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the tune Paggington's-pound i and the Pie» pouldres, or Pie Poudtr Court.
This is also called artadine, and sometimes orsden, and is said to be a colour. Mr. Archdeacon Nares says, that according to Mr. Lysons, in his "Environs of London," and Mr. Gifford in his note on this passage, it means orpiment or yellow arsenic. The Archdeacon in givng these two authorities, calls the word i "vulgar corruption" of "arsenic:" but irsenic yields red, as well as yellow orpinent, and both these colours are used in he getting up of shows. Possibly it is in Anglo-Saxon word for certain pignents, obtained from minerals and metals: he ore ope or one is pure Saxon, and iluralizes ores; to die in the sense of lying, or colouring, is derived from the axon bear or beah. The conjecture may e worth a thought perhaps, for dramatic xhibitions were in use when the Angloaxon was used.
This is a corruption of costard-monger; en Jonson uses it both ways, and it is oticed of his costermonger by Mr. Archdeacon Nares, that "he,cries only pears." hat gentleman rightly defines a costardlonger, or cotter-monger, to be " a seller 'apples ;" he adds, " one generally who !pt a stall." He says of coitard, that, as a species of apple, it is enumerated ith others, but it must have been a very ■mmon sort, as it gave a name to the salers in apples." In this supposition r. Nares is correct; for it was not only
very common sort, but perhaps, after e crab, it was our oldest sort: there ire three kinds of it, the white, red, and ey costard. That the costard-monger, cording to Mr. Nares," generally kept a ill;" " and that they were general fruitlers," he unluckily has not corrobo:ed by an authority; although from his nstant desire to be accurate, and his neral accuracy, the assertions are to be yarded with respect. Handle Holme es this figure of
Holme, in his heraldic 'language, says of this representation, "He beareth gules, a man passant, his shirt or shift turned up to his shoulder, breeches and hose azure, cap and shoes sable, bearing on his back a bread basket full of fruits and herbs, and a staff in his left hand, or. This may be termed either a hunter or a gardiner, hav. ing his fruits and herbs on his back from the market. This was a fit crest for the company of Fruiterers or Hunters." This man is a costard-monger in Mr. Archdeacon Nares's view of the term; for doubtless the huckster pitched his load in the market and sold it there; yet Holme does not give him that denomination, as he would have done if "he had so regarded him; he merely calls him "the hutler or huxter."
PacMngton's Pound. Concerning the air of this old song, "Hawkins's History of Music" [may be consulted. The tune may also be found in the "Beggar's Opera, adapted to the words—"The gamesters united in friendship are found." *
Court of PiePowder.
This is the lowest, and at the same time the most expeditious, court of justice known to the law of England. It is a court of record incident to every fair and market; its jurisdiction extends to administer justice for all commercial injuries done in that very fair or market, and not in any preceding one; and to every fair and market, the steward of him who owns the toll is the judge. The injury, therefore, must be done, complained of, and redressed, within the compass of one and the same day, unless the fair continues longer. It has cognizance of all matters of contract that can possibly arise within the precinct of that fair or market; and the plaintiff must make oath that the cause of an action arose there. This court seems to have arisen from the necessity of doing justice expeditiously, among persons resorting from distant places to a fair or market, without leaving them to the remedy of an inferior court, which might not be able to serve its process, or execute its judgments on both, or perhaps either of the parties; and therefore without such a court as this, the complaint must necessarily have resorted to, in the first instance, some superior judicature. It is said to be called the
• Mr. Warn'i Glowary.
court of pie-poudre, curia pedit pulverizati, from the dusty feet of the suitors; or, as sir Edward Coke says, because justice is there done as speedily as dust can fall from the feet: but Blackstone, who says thus much of this court, inclines to the opinion of Daines Barrington, who, derives it from pied puldreaux, (a pedlar, in old French,) and says, it signifies, therefore, the court of such petty chapmen as resort to fairs or markets.
Courts similar to pie-powder courts were usual both with Greeks and Romans, who introduced fairs into Germany and the north."
The Pedlar. r This is his figure from Randle Holme, who describes him thus:—" He beareth argent, a crate carrier, with a crate upon his back, or; cloathed in rutted, with a staffe in his left hand; hat and shoes table." He observes, that "this is also termed a pedlar and his pack," and he carefully notes that the difference between a porter and a pedlar consists in this, that "the porter't pack reacheth over his head and so answerable below; but the pedlar't is a small truss, bundle, or fardel, not exceeding the middle of his head as in this figure." Every reader of Shakspeare knows the word "fardel:"—
"Who would fardtlt hear
To groan and sweat under a weary life," &c.
