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chelor; "and yet, as it is sayd, the Inge is on the fynger of the ymage."
In a Romish Missal printed at Paris, in 1520, there is a prayer to St. Agnes,-remarkably presumptive of her powers; it is thus Englished by Bp. Patrick:
Agnes, who art the Lamb's chaste spouse.
Not only lop the spreading boughs,
O, lady, singularly great,
Translate us to that quiet seat
secrated animals were afterwards shown, and palls made from their fleeces; for each of which, it is said, the pope exacted of the bishops from eight to ten, or thirty thousand crowns, and that the custom originated with Limes, who succeeded the apostle Peter: whereupon Naogeorgus inquires,
But where was Agnes at that time V
who offered up, and how,
and dreadful! monarchee?
In Jephson's " Manners, &c. of France and Italy," there is one dated from Rome, February, 14, 1793. That this ceremony was then in use, is evident from the following lines:—
From Naogeorgus, we gather that in St. Agnes' church at Rome, it was customary on St. Agnes' Day to bring two snow-white lambs to the altar, upon which they were laid while the Agnus was singing by way of offering. These con
St. Agnes' Shrinr.
sung the mass of the Holy Ghost, and at
Blessing of Sheep. r Stopford, in " Pagano-Papismus," recites this ceremony of the Romish church. The sheep were brought into the church, and the priest, having blessed some salt and water, read in one corner this gospel, "To tis a child is born," &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; in the second corner he read this gospel, " Ye men of Galilee," Ike, with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; in the third corner he read this gospel, " I am the good shepherd," &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again; and in the fourth corner he read this gospel, " In these days," &c. with the whole office, a farthing being laid upon the book, and taken up again. After that, he sprinkled all the sheep with holy water, saying, "Let the blessing of God, the Father Almighty, descend and remain upon you; in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen." Then he signed all the sheep with the sign of the cross, repeated thrice some Latin verses, the Paternoster and Ave-Marias,
the conclusion, an offering of fourpence
Christmas Rose. Helkborut niger flare
Dainty young thing
Of wintry Spring:—
Like Patience, thou
J. R. Prior. Chronology. 1793. On the 21st of January, Louis XVI. was beheaded at Paris, in the thirtyninth year of his age, and nineteenth of his reign, under circumstances which are in the recollection of many, and known to most persons. A similar instrument to the guillotine, the machine by which Louis XVI. was put to death, was formerly used in England. It was first introduced into France, during the revolution, by Dr. Guillotine, a physician, and hence its name.
THE BiliriX GIBBET AND GIBRET-LAW.
The History of Halifax in Yorkshire, 12mo. 1712, sets forth " a true account of their ancient, odd, customary gibbetlaw j and their particular form of trying and executing of criminals, the like not used in any other place in Great Britain." The Halifax gibbet was in the form of the guillotine, and its gibbet-law quite as remarkable. The work referred to, which is more curious than rare, painfully endeavours to prove this law wise and salutary. It prevailed only within the forest of Haidwick, which was subject to the lord of the manor of Wakefield, a part of the duchy of Lancaster. If a felon were within the liberty of the forest with cloth, or other commodity, of the value of thirteen-pence halfpenny, he was, after three market-days from his apprehension and condemnation, to be carried to the gibbet, and there have his head cut off from his body. When first taken, he was brought to the lord's bailiff in Halifax, who kept the town, had also the keeping of the axe, and was the executioner at the gibbet. This officer summoned a jury of frith-burghers to try him on the evidence of witnesses not upon oath: if acquitted, he was set at liberty, upon pay
ment of his fees; if convicted, he was set in the stocks on each of the three subsequent market-days in Halifax, with the stolen goods on his back, if they were portable; if not, they were placed before his face. This was for a terror to others, and to engage any who had aught against him, to bring accusations, although after the three market-days he was sure to be executed for the offence already proved upon him. But the convict had the satisfaction of knowing, that after he was put to death, it was the duty of the coroner to summon a jury, "and sometimes the same jury that condemned him," to inquire into the cause of his death, and that a return thereof would be made into the Crown-office; "which gracious and sage proceedings of the coroner in that matter ought, one would think, to abate, in all considering minds, that edge of acrimony which hath provoked malicious and prejudiced persons to debase this laudable and necessary custom." So says the book.
In April, 1650, Abraham Wilkinson and Anthony Mitchell were found guilty of stealing nine yards of cloth and two colts, and on the 30th of the month received sentence, "to suffer death, by having their heads severed and cut off from their bodies at Halifax gibbet," and they suffered accordingly. These were the last persons executed under Halifax gibbet-law.
