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Pletcher, a young girl, who loses her Wit with hopeless love for Palamon— ,
Nothing but 'Willow"', willow! willow 1'
and between Ever was ' Palamon, fair Palamon y "
Herrick thus addresses the willow-tree:
• Thou art to all lost love the best,
The only true plant found;
Jj When once the lover's rose is dead,
*' When with neglect, the lover's bane, ]
"And underneath thy cooling shade,
This poet has some lines addressed to !i willow garland also :—
"A willow garland thou didst send
* Perfumed, last day, to me; Which did but only this portend, )
I was forsook by thee.
"Since it is so, Ill tell thee what;
*' As beasts unto the altars go
With garlands dressed, so I
r The willow seems, from the oldest times, to have been dedicated to grief; under them the children of Israel lamented their captivity:—" By the rivers of BabyJon, there we sat down, yea, we wept .-when we remembered Zion: we hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. *
The wicker-baskets made by our forefathers are the subject of an epigram by Martial :-»
. J* From Britain's painted sons I came,
It is worthy to be recollected, that some of the smallest trees known are wil
• The Fialnu,
lows; nay, the smallest tree known, without any exception. The herbaceous willow, saliz herbacea, is seldom higher than three inches, sometimes not more than two; and yet it is in every respect a tree, notwithstanding the name herbaceous, which, as it has been observed, is inappropriate. Dr. Clarke says, in his "Travels in Norway," " We soon recognised some of our old Lapland acquaintances, such as Betula nana, with its minute leaves, like silver pennies; mountain-birch; and the dwarf alpine species of willow: of which half a dozen trees, with all their branches, leaves, flowers, and roots, might be compressed within two of the pages of a lady's pocket-book, without coming into contact with each other. After our return to England, specimens of the salir herbacea were given to Out friends, which, when framed and glazed, had the appearance of miniature drawings. The author, in collecting them for his herbiary, has frequently compressed twenty of these trees between two of the pages of a duodecimo volume." Yet in the great northern forests, Dr. Clarke found a species of willow "that would make a splendid ornament in our English shrubberies, owing to its quick growth, and beautiful appearance. It had much more the appearance of an orange than of a willow-tree, its large luxuriant leaves being of the most vivid green colour, splendidly shining. We believed it to be a variety of talix amygdalina, but it may be a distinct species: it principally flourishes in Westro Bothnia, and we never saw it elsewhere."
So much, and more than is here quoted, respecting the willow, has been gathered by the fair authoress of Sylvan Shetehet.
In conclusion, be it observed, that the common willow is in common lan-u.^; sometimes called the sallow, and code that name it is mentioned by Chaucer:—
"Whoso buildcth his hous all of i
He is worthy to be bonged on
r His name stands in the church of England calendar. He suffered martyrdom at Rome, under Valerian. Mr. Audley relates of St. Lawrence, "that being peculiarly obnoxious, the order for his punishment was,' Bring out the grate of iron; and when it is red hot, on with him, roast him, broil him, turn him t upon pain of our high displeasure, do every man his office, O ye tormentors' These orders were obeyed, and after Lawrence had been pressed down with fire-forks for a long time, he said to the tyrant,' This side is now roasted enough; O tyrant, do you think roasted meat or raw the best V Soon after he had said this he expired. The church of St. Lawrence Jewry, in London, is dedicated to him, and has a gridiron on the steeple for a vane, that being 'generally supposed the instrument of his torture. The ingenious Mr. Robinson, in his ' Ecclesiastical Researches,' speaking about this saint, says, 'PhilipII, of Spain, having won a battle on the 10th of August, the festival of St. Lawrence, Towedto consecrate aPALACE,aCnuRcn, and a Monastery to his honour. He did erect the Escurial, which is the largest palace in Europe. This immense quarry consists of several courts and quadrangles, all disposed in the shape of a Gridiron. The bare form several jcourts; and the Royal Family occupy the Handle.' 'Gridirons,' says one, who examined it,' are met with in every part of the building. There are sculptured .gridirons, iron gridirons, painted gridirons, marble gridirons, 8cc. &c. There are gridirons over the doors, gridirons in the yards, gridirons in the windows, gridirons in the galleries. Never was an instrument of martyrdom so multiplied, so honoured, so celebrated: and thus much for gridirons.' "*
'On the 10th of August, 1575, Peter Bales, one of our earliest and most eminent writing-masters, finished a performance which contained the Lord's prayer, the'jcreee, the decalogue, with two short prayers in Latin, his own name, motto, the day of the month, year of our Lord, and reign of the queen, (Elizabeth,) to whom he afterwards presented it at Hampton-court, all within the circle of
to the Almanac,
a single penny, enchased in a ring with borders of gold, and covered with a crystal, so accurately wrought, as to be plainly legible, to the great admiration of her majesty, her ministers, and several ambassadors at court.
