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Tine—" Nancy D»w»on." Of all the wigs in Brighton town, The black, the grey, the red, the brown. So firmly glued upon the crown, There's none like Johnny Townsend's : It's silken hair and flaxen hue, (It is a scratch, and not a queue,) Whene'er it pops upon the view, is known for Johnny Townsend's !
Wigs were worn by the Romans when bald; those of the Roman ladies were fastened upon a caul of goat-skin. Perriwigs commenced with their emperors ; they were awkwardly made of hair, painted and glued together.
False hair was always in use, though more from defect than fashion; but the year 1589 is deemed the epoch of the introduction of long perriwigs into France; yet it is certain that ladies tetet were in use here a century before. Mr.Fosbroke, from whose " Encyclopaedia of Antiquities" these particulars are derived, says, "that strange deformity, the judge's wig, first appears as a general genteel fashion in the seventeenth century." Towards the close of that century, men of fashion combed their wigs at public places, as an act of gallantry, with very large ivory or tortoiseshell combs, which they carried in their pockets as constantly as their snuffboxes. At court, in the mall of St. James's-park, and in the boxes of the theatre, gentlemen conversed and combed their perukes.
Horace Walpole relates that when the countess of Suffolk married Mr. Howard, they were both so poor, that they took a resolution of going to Hanover before the death of queen Anne, in order to pay their court to the future royal family. Having some friends to dinner, and being disappointed of a full remittance, she was forced to sell her hair to furnish the entertainment. Long wigs were then in fashion, and the countess's hair being fine, long, and fair, produced her twenty pounds.
A fashion of wearing the hair gave rise to a college term at Cambridge, which is thus mentioned and explained in a dictionary of common parlance at that university :—
"Apollo. One whose hair is loose and flowing;
Unfrizzled, unanointed, and untied ;*
"His royal highness prince William of Gloucester was an A polio during the whole of his residence at the university of Cambridge! The strange fluctuation of fashions has often afforded a theme for amusing disquisition. 'I can remember,' says the pious archbishop Tillotson, ir. one of his sermons, discoursing on this head, viz. of hair !' since the wearing the hair below the ears was looked upon as a tin of the first magnitude; and when ministers generally, whatever their text was, did either find, or make occasion to reprove the great sin of long hair; and i! they saw any one in the congregahoa guilty in that kind, they would point him out particularly, and let fly at him with great zeal.' And we can remember since the wearing the hair cropt, i. e. above the ears, was looked upon, though not as i 'sin,' yet as a very vulgar and rajui sort of a thing; and when the doers of newspapers exhausted all their wit in endeavouring to rally the new-raised corps of crops, regardless of the noble duke, who headed them; and, when the rude, rank-scented rabble, if they saw any one in the streets, whether time, or the tonsor, had thinned his flowing hair, Wobm point him out particularly, and 'let that him,' as the archbishop says, till Bat a shaft of ridicule remained! The Ui upon hair powder has now, however, produced all over the country very plemn'c crops. Among the Curiosa Canteirgiensia, it may be recorded, that <x 'most religious and gracious king,' as he was called in the liturgy, Charles the Second, who, as his worthy friend, the ear! of Rochester, remarked,
'never said a foolish thing, Nor ever did a wise one,'— sent a letter to the university of Cacbridge, forbidding the members to w«; perriwigs, smoke tobacco, and read tier sermons! It is needless to remark, sir tobacco has not yet made its exit infm*. and that perriwigs still continue to adcr.
* the heads of houses!' TBI tfc
present all prevailing, all accommodate fashion of crops became general at 'iuniversity, no young man presumed t dine in hall till he had previously recerss a handsome trimming from the toedresser. An inimitable imitatiou of'Tf* Bard'of Gray, is ascribed to the pen of r> honourable Thomas (the late lordJErski^ when a student at Cambridge. Mr.. having been disappointed of the ance of his college barber, was c
> forego his common* in hull! An odd *" Club, nor queue, nor twisted tail,
thought came into his head. In revenge, Nor e'en thy cbatt'rin?, barber, shall avail
e determined to give his hair-dresser a To savc thy horse-whipped back from daily
jod dretsinir; so he sat down, and began _ fca" ,, „
i follows-— From Cantab s curse, from Cantab s tears.
