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$art of 36artfootomtto jfat'v, 1721.

The'twoengravings whereon the reader Mr. Setchel, of King-street, fVmrirtifM

now looks, are from a very curious scenic den. The letter-press account subjoin

print of this Fair, as represented on to Mr. Setchel's print says, that " as>

an old fan,] recently, published by the year 1T21, when the present u>t«s^g view of this popular Fair was taken, sents, that " Persons of rank were also its

e drama was considered of some im- occasional visitors, and the figure on the

irtance, and a series of minor, although right (with the star) is also supposed to be

gular, pieces, were acted in its various that of sir Robert Walpole, then prime mi

ioths. At Lee and Harper's, the ' Siege nister. Fawkes, the famous conjuror,

Berthulia' is performing, in which is forms a conspicuous feature, and is the

traduced the tragedy of Holophernes.'" only portrait of him known to exist." Mr. Setchel's account further repre- r .

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ftnotfter $Jart in the slain* 4fair.

There is, however, another portrait of him in the midst of his performances, awkes, the conjuror: it is a sheet, en- Hogarth's frontispiece to a scarce tract on rated by Sutton Jfichpls, representing ,* Taste," wherein.he bespatters Burling

ton-gate, further tends to perpetuate Fawkes's fame, by an inscription announcing his celebrated feats. It is recorded, too, in the first volume of the "Gentleman's Magazine," that on the 15th of February, 1731, the Algerine ambassadors went to see Mr. Fawkes, who, at their request, showed them a prospect of Algiers, " and raised up an apple-tree, which bore ripe apples in less than a minute's time, which several of the company tasted of." This was one of his last performances, for, in the same volume, his name is in the list of" Deaths," on the 25th of May, that year, thus: "Mr. Fawkes, noted for his dexterity of hand, said to die worth 10,000/." The newspapers of the period relate, that " he had honestly acquired" it, by his "dexterity," and add, that it was " no more than he really deserved for his great ingenuity, by which he had surpassed all that ever pretended to that art.' It will be observed from the show-cloth of the tumblers, that Fawkes was also u a famous posture-master

The tumbler whirles the flip-Sup round,
With sommersets he shakes the ground;
The cord beneath the dancer springs;
Aloft in air the vaulter swings,
Distorted now, now prone depends,
Now through his.twisted arms descends;
The crowd in wonder and delight,
With clapping hands applaud the sight.

Gay.

On the platform of Lee and Harper's show, with "Judith and Holophemes," in Mr. Setchel's print, which is handsomely coloured in the manner of the fan, the clown, behind the trumpeter, is dressed in black. The lady who represents Judith, as she is painted on the showcloth, is herself on the platform, with feathers on her head; the middle feather is blue, the others red. She wears a laced stomacher, white hanging sleeves with rosettes, and a crimson petticoat with white rosettes in triangles, and suitably flounced. Holophernes, in a rich robe lined with crimson and edged with gold lace, wears light brown buskins, the colour of untanned leather; Harlequin, instead of the little flat three-corner flexible cap, wherein he appears at our present theatres, has a round beaver of the same light colour. Two females enteringat the door below are, apparently, a lady and her maid; the first is in green, and wears a cap with lappets falling behind, and white laced ruffles j

the other, with a fen in her hand, is fn a tawny gown, striped with red, and cuffs of the same; the lady and gentleman in mourning are evidently about to follow them. From hence we see the costume of the quality, and that at that time Bartholomew Fair was honoured with such visitors.

The boy picking the gentleman's pocket is removed from another part of Mr. Setchel's print, which could not be included in the present engraving, to show that the artist had not forgotten to represent that the picking of pockets succeeded to the cutting of purses. The person in black, whose gaze the baker, or man with the apron, is directing with his finger, looks wonderfully like old Tom Hearse. Indeed, this fan-print is exceedingly carious, and indispensable to every "illsstrator of Pennant," and collector of manners. In that print to the right of Lee and Harper's is another show,witb "Ropedancing ishere,"on a show-cloth,representing a female with a pole on the tight-rope; stout middle-aged man, in a green coat, and leather breeches, walks the platform and blows a trumpet; the door below is kept by a woman, and the figures on the printed posting-bills against the boards exhibit a man on the tight-rope, and two slack-ropes; a figure is seated and swinging on one rope, and on the other a mar; swings by the hams, with his head downward: the bills state this to be " At the great booth over against the hosrpital-gai« in Smithfield." Near to where the hespital-gate may be supposed to stand is a cook, or landlord, at the door of a house, with " Right Redstreak Cyder, at per quart, " on the jamb; on the other j ax \ a skittle is painted standing on a ball, and an inscription "Sketle ground i'' abce his head, on a red portcullis-work, is the sign of a punch-bowl and ladle, inscribed "Fine punch;" at the window-way of the house hang two Bartholomew " pics with curly tails," and a side of large pork.