. In 1590, Bales kept a school at the upper end of the Old Bailey, and the same year published his "Writing School- Master." In 1595, he had a trial of skill in writing with a Mr. Daniel (David) Johnson, for a "golden pen" of £20. value, and won it. Upon this victory, his contemporary and rival in penmanship, John Davies, made a satirical, illnatured epigram, intimating that penury continually compelled Bales to remove himself and »is " golden pen," to elude the pursuit of his creditors. The particulars of the contest for the pen, supposed1 to be written by Bales himself, are in the British Museum, dated January 1,1596. | So much concerning Peter Bales is derived from the late Mr. Butler's " Chro» nological Exercises," an excellent arrangement of biographical, historical, and miscellaneous facts for the daily use of young ladies.
Peter Bales according" to Mr. D* Israeli, " astonished the eyes of beholders by showing them what they could not see." He cites a narrative, among the Harleian MSS., of " a rare piece of work brought to pass by Peter Bales, an Englishman, and a clerk of the chancery." JVIr. DTsraeli presumes this to have been the whole bible, "in an Englishwalnut no bigger than a hen's egg. The nut holdeth the book: there are as many leaves in his little book as the great bible, and he hath written as much in one of his little leaves, as a great leaf of the bible." This wonderfully unreadable copy of the bible was "seen by many thousands."
Peter Huet, the celebrated bishop of Avranches, long doubted the story of an ■eminent writing-master having comprised "the Iliad in a nut-shell," but, after trifling half an hour in examining the matter, he thought it possible. One day, in company at the dauphin's, with a piece of paper and a common pen, he demonstrated, that a piece of vellum, about ten inches in length, and eight in width, pliant and firm, can be folded up and enclosed in the shell of a large walnut; that in breadth it can contain one line of thirty verses, perfectly written with a •«iow-quill, ana in length two hundred and fifty lines; that one side will then contain seven thousand five hundred verses, the other side as much, and that therefore the piece of vellum will hold the whole fifteen thousand verses of the Iliad.
The writing match between Peter Bales and David Johnson, mentioned by Mr. Butler, " was only traditionally known, till, with my own eyes," says Mr. D' Israeli, " I pondered on this whole trial of skill in the precious manuscript of the champion himself; who, like Caesar, not only knew how to win victories, but also to record them." Johnson for a whole year gave a public challenge, "To any one who should take exceptions to this my writing and teaching." Bales was magnanimously silent, till he discovered that since this challenge was proclaimed, he " was doing much less in writing and teaching." Bales then sent forth a challenge, "To all Englishmen and strangers," to write for a gold pen of twenty pounds value, in all kinds of hands, "best, straightest, and fastest," and most kind of ways; "a full, a mean, a small, with line and without line; in a slow-set hand, a mean facile hand, and a fast running hand;" and further, " to write truest and speediest, most secretary and clerk-like, from a man's mouth, reading or pronouncing, either English or Latin." Within an hour, Johnson, though a young friend of Bales, accepted the challenge, and accused the veteran of arrogance. "Such an absolute challenge," says he, "was never witnessed by man, without exception of any in the world 1" Johnson, a few days after, met Bales, and showed him a piece of " secretary's hand," which he had written on fine parchment, and said, "Mr. Bales, give me one shilling out of your purse, and, if within six months you better or equal this piece of writing, I will give you forty pounds for it." Bales accepted the shilling, and the parties were thereby bound over to the trial of skill. The day before it took place, a printed paper posted through the city taunted Bales's "proud poverty," and his pecuniary motives as " ungentle, base, and mercenary, not answerable to the dignity of the golden pen!" Johnson declared that he would maintain his challenge for a thousand pounds more, but that Bales was unable to make good a thousand groats. Bales retorted by affirming the paper a sign of his rival's weakness," yet who so bold," says Bales, "as blind Bayard, that hath not a word
of Latin to cast at a dog, or say"' BoI' to a goose 1" The goose was mentioned, perhaps, in allusion to Michaelmas-day, 1595, when the trial commenced before five judges; an "ancient gentleman" was intrusted with "the^ golden pen." The first trial was for the manner of teaching scholars; this terminated in favour of Bales. The second, for secretary and clerk-like writing, dictated in English and in Latin, was also awarded to Bales; Johnson confessing that he wanted the Latin tongue, and was no clerk. On the third and last trial, for fair writing in sundry kinds of hands, Johnson prevailed in beauty and most "authentic proportion," and for superior variety of the Roman hand; but in court-hand, and set-text, Bales exceeded, and in bastard secretary was somewhat perfecter than Johnson. For a finishing blow, Bales drew forth his " masterpiece," and, offering to forego his previous advantages if Johnson could better this specimen, his antagonist was struck dumb. In compassion to the youth of Johnson, some of the judges urged the others not to give judgment in public. Bale3 remonstrated against a private decision in vain, but he obtained the verdict and secured the prize. Johnson, however, reported that he had won the golden pen, and issued an " Appeal to all impartial Penmen," wherein he affirmed, that the judges, though his own friends, and honest gentlemen, were unskilled in judging of most hands, and again offered forty pounds to be allowed six months to equal Bales's "masterpiece." Finally, he alleged, that the judges did not deny that Bales possessed himself of the golden pen by a trick: he relates, that Bales having pretended that his wife was in extreme sickness, he desired that she might have a sight of the golden pen, to comfort her, that the " ancient gentleman," relying upon the kind husband's word, allowed the golden pen to be carried to her, and that thereupon Bales immediately pawned it, and afterwards, to make sure work, sold it at a great loss, so that the judges, ashamed of their own conduct, were compelled to give such a verdict as suited the occasionBales rejoined, by publishing to the universe the day and hour when the judges brought the golden pen to his house, and painted it with a hand over his door for ■■ sign.- This is shortly 'the history of a
"Few men rightly temper with the stars."—Shahpeart.'