'Ruin seize thee, scoundrel Coc,
Confusion on thy frizzing wait; The editor of the "Gradus ad Cantabri
adst thou the only comb below, giant" regrets that he has not room for the
Thou never more shouldst touch my pate. whole of the ode.
here is a curious print from meme.
9 gridiron with 1 pair of tongs, while another friar blows an instrument through a window. These persons are perhaps sojourning there a* pilgrims, for there is a print hung against the wall representing an owl in a pilgrim's habit on his journey. In this room the barber'3 bleeding basin is hung up, and his razor is on the mantel ledge : the barber himself is washing the chin of an aged fool, whom, from the hair lying on the ground, it appears he has just polled. A dog on his hind legs is in a fool's habit, probably to intimate that the fool is under the hands of the barber preparatory to his fraternizing with the friars and their dames. The
print is altogether exceedingly humorous, and illustratiTe of manners: so much of it as immediately concerns the barber is given in the present engraving from it.
Mr. Leigh Hunt, in "The Indicator," opposes female indifference to the hair. He says, " Ladies, always delightful, and not the least so in their undress, are apt to deprive themselves of some of their best morning beams by appearing with their hair in papers. We give notice, that essayists, and of course all people of taste, prefer a cap, if there must be any thing; but hair, a million times over. To see grapes in paper-bags is bad enough; but the rich locks of a lady in papers, the roots of the hair twisted up like a drummer's, and the forehead staring bald instead of being gracefully tendrilled and shadowed !—it is a capital offence,—a defiance to the love and admiration of the other sex,—a provocative to a paper war: and we here accordingly declare the said war on paper, not having any ladies at hand to carry it at once into their headquarters. We must allow at the same time, that they are very shy of being seen in this condition, knowing well enough, how much of their strength, like Sampson's, lies in that gifted ornament. We have known a whole parlour of them fluttered off, like a dove-cote, at the sight of a friend coming up the garden."
Of the barber's art, as it was practised formerly, Mr. Archdeacon Nares gives a curious sample from Lyly, an old diamatist, one of whose characters being a barber, says, " thou knowest I have taught thee the knocking of the hands, the tickling on a man's haires, like the tuning of a citterne. I instructed thee in the phrases of eut eloquent 'occupation, as; now, sir, will you be trimmedor will you have your beard like a spade or a bodkin? a peut-hous on your upper lip, or an ally on your chin? a low curie on your head like a bull, or dangling locke like a spaniel? your mustachoes sharpe at the ends, like shomakers' aules, or hanging downe to your mouth like goates flakes? your love-lockes wreathed with a silken twist, or shaggie to fall on your shoulders?"
Barbers' shops were anciently places of great resort, and the practices observed there were consequently very often the subject of allusions. The titter*, or lute, which bung up for the diversion of the
is the foundation of a pro. verb." The cittern resembled the guitar. In Burton's '* Winter Evening Entertainments," published in 1687, with several wood-cuts, there is a representation of a barber's shop, where the person waiting his turn is playing on a lute.f
The peculiar mode of mapping the finger; as a high qualification in a barber, is mentioned by Green, another early writer. "Let not the barber be forgotten: and look that he be an excellent fellow, and one that can snap kit fisgert with dexterity." Morose, one of Ben Jonson's characters in his "Silent Woman," is a detester of noise, and particularly values a barber who was silent, and did not snap his fingers. "The fellow trims him silently, and hath not the knack with his shears or his fingers .- and that contingency in a barber he thinks so eminent a virtue, as it has made him chief of his counsel."!
