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seeing this word at the head of the month of August, converted it to their own purpose." They made out of it the feast of the daughter of the tribune Quirinus, who they pretend was cured of a disorder in the throat, (Gula,)by kissing the chain of St. Peter on the day of its festival. Foreing the Gule of the Egyptians into the throat of the tribune's daughter, they instituted a festival to Gule upon the festival-day of St J Peter ad Vinculo
Lammas-day. So stands the first of August in our English almanacs, and so it stands in the printed Saxon Chronicle. "Antiquaries," says Brand, " are divided in their ©pinions concerning the origin of Laman<w-Day; some derive it from LambMass, because on that day the tenants •who held lands under the cathedral church in York, which is dedicated to St. Peter ad Vincula, were bound by their tenure to bring a live lamb into the church at high mass: others derive it from a supposed offering or tything of lambs at this time." Various other derivations have been imagined. Blount, the glossographer, says, that Lammas is called Hlaf-Mass, that is' Loaf-Mass, or Bread-Mass, which signifies a feast of thanksgiving for the first fruits of the corn. It was observed with bread of new wheat, and in some places tenants are bound to bring new wheat to their lord, on, or before, the first of August. New wheat is called LammasWheat. Vallancey affirms that this day Mas dedicated, in Ireland, to the sacrifice of the fruits of the soil; that La-ith-mas the day of the obligation of grain, is pronounced La-ee-mas, a word readily corrupted to Lammas; that ith, signifies all kinds of grain, particularly wheat, and that mat signifies fruit of all kinds, especially the acorn, whence the word mast.* From these explications may easily be derived the reasonable meaning of the word Lammas.
Juliet, Capulet, And Petracii. [ To the Editor of the Every-Day Booh. Sir,
As in your little calendar of worthy observances you sometimes notice the birthdays of those whom we most desire, and who most deserve to be remembered, and as I am one, who like yourself, am
unwilling any thing should be forgotten, <yr trodden down under the feet of thoughtless and passing generations, that has pleasant speculation in it, pray remember that on the first day of August, Francisco Petrarca was born.—But remember also, that on that same day, in 1578, was born our Juliet Capulet. "On Limmas eve at night shall she be fourteen. That shall she, marry; I remember it well. Tis since the earthquake now eleven
an' she was weaned." Shakspeare's characters, as we all know, be they of what country or of what age they may, speak as an Englishman would have dooe in his own times, and the earthquake here referred to was felt in 1580. That Julief, our Juliet, should have been born on the very same day as Petrarch was certainly accidental; yet it is a coincidence worth observing; and if a calendar of birthdays be to recall pleasant recollections, over "ourchirping cups," why may not Juliet be remembered, and her sweetly poetical existence be associated with the reality of Petrarca's life. And where is the difference 1 Petrarca is,
-nor hand nor foot
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
And what are all the great men that have ever lived but such mocking names Montaigne, who translated a theological work by Raimondi di Sibondi, on being told by some learned friend that he suspected it was but an abstract of St. Thomas of Aquin, says " 'tis a pity to roi Sibondi of hit honours on such slight authority :"—what honours ? when are they offered? to whom? it is not known that such a man ever had existence 1 Not love, nor reverence, nor idolatrous admiration can stay the progress of oblivion: the grave shuts us out for ever from our fellows, and our generation is the limit of our personal and real existence :—mind only is immortal. Francisco Petrarca •was dead, and buried, and forgotten, five hundred years ago: he is now no more in reality than Juliet; nay, to myself, not so much so. The witches m Macbeth, though pure creations, have more of flesh and blood reality, are more familiar to [the thoughts of nil, than the Lancashire witches that lived cotempcrary with the poet, and suffered death from the superstition of the age. There have been many Shakspeares, we know but one; that one indeed, fromassociation
and recollection, has a real character in our minds, and a real presence in our hearts:—have we neither association nor recollection with the name Juliet Capulet?
Stramony. Datura Stramonium.'
St. Stephen, Pope, A. D. Mr. St. Etheldritha, or Alfrida. A. D. 834.
Tiger Lily. Li Hum tigrinum.
The Invention of St. Stephen, or the dis, covery of his relics, A. D.' 415. St.
Nicodemut. St. Gamaliel, A. D, 415.
St. Walthen, or IValtheof, A. D. 1160.