Fardel means a burden, or bundle, or pack, and so Holme has called the pedlar's pack. The word is well known in that sense to those acquainted with our earlier language. An Act of common council of the first of August, 1554, against "Abuses offered to Pauls," recites, that the inhabitants of London, and others, were accustomed to make their common carriage of "fardelt of stuffe, and other grosse wares and things thorow the cathedrall church of Saint Pauls," and prohibits the abuse. There is an old book entitled, "a Fardel of Fancies;"
* Fo»breke Dict, Antiq.
that is, a variety of fancies 'fardelled or packed together in a bundle or burthen.
"Fancies" was a name for pleasant ballads, or poetical effusions;—and hence, because Orlando "hangs odes upon hawthorns, and elegies on brambles, all, forsooth, deifying the name of Rosalind," she calls him a "fancy monger."
The Porter. It is to be noted too, that a porter is clearly described by Holme. "He beareth vert, a porter carrying of a pack, argent, corked, sable; cloathed in tawney, cap and shoes table. This is the badge and cognizance of all porters and carriers of burthens;" but that there may be no mistake, he adds, "they have ever a leather girdle about them, with a strong rope of two or three fouldings hanging thereat, which they have in readiness to bind the burdens to their backs whensoever called thereunto."
The Porter's Knot, now used,
did not exist in Randle Holme's time. This subsequent invention consists of a strong fillet to encircle the head, attached to a curiously stuffed cushion of the width of the shoulders, whereon it rests, and is of height sufficient to bear thereon a box, or heavy load of any kind, which, by means of this knot, is carried on the head and shoulders; the weight thereof being borne equally by the various powers of the body capable of sustaining pressure, no muscles are distressed, but the book are brought to the porter's service in his labour of carrying.
"Bartholomew Faire," a rare quarto tract printed in 1641, under that ttttf states, that ";Bartholomew Faire begins oc the twenty-fourth day of August, and is then of so vast an extent, that it is contained in no lesse than four several Prishes, namely, Christ Church, Great aai Little St. Bartholomewes, and St. Septchres. Hither resort people of all scru and conditions. Christ Church cloister? are now hung full of pictures. It is remarkable and worth your observation to beholde and heare the strange sights axconfused noise in the Faire. Here, < knave in a fool's coat, with a trump* sounding, or on a drummer beating, invites you to see his puppets: there, a rogue like a wild woodman, or in an antick shape like an incubus, desires your company to view his motion: on the other side, Hocus Pocus, with three yards of tape, or ribbin, in's hand, shewing his art of legerdemaine, to the admiration and astonishment of a company of cockoloaches. Amongst these, you shall see a gray Goose-cap, (as wise as the rest,) with a what do ye lacked in his mouth, stand in his boothe, shaking a rattle, or scraping on a fiddle, with which children are so taken, that they presentlie cry out for these fopperies: and all these together make such a distracted noise, that you would think Babell were not comparable co it. Here there are also your gamesters in action: some turning of a whimsey, others throwing for pewter, who can quickly dissolve a round shilling into a hree halfepeny saucer. Long-lane at this ime looks very faire, and puts out her test cloaths, with the wrong side outfard, so turn'd for their better turning ff: and Cloth Faire is now in great equest: well fare the ale-houses therein, et better may a man fare, (but at a dearer ate,) in the pig-market, alias Pastyifooke, or Pye-Corner, where pigges are 1 houres of the day on the stalls piping ot, and would cry, (if they could speak,) come eate me.'"
This is the place wherein Ben Jonson's /ittlewit, the proctor, willed that his wife i'in-the-fight should not eat Bartholomew ig :—" Long to eat of a pig, sweet Win, the Fair; do you see? i the heart o' the air; not at, Pye-corner."
"Pye-corner was so called" says Dr. ames) Howel, "of such a sign, somemes a fair Inne, for receipt of travellers, at now devided into tenements." It as at Pye-corner as observed before, at the Fire of London ended: the >uses that escaped were taken down in ctober, 1809, and upon their site other wel ling-houses have been erected, togeer with an engine-house, belonging to e Hope Fire Assurance Company,' where
stands at present (in 1825). It was timated in the year 1732, that "the imber of sucking pigs then annually nsumed in this city, (of London) amount[ to fifty-two thousand +."
• Smith'* Anc. Top. of London. If MiUtUnd.
"Afiorcer—cropped in its prime."
Elia, author of the incomparable volume of " Essays," published "under that name," by Messrs. Taylor and Hessey, indulges in a " Dissertation upon Roast Pig." He cites a Chinese MS. to establish its origin, when flesh was eaten uncooked, and affirms that " the period is not obscurely hinted at by the great Confucius, in the second chapter of his 'Mundane.Mutations,' where he designates a kind of golden age by the term Chofang, literally the cooks' holiday." He premises " broiling to be the elder brother of roasting," and relates on the authority of the aforesaid MS. that " roast pig" " was accidentally discovered in the manner following"—viz.