This obsolete practice with barter, is noticed in Stubbe's "Anatomy of Abuses." "When they come to washing," says Stubbe, "oh I how gingerly they behave themselves therein. For then shall your mouth be bossed with iU lather, or some that rinseth of the balit*. (for they have their sweete balles wherewith all they use to washe,) your eye» closed must be anointed therewith ibc Then snap go the fingers, ful bravtlr Got wot. Thus this tragedy ended,cocr? me warme clothes, to wipe and dry be withallJ next, the eares must be pwk?i. and closed together against artificial'?, forsooth," &c. This citation is given f« a correspondent to the "Gentlenun> Magazine," who adds to it his own observations :—" I am old enough," he sa^. "to remember when the operation; shaving, in this kingdom, was almost exclusively performed by the barbers : uhl I speak of is some three-score years scat which time #rn/iemen-shavers wai unknown. Expedition was then a priest, quality in a barber, who smeared the l> ther over his customers' faces with in hand; for the delicate refinement of 'J» brush had not been introduced. Tb< If thering of the beard being finished, tie operator threw off the lather adhericf I his hand, by a peculiar jerk of the safe which caused the joints of the fingers I crack, this being a more expeditiii
mode of clearing the hand than using a towel for that purpose ; and the more audible the crack, the higher the shaver stood in his own opinion, and in that of his fraternity. This then, I presume, is the custom alluded to by Stubbe."
Mr. J. T. Smith says, " The entertaining and venerable Mr. Thomas Batrich, barber, of Drury-lane, informs me, that before the year 1756, it was a general custom to lather with the hand; but that the French barbers, much about that time, brought in the brush. He also says, that " A good lather is half the shave," is a very old remark among the trade.
In a newspaper report of some proceedings at a police office, in September, 1825, a person deposing against the prisoner, used the phrase " as common as a barber's chair;" this is a very old saying. Ine of Shakspeare's clowns speaks of " a barber's chair, that fits all, by way of metaphor ; and Rabelais shows that it might be applied to any thing' in very common use.''
The Barber's Pole is still a sign in country towns, and in many of the villages lear London. It was stated by lord ["hurlow in the house of peers, on the
7th of July, 1797, when he opposed the urgeons' incorporation bill that, "By a statute still in force, the barbers and surTong were each to use a pole. The bar■ers were to have theirs blue and white, triped, with no other appendage; but he surgeons, which was the same in other respects, was likewise to have a galliot and a red rag, to denote the particuir nature of their vocation."
The origin of the barber's pole is to be aced to the period when the barbers ■ere also surgeons, and practice phlebo>my. To assist this operation, it being ecessary for the patient to grasp a staff,
stick or a pole was always kept by the arber-surgeon, together with the fillet or andaging he used for tying the patient's rra. When the pole was not in use the ipe was tied to it, that they might be atli together when wanted. On a perm coming in to be bled the tape was disengaged from the pole, and bound lund the aim, and the pole was put into ie person's hand : after it was done with, le tape was again tied on the" pole, and
this state, pole and tape were often hung
* N»r« Glosi.
at the door, for a sign or notice to passen-' gers that they might there be bled: doubtless the competition for custom was great, because as our ancestors were great admirers of bleeding, they demanded the operation frequently. At length instead of hanging out the identical pole used in . the operation, a pole was painted with stripes round it, in imitation of the real pole and its bandagings, and thus came the sign.
That the use of the pole in bleed ing was" very ancient, appears from an illumination in a missal of the time of Edward I., wherein the usage is represented. Also in ' Comenii Orbis pictus," there is an engraving of the like practice. "Such a staff," says Brand, who mentions these graphic illustrations, " is to this very day put into the hand of patients undergoing phlebotomy by every village practitioner."
The New* Sunday-paper of August 4th, 1816, says, that a person in Alston, who for some years followed the trade of a barber, recently opened a spiiit-shop, when to the no small admiration and amusement of his acquaintance, he hoisted over his door the following lines :—
Hove not from pole to pole, but here turn in. Where naught exceeds the shaving, but the gin.
The south corner shop of Hosier-lane, Smithfield, is noticed by Mr. J. T. Smith as having been " occupied by a barber whose name was Catch-pole; at least so it was written over the door: he was a whimsical fellow; and would, perhaps because he lived in Smithfield, show to his customers a short bladed instrument, as the dagger with which Walworth killed Wat Tyler." To this may be added, a remark not expressed by Mr. Smith, that Catch-pole had a barber's pole for many years on the outside of his door.'