The execution was in this manner :— The prisoner being brought to the scaffold by the bailiff, the axe was drawn up by a pulley, and fastened with a pin to the side of the scaffold. "The bailiff, the jurors, and the minister chosen by the prisoner, being always upon the scaffold with the prisoner, in most solemn manner, after the minister had finished his ministerial office and christian duty, if it was a horse, an ox, or cow, Sec. that was taken with the prisoner, it was thither brought along with him to the place of execution, and fastened by a cord to the pin that stay'd the block, so that when the time of the execution came, (which was known by the jurors holding up one of their hands,) the bailiff, or his servant, whipping the beast, the pin was pluck'd out, and execution done; but if there were np beast in the case, then the bailiff, or his servant, cut the rope."
But if the felon, after his apprehension, or in his going to execution, happened to make his escape out of the forest of Hardwick, which liberty, on the east end of the town, doth not extend above the breadth of a small river; on the north about six hundred paces; on the south about a mile; but on the west about ten miles;—if such an escape were made, then the bailiff of Halifax had no power to apprehend him out of his liberty; but if ever the felon came again into the liberty of Hardwick, and were taken, he was certainly executed. One Lacy, who made his escape, and lived seven years out of the liberty, after that time coming boldly within the liberty of Hardwick, "was retaken, and executed upon his former verdict of condemnation.
The records of executions by the Halifax gibbet, before the time of Elizabeth, are lost; but during her reign twentyfive persons suffered under it, and from
1623 to 1650 there were twelve executions. The machine is destroyed. The engraving placed above, represents the instrument, from a figure of it in an old map of Yorkshire, which is altogether better than the print of it in the work before cited.
The ■ worthy author of the Halifax gibbet-book seems by his title to be well assured, that the machine was limited to, and to the sole use and behoof of, his district; but in this, as in some other particulars, he is mistaken.
A small print by Aldegraver, one of the little German masters, in 1553, now lying before the writer, represents the execution of Manlius, the Roman, by the same instrument; and he has a similar print by Pens, an early engraver of that school. There are engravings of it in books printed so early as 1510. In Holliushed's Chronicle there is a cut of 3 man who had attempted the life of Henry III. suffering by this instrument. In Fox's "Acts and Monuments," there a another execution in the same manner.
The " maiden" by which James, earl of Morton, the regent of Scotland, was put to death for high treason in 1581, was of this form, and is said to have been constructed by his order from a model of one that he had seen in England : he was the first and last person who suffered by it in Scotland; and it still exists in the parliament-house at Edinburgh. In "The Cloud of Witnesses; or the last Speeches of Scottish Martyrs since 1680," there is a print of an execution in Scotland by a similar instrument. The construction of such a machine was in contemplation for the beheading of lord Lovat in 1747: he approved the notion—" My neck is very [ short," he said, "and the executioner will be puzzled to find it out with his axe: if they make the machine, I suppose they will call it lord Lovat's
the violence of a blow on the head of the axe, with his heavy maul, forced it through the man's neck into the block. I have seen the draught of the like heading-instrument, where the weighty axe (made heavy for that purpose) was raised up and fell down in such a riggetted frame, which being suddenly let to fall, the weight of it was sufficient to cut off a man's head at one blow."
Remarkable instances of the mildness of January, 1825, are recorded in the provincial and London journals. In the first week a man planting a hedge near Mansfield, in Yorkshire, found a blackbird's >nest with four young ones in it. The Westmoreland Gazette states, that on the 13th a fine ripe strawberry was gathered in the garden of Mr. W. Whitehead, Storth End, near End-Moor, and about the same time a present of the same fruit was made by Thomas Wilson, Esq. Thorns, Underbarfow, to Mr. Alderman Smith Wilson, some of them larger in bulk than the common hazel-nut. Indeed the forwardness of the season in the north appears wonderful. - It is stated in the Glasgow Chronicle of the 11th, that on the 7th, bees were flying about in the garden of Rose-mount ;"on the 9th, the sky was without a cloud; there was scarcely a breath of wind, the blackbirds were singing as if welcoming the spring; pastures wore a fine, fresh, and healthy appearance; the wheat-braird was strong, thick in the ground, and nearly covering the soil; vegetation going on in the gardens; the usual spring flowers making their appearance; the Christmas rose, the snowdrop, the polyanthea, the single or border anemone, the hepatica in, its varieties, and the mazerion were in full bloom; the Narcissus making its appearance, and the crocusses showing colour. On the 11th, at six o'clock, the thermometer in Nelsonstreet, Glasgow, indicated 44 degrees; on the 9th, the barometer gained the extraordinary height of 31-01; on thellth, it was at 30-8. The Sheffield Mercury represents, that within six or seven weeks preceding the middle of the month, the barometer had been lower and higher than had been remarked by any living individual in that town. On the 23d of November it was so low as 27'5; and on the 9th of January at 11 P. M. it stood at 30-65. In the same place the following meteorological observations were made:,
. ■' Janvaiiy, 182$. Remember on St Vincent'* day.
