesting memoir which may be obtained at the rooms in Piccadilly. These were formerly occupied by "Bullock's Museum." Mr. Bullock, however, retired to Mexico, to form a museum in that country for the instruction of its native population; and Mr. George Lackington purchased the premises in order to let such portions as individuals may require, from time to time, for purposes of exhibition, or as rooms for the display and sale of works in the fine arts, and other articles of refinement. Mr. Day's *' Exhibition of the Moses of the Vatican," and other casts from Michael Angelo, with numerous subjects in sculpture and painting, of eminent talent, remains under the same roof with the Burmese carriage, to charm every eye that can be delighted by magnificent objects.
This term denotes the coming of the Saviour. In ecclesiastical language it is the
denomination of the four weeks freceding the celebration of his birthday. In the Romish church this season of preparation for Christmas is a time of . and devotion. It consists of four weds, or at least four Sundays, which commence from the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's day, whether before or after it: ancienilj it was kept as a rigorous fast*
In the church of England it commences at the same period. In 1815, Andrew's day being a fixed felinl« the 30th of November, and happening ■ a Wednesday, the nearest Sunday to «, being the 27th of November, was the Sunday in Advent; in 1826, St-Andre*'* day happening on a Thursday, the Kiwi Sunday to it is on the 3d of Detemte, and, therefore, the first Sunday in Admit
&rto 3nmial itttraturt.
The literary character and high embellishment of the German alroaoMhave occasioned an annual publ'iais' of beautifully printed works for presetat this season. The Amulet, for l«M of this order. Its purpose is to bW religious instruction with literary anwfment. Messrs. W. L. Bowles, Milmar.. Bowring, Montgomery, Bernard Ru<KConder, Clare, T. C. Croker, Dr.AnSfiMrs. Hofland, &c; and, indeed,^1 duals of various denominations, are <* tributors of sixty original essay! m poems to this elegant volume, «Hieii ■ embellished by highly finished wp&9 from designs by Martin, Westtil, Buck and other painters of talent Mr. M-'; tin's two subjects are engraved by biff* in his own peculiarly effective aw* Hence, while the Amulet aims to incito'the fitness of Christian precepts, a"1:' beauty of the Christian character, it»' specimen of the progress of elegant is» ture and fine art.
The Amulet contains a descriptive wherein the meaning of the vror<'^: is exemplified; it commences on us *'' page.
• Butler on the Full.