Holyhock. Althea roiea. Dedicated to The Invention of St. Ste. , phen't Relict. ,
St. Dominic, Confessor, founder of the friar preachers, A. D. 1221. St. Luantu, or Lugid, or Molua, of Ireland, A. D. 622.
Chronology. 'Holinshed records, that in the year 1577," on Sundaie the fourth of August, betweene the houres of nine and ten of the clocke in the forenone, whitest the minister was reading of the second lesson in the parish church of Bliborough, a towne in Suflblke, a strange and terrible tempest of lightening and thunder strake thorough the wall of the same church into the ground almost a yard deep, draue downe all the people on that side aboue twentie persons, then renting the wall up to the veustre, cleft the doore, and returning to the steeple, rent the timber, brake the chimes, and fled towards Bongie, a towne six miles off. The people that ■were striken downe were found groueling more than halfe an houre after, whereof one man more than fortie yeares, and a boie^of fifteene yeares, old were found starke dead; the other were scorched.
The same or the like flash of lightening-' and cracks of thunder rent the parish church of Bongie, nine miles from Norwich, wroong in sunder the wiers and; wheels of the clocks, slue two men which: sat in the belfreie, when the other were at the procession or suffrages, and scorched an other which hardlie escaped."
This damage by lightning to the church of Bungay, in Suffolk, is most curiously narrated in an old tract, entitled "A straunge and terrible Wunder wrought very late in the parish Church of Bongay, a Town of no great distance from the citie of Norwich, namely the fourth'of this August in y" yeere of our Lord, 1577, in a great tempest of violent raine, lightning, and thunder, the like whereof hath been seldome seene. With the appear ance of an horrible shaped thing, sensibly perceiued of the people then and there assembled. Drawen into a plain method, according to the written copy, by Abraham Fleming."
Mr. Rodd, bookseller, in Great Newport-street, Leicester-square, well known to collectors by his catalogues and collections of rare and curious works, has reprinted this tract, and says, on the authority of Newcourt's "Repertorium," vol i., p. 519, wherein he is corroborated by Antony Wood, in his " Athens Oxoniensis ;* that of the narrator, Abraham Fleming, nothing more is known than that he was rector of St. Pancras, Soper-lane, from October, 1593, till 1607, in which year he died. "He was probably," says Mr. Rodd, "a schoolmaster, as his almost literal translation of 'Virgil's Pastorals' into English metre without rhime, and his edition of' Withall's Dictionary,' were intended for the use of beginners in Latin. From his numerous writings and translations, (a list of which may be seen in Ames, Tanner, &c.,) he appears to have been an industrious author, and most prcr bably subsisted on the labours of his pen/'
In a monitory preface, well befitting the context, Abraham Fleming says, "The order of the thing as I receiued the sae I have committed to paper, for the present viewe and perusing of those that are disposed. It is grounded uppon trueth, and therefore not only worthie the writing and publishing, but also the hearing and considering." He then proceeds to " reporte" his " strange and wonderful spectacle," in these words:—
u Sunday, being the fourth of this Att« gust, in y» year of our Lord, 1577, to the amazing and singular astonishment of the present beholders, and absent hearers, at a certein towne called Bongay, not past tenne miles distant from the citie of Norw iclie, there fell from heaven an exceeding great and terrible tempest, sodein and violent, between nine of the clock in the morning and tenne of the day aforesaid.
"This tempest took beginning with a rain, which fel with a wonderful force and with no lesse violence then abundance, which made the storme so much the more extream and terrible.
"This tempest was not simply of rain, but also of lightning and thunder, the flashing of the one whereof was so rare and vehement, and the roaring noise of the other so forceable and violent, that it made not only people perplexed in minds and at their wits end, but ministred such strange and unaccustomed cause of feare to be conceived, that dumb creatures with yt horrour of that which fortuned, were exceedingly disquieted, and senseJesse things void of all life and feeling, shook and trembled.
"There were assembled at the same season, to hear divine service and common prayer, according to order, in the parish church of the said towne of Bongay, the people thereabouts inhabiting, who were witnesses of the straungenes, the rareness and sodenesse of the storm, consisting of raine violently falling, fearful flashes of lightning, and terrible cracks of thunder, which came with such unwonted force and power, that to the perceiving of the people, at the time and in the place aboue named, assembled, the church did as it were quake and stagger, which struck into the harts of those that were present, such a sore and sodain feare, that they were in a manner robbed of their right wits.