Catch-pole's manoeuvre to catch customers, and get his shop talked about, was very successful. It is observed in the "Spectator," that—"The art of managing mankind is only to make them stare a little, to keep up their astonishment, to let nothing be familiar to them, but ever to have something in your sleeve, in which they must think you are deeper than they are." The writer of the remark exemplifies it by this story:—" There is an inge
nious fellow, a barber of my acquaintance, who, besides his broken fiddle and a dryed sea-monster, has a twine-cord, strained with two nails at each end, over his window, and the words, rainy, dry, wet, and so forth, written to denote the weather .according to the rising or falling of the cord. We very great scholars are not apt to wonder at this: but I observed a very honest fellow, a chance customer, who sat in the chair before me to be shaved, fix his eye upon this miraculous performance during the operation upon his chin and face. When those, and his head also, were cleared of all incumbrances and excrescences, he looked at the fish, then at the fiddle, still grubbing in his pockets, and casting his eye again at the twine, and the words writ on each side; then altered his mind as to farthings, and gave my friend a silver sixpence. The business, as I said, is tofkeep up the amazement: and if my friend had had only the skeleton and kitt, he must have been contented with a less payment."
It was customary with barbers to have their shops lighted by candles in brass chandeliers of three, four, and six branches. Mr. Smith noticing their disuse says, " Mr. Batrich has two suspended from his ceiling; he has also a set of bells fixed against the wall, which he has' had for these forty years. These are called by the common people Jfhittinglon't Belli. In his early days, about eighty years back, when the newspapers were only a penny a-piece, they were taken in by the barbers for the customers to read during their waiting time. This custom is handed to us by the late E. Heemskerck, in an etching by Toms, of a barber's shop, composed of monkies, at the foot of which are the following lines:—
"A barber's shop adorn'd we see,
in the Horse-guards, sat smoking his pipe. There was a famous woman in Swallowstreet, who shared; and I recollect a black woman in Butcher-row, a street formerly standing by the side of St. Clement's church, near Temple-bar, who is said to have shaved with ease and dexterity." His friend Mr. Batrich informed him that he had read of " the five barberesse3 of Drury-lane, who shamefully mal-treated a woman in the reign of Charles II." Mr. Batrich died while Mr. Smith's "Ancient Topography of London," was passing through the press.
Mr. Smith's inquiries concerning barbers have been extensive and curious. He says, "On one occasion, that I might indulge the humour of being shaved by a woman, I repaired to the Seven Dials,' where, in Great St. Andrew's-street, a slender female performed the operation, whilst her husband, a strapping soldier
The "Glasgow Chronicle," about the year 1817, notices the sudden death, in Calton, of Mr. John Falconer, hairdresser, in Kirk-street. While in the act of shaving a man, he staggered, and was falling, when he was placed on a chair, and expired in five minutes. His shop was the arena of all local discussion, and Wh therefore denominated the Calton eonetroom. His father and he had been in us trade for upwards of half a century. Ha father was the first who reduced the gut of shaving to a halfpenny; and when has brethren in the town wished him again to raise it, he replied, "Charge a. peony.' Jock and me are just considering abcu: lowering it to a farthing." He would never take more than a halfpenny ibosii it was offered him; and being very siiifcat his business, and of a frank jocair turn, he had a large share of public tvour, and was enabled even at this fci rate to gather money and build home? He died about sixteen years before his sot who carried on the business. He ofta said others wrought for need, but he did it for pleasure or recreation, and nf -. was so happy as when he was imped* c the countenances of the lieges, He is' generally allowed to be at the top of ' profession. Some old men whom he if his father had shaved for fifty ve;~ boasted that they were never touched another: one very old customer regtitjcame for many a year to his shop e»f Saturday night from the western eH" mity of the town. His shop was fucwsW with two dozen of antique chairs, as Ess pictures, and a musical clock, and for long time he had a good library of heoi but they at length nearly wholly disc
Scared, and he took up to his booM • w that remained as his own share, two different times, when trade was <U