There is an " up and down," or swing, of massive wood-work, with two cbildrf J in three of the boxes, and one empty box waiting for another pair. Then there' s a spacious sausage-stall; a toy-stall, kept by a female, with bows, halberts, rattles, long whistles, dolls, and other kr knackeries: a little boy in a cocked r. it is in possession of a large halbert, and his older sister is looking wistfully at a. Chinese doll on the counter; a show man exhibits the "Siege of Gibraltar" to two iris looking through the glasses. These re part of the amusements which are alutled to, in the inscription on the print Iow describing, as " not unlike those of mr day, except in the articles of Hollands ,nd gin, with which the lower orders were then accustomed to indulge, unfetered by licence or excise." A man with ubs of "Right Hollands Geneva, and ^nniseed," having a cock in each, is servng a bearded beggar with a wooden-leg o a glass, much nearer to the capacity of half a pint, than one of " three outs" of he present day; while a woman, with a )ipe in one hand, holds up a full spiritneasure, of at least half a pint, to her own hare; there is toping from a barrel of 'Geneva', at another stall; and the posures of a couple of oyster-women denote hat the uncivil provocative has raised the etort uncourteous. The visit of sir Ro>ert Walpole to this scene might have uggested to him, that his licence and exrise scheme, afterwards so unpopular, though ultimately carried, would aid a :eform"ation of manners.

Lady Holland'* Ma.

On the night before the day whereon the lord mayor proclaims the Fair, a ,riotous assemblage of persons heretofore listurbed Smithfield and its environs, unler the denomination of" Lady Holland's ooh." This multitude, composed of the nost degraded characters of the metropois, was accustomed to knock at the doors and ring the bells, with loud shouting ind vociferat.On; and they often comnitted gross outrages on persons and projerty. The year 1822, was the last year .«herein they appeared in any alarming brce, and then the inmates of the houses hey assailed, or before which they parad;d, were aroused and kept in terror by heir violence. In Skinner-street, especially, they rioted undisturbed until be:ween three and four in the morning: at >ne period that morning their number was not less than five thousand, but it varied is parties went off, or came in, to and Tom the assault of other places. Their force was so overwhelming, that the patrol and watchmen feared to interfere, and the riot continued till they had exhausted their fury.

It has been supposed that this mob first arose, and has been continued, in celebration of a verdict obtained by a Mr. Holland, which freed the Fair from toll; but this is erroneous, ««Lady Holland's

mob" may be traced so'far back as the times of the commonwealth, when the ruling powers made considerable efforts to suppress the Fair altogether; and when, without going into particulars to corroborate the conjecture, it may be presumed that the populace determined to support what they called their " charter," under the colour of the " Holland" interest, in opposition to the civic authorities. The scene of uproar always commenced in Cloth-fair, and the present existence of an annual custom there, throws some light on the matter. At" the Hand and Shears," a public-house in that place, it is the usage, at this time, for tailors to assemble the night before the Fair is proclaimed by the lord mayor. They appoint a chairman, and exactly as the clock strikes twelve, he and his companions, each with a pair of shears in his hand, leave the house, and, in the open street of Clothfair, the chairman makes a speech and proclaims "Bartholomew Fair." As soon as he concludes, every tailor holds up and snaps his shears with a shout, and they retire, shears in hand, snapping and shouting, to the "Hand and Shears," from whence they came forth; but the mob, who await without, to witness the ceremony, immediately upon its being ended, run out into Smithfield, and being joined by others there shout again. This second assemblage and shouting is called "the mob proclaiming the Fair j" and so begins the annual mob, called "Lady Holland's mob." Since 1822, the great body have confined their noise to Smithfield itself, and their number and disorder annually decrease.