"Immediately hereupo, there appeared in a most horrible similitude and likenesse to the congregation then and there present, a dog as they might discerne it, of a black colour; at the sight whereof, together with the fearful flashes of fire which then were seene, moved such admiration in the mindes of the assemblie, that they thought dooraes day.was already come.
"This black dog, or the divel in such a likenesse (God hee knoweth al who worketh all,) runing all along down the body of the church with great swiftnesse, and incredible haste, among the people,
in a visible fourm and shape, passed be* tween two persons, as they were kneeling uppon their knees, and occupied in prayer as it seemed, wrung the necks of them bothe at one instant clene backward, in somuch that even at a moment where they kneeled, they stragely dyed, ,
"This is a wonderful example of God's wrath, no doubt to terrifie us, that we might feare him for his iustice, or pulling back our footsteps from the pathes of sinne, to love him for his mercy.'
"To our matter again. There was at ye same time another wonder wrought: for the same black dog, stil continuing and remaining in one and the self same shape, passing by an other man of the congregation in the church, gave him such a gripe on the back, that therwith all he was presently drawen togither and shrunk up, as it were a peece of either scorched in a hot fire; or as the mouth of a purse or bag, drawen togither with a string. The man, albeit hee was in so strange a taking, dyed not, but as if is thought is yet alive: whiche thing is mervelous in the eyes of men, and offereth much matter of amassing the minde.
"Moreouer, and beside this, the dark of the said church beeing occupied in cleansing of the gutter of the church, with a violent clap of thunder was smitten downe, and beside his fall had no further harme: unto whom beeing all amazed this straunge shape, whereof we have be* fore spoken,appeared, howbeit he escaped without daunger : which might peradventure seem to sound against truth, and to be a thing incredible: but, let us leave thus or thus to iudge, and cry out with the prophet, O Doming, &c.—O Lord, how wonderful art thou in thy woorks.
"At the time that these things in this order happened, the rector, or curate of the church, beeing partaker of the people's peiplexitie, seeing what was seen, and done, comforted the people, and exhorted them to prayer, whose counsell, is such, extreme distresse they followed, and prayed to God as they were assembled togither.
"Now for the verifying of this report, (which to sue wil seem absurd, although the sensiblenesse of the thing it self com firmeth it to be a truth,) as testimonies and witnesses of the force which rested u this straunge shaped thing, there are remaining in the stones of the church, sx*d likewise in the church dore which ar= mervelously re ten and tome, yc 1
it were of hi* clawes or talent. " Beside,r that all the wires, the wheeles, and other things belonging to the clock, were, wrung in sunder, and broken in pieces.
"And (which I should haue tolde you in the beginning of this report, if I had regarded the observing of order,) at the time that this tempest lasted, and while these stormes endured, ye whole church was so darkened, yea with such a palpable darknesse, that one persone could not perceive another, neither yet might discern any light at all though it were lesser the the least, but onely when ye great flashing of fire and lightning appeared.
"These things are not lightly with si* lence to be over passed, but precisely and throughly to be considered.
"On the self same day, in like manner, into the parish ^hurch of another towne called Blibery, not above sev8 miles distant from Bongay above said, the like thing entred, in the same shape and similitude, where placing himself uppon a maine balke or beam, whereon some r Rood did stand, sod airily he gave a swinge downe through P church, and there also, as before, slew two men and a lad, and burned the hand of another person that was there among the rest of the company, of whom divers were blasted.
"This mischief thus wrought, he flew ■with wonderful force to no little feare of the assembly, out of the church in a hideous and hellish likenes."
For" " a necessary prayer," and other particulars concerning this " straunge and terrible wunder," which was " Imprinted at London, by Frauncis Godly, dwelling at the West End of Paules," the curious reader may consult Mr. Rodd's verbatim reprint of the tract itself, which is a " rare distortion of a thunder storm with lightning, well worthy to be possessed by collectors of the marvellous untruths with which Abraham Fleming's age abounded.
1825. This day at the Northumberland assizes, James Coates, aged twentytwo, and John Blakie, aged sixteen, were found guilty of robbing Thomas Hindmarch of his watch, on Sunday, the 20th of March last. It appeared that Hindmareh, who lived at Howden Panns near Shields, had been at Newcastle on Carling Sunday, a day so called, because it is the custom of the lower orders in the north of England to eat immense quantities of small peas, called castings, fried in butter, pep
per, and salt, on the second' Sunday before Easter, ■ and that on his way homer about half-past ten at night his watch was snatched from him. The circumstance is noticed as an instance of the practice of keeping CareSunday at the present time.