"The swine-herd, Ho-ti, having gone out into the woods one morning, as his manner was, to collect mast for his hogs, left his cottage in the care of his eldest son Bo-bo, a great lubberly boy, who, being fond of playing with fire, as younkers of his age commonly are, let some sparks escape into a bundle of straw, which, kindling quickly, spread the conflagration over every part of their poor mansion, till it was reduced to ashes. Together with the cottage (a sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building, you may think it), what was of much more importance, a fine litter of new-farrowed pigs, no less than nine in number, perished. China pigs have been esteemed a luxury all over the east from the remotest periods that we read of. Bo-bo was in the utmost consternation, as you may think, not so much for the sake of the tenement, which his father and he could easily build up again with a few dry branches, and the labour of an hour or two, at any time, as for the loss of the pigs. While he was thinking what he should say to his father, and wringing his hands over the smoking remnants of one of those untimely sufferers, an odour assailed his nostrils, unlike any scent which he had before experienced. What could it proceed from t-- not from the burnt cottage—he had smelt that smell before—indeed this was by no means the first accident of the kind which had occurred through the negligence of this unlucky young fire-brand. Much less did it resemble that of any known herb, weed, or flower. A premonitory moistening at the same time overflowed his nether lip. He knew not what tc think. He nest stooped down to feel the
fig, if there were any signs of life in it. le burnt his fingers, and to cool them he applied them in his booby fashion to his mouth. Some of the crams of the scorched skin had come away with his fingers, and for the first time in his life (in the world's life indeed, for before him no man had known it), he tasted—crackling I Again he felt and fumbled at the pig. It did not burn him so much now, still he licked his fingers from a sort of habit. The truth at length broke into his slow understanding, that it was the pig that smelt so, and the pig that tasted so delicious; and, surrendering himself up to the newborn pleasure, he fell to tearing up whole handfuls of the scorched skin with the flesh next it, and was cramming it down his throat in his beastly fashion, when his sire entered amid the smoking rafters, armed with a retributory cudgel, and finding how affairs stood, began to rain blows upon the young rogue's shoulders as thick as hailstones, which Bo-bo heeded not any more than if they had been flies. The tickling pleasure, which he experienced in his lower regions, had rendered him quite callous to any inconveniences he might feel in those remote quarters. His father might lay on, but he could not beat him from his pig."
Bo-bo in the afternoon, regardless of his father's wrath, and with his "scent wonderfully sharpened since morning, soon raked out another pig, and fairly rending it asunder, thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti, still shouting out, ' Eat, eat, eat, the burnt pig, father; only taste—O Lord!'—with such like barbarous ejaculations, cramming all the while as if he would choke." The narrative relates, that "Ho-ti trembled every joint while he grasped the abominable thing, wavering whether he should not put his son to death for an unnatural young monster, when the crackling scorching his fingers, as it had done his son's, and applying the same remedy to them, he in his turn tasted some of its flavour, which, make what sour mouths he would for a pretence, proved not altogether displeasing to him. In conclusion, (for the manuscript here is a little tedious,) both father and son fairly set down to the mess, and never left off till they had despatched all that remained of the little. T " Bo-bo was strictly enjoined not to let the secret escape, for the neighbours would certainly have stoned them for a
couple of abominable wretches, who could think of improving upon the good meat which God had sent them. Nevertheless, strange stories got about. It was observed that Ho-ti's cottage was burnt down now more frequently than ever. Nothing but fires from this time forward. Some would break out in broad day, others in the night-time. As often as the sow farrowed, so sure was the house of Ho-ti to be in a blaze; aud Ho-ti himself, which was the more remarkable, instead of chastising his son, seemed to grow more indulgent to him than ever. At length they were watched, the terrible mystery discovered, and father and son summoned to take their trial at Pektn, then an inconsiderable assiie town. Evidence was given, the obnoxious food itself produced in court, and verdict about to be pronounced, when the foreman of the jury begged that some of the burnt pig, of which the culprits stood accused, might be handed into the box. He handled it, and they all handled it, and burning their fingers, as Bo-bo and his father had done before them, and nature prompting to each of them the sasK remedy, against the face of all the bets and the clearest charge which judge had ever given,—to the surprise of the whole court, townsfolk, strangers, reporters, ask all present—without leaving the box, et any manner of consultation, whatever, they brought in a simultaneous verdict ct Not Guilty.