ORIGIN

OP

36artf)olomcto jfatr.

About the year 1102, in the reign of Henry I., the priory, hospital, and church of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, were founded by one Rahere, a minstrel of the king, and " a pleasant witted gentleman." It seems that Rahere was determined to this pious work in a fit of sickness, during a pilgrimage he made to Rome agreeably to the fashion of the times, when St. Bartholomew appeared to him, and required him to undertake the work and perform, it in Smithfield.* Before that time Smith

* Stow.

field, or the greater part of it, was called "the Elms," because it was covered with elm trees; "since the which time," saith Stow, " building there hath so increased that now remaineth not one tree growing." Smithfield derives its name from its being "a plain or smooth field.'" Regarding Rahere's occupation as a minstrel, it may be observed, that minstrels were reciters of poems, story tellers, performer upon musical instruments, and sometimes jugglers and buffoons. Rahere "ofte hawnted the kyng's palice, and amo'ge the noysefull presse of that tumultuous courte, enforced hymselfe with jolite and carnal suavite: ther yn spectaclis, yn metys, yn playes, and other courtely mokkys, and trifyllis intrudyng, he lede forth the besynesse of alle the day."f R 18 related of a person in this capacity, that he was employed by a king as a story teller, on purpose to lull him to sleep every night; and that the king's requiring him to tell longer stories, the romancer began one of so great length, that he himself fell asleep in the midst of it.{ Racine, the French poet, was scarcely higher employed when he was engaged in reading Louis XIV. to sleep with " Plutarch's Lives:" to such a king the narratives of the philosophical biographer were fables.

Rahere was the first prior of his monastery. There was a remarkable visitation of it by Boniface, archbishop of Canterbury, who being received with a procession in a solemn manner, said he did not require that honour, but came to visit them; whereto the canons answered, that to submit to the visitation of any other than their own prelate, the bishop of London, would be in contempt of his authority; whereupon the archbishop conceiving great offence, struck the sub-prior in the face, and " raging, with oathes not to bee recited, hee rent in peeces the rich scope of the sub-prior, and trode it under his feete, and thrust him against a pillar of the chancel, with such violence that hee had almost killed him." Then the canons dragged off the archbishop with so great force that they threw him backwards, and thus perceived that he was" armed, and prepared to fight; and the archbishop's followers falling upon the canons, beat and tore them, and trod them under foot; who thereupon ran bleeding with

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complaints of the violence to the bishop of London, who sent four of them to the king at Westminster, but he would neither hear nor see them. In the mean time, the city was in an uproar, and the people would " have hewed the archbishop into small peeces," if he had not secretly withdrawn to Lambeth, from whence he went over to the king, " with a great complaint against the canons, whereas himself was guilty." * How the affair ended does not appear.

Stow says, that "to this priory king Henry the second granted the priviledge of a Failure to bee kept yeerly at Bartholomew-tide, for three daies, to wit, the eve, the day, and the next morrow, to the which the clothiers of England, and drapers of London repaired, and had their boothes and standings within the churchyard of this priory, closed in with wals and gates locked every night, and watched for safety of mens goods and wares; a court of piepowders was daily during the Faire holden, for debts and contracts. But," continues Stow, "notwithstanding all proclamations of the prince, and also the act of parliament, in place of booths within this church-yard (only letten out in the Faire time, and closed up all the yeere after) bee many large houses builded, and the north wall towards Long-lane taken downe, a number of tenements are there erected, for such as will give great rents." "The for- rainers," he adds, " were licensed for three days, the freemen so long as they would, which was sixe or seven daies. This was the origin of Bartholomew Fair, over which the charter of Henry II, gave the mayor and aldermen criminal jurisdiction during its continuance. V Bolton was the last prior of this house, to which he added many buildings, and built" the manor of Canonbury, at Islington, which belonged to the canons." Ia 1554, on the dissolution of the'religious houses, Henry VIII, in consideration of 1064?. lis. 3d. granted to Richard Rich, knt. attorney-general, and chancellor of the court of augmentations of the revenues of the crown, the dissolved monastery or priory of St. Bartholomew, and the Close with the messuages and buildings therein appertaining to the monastery. He also granted to the said Richard Rich, knt. and to the inhabitants of the parish of St.

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