Blue Bells. Campanula rotundifoHa. J Dedicated to St. Dominic.
The Dedication of St. Mary ad Nivet. St. Oswald, king. St. Afra, and Companions, A. D. 304. St. Memmhtt, or Menge, Bp. A. D. 290.
An Every-Day Complaint.
In the " London Chronicle" of the 5th of August, 1758, there is an,advertisement from a sufferer under a disease of such a nature that, though the cure is simple, a description of the various afflictions and modes of relief peculiar to the progress of the disorder would fill many volumes. To guard the young wholly against it is impossible; for like the small pox, every one must expect to have it once, and when it is taken in the natural way, and if the remedy is at hand, and the patient follows good advice, recovery speedily follows. The advertisement alluded to runs thus:—
A YOUNG LADY who was at
Vauxhall on Thursday night last, in company with two gentlemen, could not but observe a young gentleman in blue and a gold-laced hat, who, being near her by tho orchestra during the performance, especially the last song, gazed upon her with the utmost attention. He earnestly hopes (if unmarried) she will favour him with a line directed to A. D. at the bar of the Temple Exchange ColTee-honse, Temple-bar, to inform him whether fortune, family, and character, may not entitle him upon a further knowledge, to hope an interest in her heart. He begs she will pardon the method he has taken to let her know the situation of his mind, as, being a stranger, he despaired of doing it any other way, or even of seeing her more. As his views are founded upon the most honourable princi
files, he presumes to hope the occasion will justify it, if she generously breaks through this trifling formality of the sex, rather than, by a cruel silence, render unhappy one, who must ever expect to continue so, if debarred from a nearer acquaintance with her, in whose power alone it is to complete his felicity.
Egyptian Water Lily. Nelumbo Nilotlca.
The Trantfiguration of our Lord. St. Xyttut, or Sixtut II., Pope and Martyr. Stt. Justin and Potior, A. D. 304.
Trantfiguration. This, which stands in the English almanacs on the present day, is the name of a popish festival, in celebration of the
florified appearance of Christ on mount abor.
Meadow Saffron. Colchicum autumnale.
St. Cajetan/\. D. 1547. St. Donalut,
Name of Jetu*. 1
There is no satisfactory reason for this nomination of the present day in our almanacs.
The Princess Amelia.* On the 7th of August, 1783, the priness Amelia, daughter to his late ma
jesty, -was born; and on the 2d of November, 1810, she died at Windsor. Her constitution was delicate, and subject to frequent and severe indisposition. On her death-bed she anxiously desired to present his majesty with a token of her filial duty and affection; himself was suffering under an infirmity, the most appalling and humiliating in our nature, and in that state he approached her death-bed. She placed on his finger a ring containing a small lock of her hair, set beneath a crystal tablet, enclosed by a few sparks of diamonds, and uttered with her dying breath "Remember me 1" The words sunk deep into the paternal heart, and are supposed to have increased a malady in the king, which suspended his exercise of the royal functions, and ended in the extinction of man's noblest faculty.
The princess Amelia's character has hitherto lain in the oblivion of silent merit. The editor of these sheets is enabled to disclose sentiments emanating from her, under circumstances peculiarly affecting. Dignity of station and absence of stain upon her reputation, commanded towards her the respect and sympathy which accident of birth, and abstinence from evil, always command in the public mind: but there are higher claims upon it.
Homage, by rule and precedent prescribed,
To royal daughters from the courtier-ring
Amelia had; and, when she ceased to live,
The herald wrote her death beneath her birth;
And set out arms for scutcheons on her pallt
And saw her buried in official state;
And newspapers and magazines doled out
The common praise of common courtesy;
She was " most" good, " most" virtuous, and—so forth:
Thus, ere the Chamberlain's gazetted order
To mourn, so many days, and then half-mourn,
Had half expired, Amelia was forgotten 1
Unknown by one distinguish'd act, her fate,
The certain fate of undistinguished rank,
Seems only to have been, and died; no more.
Yet shall this little book send down her name,
By her own hand inscribed, as in an album,
With reverence to our posterity.
It will revive her in the minds of those
Who scarce remember that she was; and will'
Enkindle kind affection to her memory,
For worth we knew not in her when she lived;
While some who living, shared her heart, perchance,
May read her sentences with wetted eyes,
And say, " She, being dead, yet speaketh."