/ Tuermometeb. If that the sun bis beams display.
r»» o'cioca A. M. »o. P.m. Dr. Forster, in the "Perennial Calea,
* J*S *'""*" M dftr'" '* at 8 '03S for *" 0r'8in of the
< J* 4J ..... J/ mand, but he thinks it may have been
4443 derived from a notion that the sun would
''Barometer not shine unominously on the day whereon
TEN O'CLOCK A. M. 'DO. P. M. ^e Saillt WaS 0Ur"l
* 11th 30-4 ... . 303 Chronology.
12th 30-3 .... 30-2 „ , . . .
13th 80-5 , . . . 29 9 1800.—On the 22d of January, in this
> - 14th 29-5 .... 29-7 year, died George Steevens, Esq. F. R. S.
At Paris, in the latter end of 1824, the A. S. He was born at Stepney, in
barometer was exceedingly high, consi- 1751 or 1752, and is best known as the
dering the bad weather that had prevail- editor of Shakspeare, though to the ver.
ed.and the moisture of the atmosphere. satiUty and richness of his talents there are
There had been almost constant and in- numerous testimonials. He maintained
cessant rain. The few intervals of fair the greatest perseverance in every thing
weather, were when the wind got round a he undertook. He never relaxed, but
few points to the west, or the northward sometimes broke off favourite habits of
of west: but invariably, a few hours long indulgence suddenly. In this way
after, the wind again got to the south, he discontinued his daily visits to two
west, and the rain commenced falling. It booksellers. This, says his biographer in
s if a revolution had taken the Gentleman's Magazine, he did " after
in the laws of the barometer. The many years' regular attendance, for no
ometer in London was at 30-48 in real cause." It is submitted, however,
May, 1824, and never rose higher during that the cause, though unknown to others,
the whole year. maY ',ave been every way sufficing and
. praiseworthy. He who has commenced a
^31tU3rt) 2*' practice that has grown into a destroyer
St. Vincent. St.AnZwnn,. of his time and desires to end it, must
St. Vincent was a Spanish martyr, said * ,n an "I? n *f h,e *,rive,,f° ^ iiivt L , 'i' , it by degrees, he will find himself rel axto have been tormented by fire so that he ■ ^ J '8.
died in 304. His name. 11 in thechurch tr^Son! strong as hell will bind
of England calendar. Butler affirms that w f „ ^ he ^ th
his bodv was "thrown in a marshy field . ." . . . , . A . , ,
- , T"Z j r }. , termination to destroy, but the act of de
among rushes, but a crow attended it , TM n i .i.
* *.,, T A , j r <• Tt struction. The will and the power are from wild beasts and birds of prey The Uvo Stefivens knew ,m ^ P h fc Golden Legend says that angels had had takeu snuff a„ hh hf he neve«t(X)k the guardianship of the body that the Qne -h after h(, lost his ^ . & crow attended to drive away birds and Pau,£churcn ar(I. Had he taken Qne fowls greater than himself, and that after hp m- hl hav</taken one mor and ,hen he had chased a wolf with his bill and on, a" fc and afterwards onl ^ beak he then turned his head towards Wt * and th he
the body as if he marvelled at the keep- iM as nePliv'ed-a snuff.,aker. N
.tog of it by the angels His relics ne- Stpevens tQ have discovered h;
cessarily worked miracles wherever they d J (ha( a self .g
were kept For their collection, separa- enem of himself and hence his jn_
tion, and how they travelled from place to folerance of self . induigence even m
place, see Butler. deeree
Brand, from a MS note by Mr. Douce, His ■ u conections were remarkreferring to Scot's " Discover.e of \\ ,tch- fc, curi ^ ds the . that craft,'cites an old injunction to observe *rf' ^
whether the sun shines on St. Vincent's- 8 ' 6
« Vincent! festo si Sol radiet memor este." FL0KAL directory.
It'is thus done into Englishby Abraham St. Vincent.
Fleming: Early Willow grass Draba verna.