"The judge, who was a shrewd Mow, winked at the manifest iniquity of the decision; and, when the court was dismissed, went privily, and bought up til the pigs that could be had for love or money. In a few days his lordship's town house was observed to be on fire. The thing took wing, and now there was< nothingto be seen but fires in every direction. Fuel and pigs grew enormous!: dear all over the district. The insurance offices one and all shut up shop. Peopk built slighter and slighter every day, uafc. it was feared that the very science « architecture would in no long time br lost to the world. Thus this custom • firing houses continued, till in process s time, says my manuscript, a sage arose, like our Locke, who made a discovery: that the flesh of swine, or indeed of ai; other animal, might be cooked (frwrsr. they called it,) without the necessity I consuming a whole house to dress' They first began the rude form of a
iron. Roasting by the string, or spit, came in a century or two later, I forget in whose dynasty. By such slow degrees, toncludes the manuscript, do the most (lseful, and seemingly the most obvious arts, make their way among mankind."
Elia maintains, that of all the delicacies in the whole eatable world, "roast pig" is the most delicate.—" I speak," he says, "not of your grown porkers— things between pig and pork—those hobbydehdys—but a young and tender suckting—Under a moon old—guiltless as yet t>f the! sty," with " his voice as yet not broken, but something between a childish treble and a grumble—the mild forerunner, or prceludium, of a grunt.
"He must be roasted. I am not ignorant that our ancestors ate them seethed, :>r boiled—but what a sacrifice of the ixterior tegument!
"There is no flavour comparable, I will contend, to that of the crisp, tawny, wellwatched, not over-foasted crackling, as it s well called—the very teeth are invited to heir share of the pleasure at this banquet n overcoming the coy, brittle resistance— •vita the adhesive oleaginous—O call it lot fat— but an indefinable sweetness Towing up to it—the tender blossoming >f fat—fat cropped in the bud—taken in he shoot—in the first innocence—the Team and quintessence of the child-pig's
ret pnre food the lean, no lean, but a
;ind of animal manna—or, rather fat and ean (if it must be so) so blended and 'mining into each other, that both together make but one ambrosial result, or :ommon substance.
"Behold him while he is doing—it leemeth rather a refreshing warmth, than i scorching heat, that he is so passive to. How equally he twirleth round the string 1 —Now he is just done. To see the extreme sensibility of that tender age, he bath wept out his pretty eyes—radiant jellies—shooting stars.
"See him in the dish, his second cradle, low meek he lieth 1—wouldst thou have bad this innocent grow up to the grossness and indocility which too often ac company maturer swinehood? Ten to one tie would have proved a glutton, a sloven, in obstinate, disagreeable animal—wallowing in all manner of filthy conversation — from these sins he is happily snatched away—
Ere sin could blight, or sorrow fade,
his memory is odoriferous — no clown curseth, while his stomach half rejecteth, the rank bacon—no coalheaver bolteth him in reeking Sausages—he hath a fcir sepulchre in the grateful stomach of is, judicious epicure—and for such a tomb might be content to die." 1
Elia further allegeth of "pig," that "the strong man may batten on him, and the weakling refuseth not his mild juices. He is—good throughout. No part of him is better or worse than another. $Ie helpeth, as far as his little means extend, all around. He is the least envious of banquets. He is all neighbours' fare.''
"I am one of those," continueth Elia, "who freely and ungrudgingly impart a share of the good things of this life which fall to their lot (few as mine are in this kind) to a friend. I protest, I take as great an interest in my friend's pleasures, his relishes, and proper satisfactions, as in mine own. 'Presents,' I often say, 'endear absents.' Hares, pheasants, partridges, snipes, barn-door chickens (those 'tame villatic fowl'), capons, plovers, brawn, barrels of oysters, I dispense as freely as I receive them. I love, to taste them, as it were, upon the tongue of my friend. But a stop must be put somewhere. One would not, like Lear, 'give every thing.' I make my stand upon pig. * * *
"I remember an hypothesis, argued upon by the young students, when I was at St. Omer's, and maintained with much learning and pleasantry on both sides, 'Whether, supposing that the flavour of a pig who obtained his death by whipping (per flagellationem extremam) superadded a pleasure upon the palate of a man more intense than any possible suffering we can conceive in the animal, is man justified in using that method of putting the animal to death V I forget the decision.
"His sauce should be considered. Decidedly, a few bread crumbs, done up with his liver and brains, and a dash of mild sage. But banish, dear-Mrs. Cook, J beseech you, the whole onion tribe. Barbecue your whole hogs to your palate, steep them in shalots, stuff them out with plantations of the rank and guilty garlic; you cannot poison them, or make them stronger than they are—but consider, he is a weakling—a flower.",