Flamsteed was the first astronomer- ground plan of the Observatory. On the
royal, and from him the Observatory at following, being the fourth page, is a list
Greenwich derives its popular name, of "Angles, betwixt eminent places ob
t* Flamsteed-house." His Scheme of served with the sextant in the months of
the .Heavens,'' may be found there in a February and March, 1679—80." There
folio vellum-bound manuscript on the mainder of the book consists of about one
second page. Opposite to it, also drawn hundred and seventy pages of" Observa
-by himself, with great exactness, and tions," also in Flamsteed's hand-writing,
signed by his own name within it, is a Whatever astrological judgment he may
have exercised upon the positions of the stars in his horoscope, he has not left his opinion in writing; but the circumstance of his having been at some pains to ascertain and set them down among his other" Observations," may be taken as presumptive that this.great astronomer practised astrology.
In another folio manuscript in calf binding, containing also one hundred and thirty-two pages of his "Observations," there is a document of more general importance; namely, a series of notices or memoranda also in his own hand-writing of circumstances in his life which he deemed most worthy of committing to paper. The most curious portion of this labour relates to a difference which is well known to have existed between himself, and sir
Isaac Newton. The whole of these: moirs, with the astrological scheme, a scientific gentleman was permitted by Dr. Maskelyne, the late astronomer-royal, to transcribe from the-MSS. at the Observatory. Until now, they have been unprinted, and having been obligingly communicated to the Editor of the Every-Dutf Book, the latter conceives that the public will be gratified by their perusal, and therefore, preserves them in the pages of this work without comment. Without, any view of detracting sir Isaac Newton or Mr. Flamsleed, by their publication, he offers the singular statements as Flamsteed * wrote them. His birth is stated at their commencement; he died at Greenwich, on the 31st of December, 1719.
I was borne At Denby, 5 miles from Derby, August 19, 1646—my father having removed his family thither because the Sickness was then in Derby.
Educated in the free school at Derby till 16 years old.
i At 14 years of Age 1660, Got a great cold—was followed by 5 years sickness— a Consumption.
Recovered, by God's blessing, on a journey into Ireland 1665, in the months of August and Sept.
I Began to study Mathematics in 1662. The first book I read was Sacrobiisco de Sphaera, which I turned into English.
In 1665 Calculated Eclipses and the
Ssanets, places from Street's Caroline ta» es, and wrote my Treatise of the aqua- on of Days.
In 1666 observed the Eclipse of ye Sun.
In 1669 observed a Solar Eclipse and some appulses, and presented the predictions of more for the year 1670 to the R»S. * this brought on a Correspondence with Mr. Oldenburg—Collins.
Mr. Oldenburg's first letter to me is dated Jan. 14.1669—70^
Mr. Collins 2° Feb. 3. 1669—70.
My Predn. of Appulses 1670, printed in y* Ph. Tr. No. 55 for Jan. 1669—70.
Mr. N's.f The. of light and Colors, 80. Feb. 19.1671—2. * I was in London after Whitsuntide 1670; came acquainted with Sir. Jo.
Moor; bought telescope glasses, and had Mr. Townly's Micrometer presented to me by Sir Jonas Moor.
Set a Pole up to raise my glasses, March 21, 1671, at Derby.
Began to measure distances in the heavens, Octo. 17, 1672.
Continued them there till Jan. 167,.
1<572^ Sept. Observed <J—deduced his parellax from the Observations = to his diameter.
1674. May the 2d. came to London.
29, went to Cambridge. . j
June the 5th. My degree.
July 13, returned to London. f.
Aug. 13^ left London.
29, Got to Derby.
1674. First acquaintance with Sir T.N. at Cambridge, occasioned by my fixing there the Microscope, which he could not; the object glass being forgot by him.
1675. feb. 2. Came to London Again. Mar. 4. Warrant for my SallarY.
Sieur de St. Pies proposes to find the Longitude by Observations of the T>. * • * Letters hereon.*
1675. June 22. Warrant dated foe building the Royl. Observatory.
$ August 10. foundation lard. "
1676. July 10. entred into it to inhabit wUl T. Smith, and Cutler Denton Servant.
Sept. 19. began to measure distances in the heavens wll> the sextant.
76. Sir Jonas Moor gave me the s*xtant, some books, and glasses, with <