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OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN, WITH

RESPECT TO THE UNIVERSE.

ARGUMENT. of man in the abstract.-1. Toat we can judge only with re.

gard to our own system, being ignorant of the relations of systems and things.---2- That man is not to be deemed im. perfect, but a being suited to his place and rank in the creation agreeable to the general order of things, and conformable to ends and relations to him unknown.-3. That it is partly upon bis ignorance of future events, and partly u poji the hope of a future state, that all his happiness in the present depends.-4. The pride of airning at more knowledge, and pretending to inore perfection, the cause of man's error and misery. The impiety of putting himself in the place of God, and judging of the Atness or unfituess, perfection or imperfection, justice or injustice, of his dispensations.-5. The absurdity of couceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or expecting that perfection in the inoral world which is not in the natural..-6. The unreasonableness of his complaints against Providence, while, on the one hand, be demands the perfecs tions of the angels, and, on the other, the bodily qualiticatious of the brutes ; though to possess any of the sensitive faculties in a higher degree would render hinn miserable.-7. 'That throughout the whole visible world au universal order and g adation in the sensual and mental faculties is observed, wbich causes a subordination of creature to creature, and of all creatures to man. The gradations of sense, instinct, thought, reflection, reason: that reason alone countervaiis all the otber faculties.-8. How much further this order and subordination of living creatures may extend above and below us ; were any part of which broken, not that part only, but the whole counected creation, must be destroyed.-9. The extravagance, madness, and pride, of such a desire.-10. The consequence of all, the absolute submission due to Providence, both as to our preseut and future state.

AWAKE, my St. John! leave all meaner things
To low ambition and the pride of kings.

Let us (since life can little more supply
Than just to look about us and to die)
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man;
A mighty maze! but not without a plan;
A wild where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot,
Or garden tempting with forbidden fruit,
Together let us beat this ample field,
Try what they open, what the covert yield;
The latent tracts, the giddy heights, explore
Of all who blindly creep or sightless soar;
Eye nature's walks, shoot folly as it flies,
And catch the manners living as they rise ;
Laugh where we must, be candid where we can,
But vindicate the ways of God to man.

1. Say first, of God above or man below
What can we reason but from what we know?
Of man what see we but his station here,
From which to reason or to which refer?
Through worlds unnumber'd though the God be

known, 'Tis our's to trace him only in our own. He who through vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What varied being peoples every star, May tell why Heaven has made us as we are: But of this frame, the bearings and the ties, The strong connexions, nice dependences, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul Look'd through ; or can a part contain the

whole? Is the great chain that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God or thee?

2. Presumptuous man! the reason wonldst thou Why form’d so weak, so little, and so blind! (find, First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and no less ? Ask of thy mother-earth, why oaks are made Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade! Or ask of yonder argent fields above, Why Jove's satellites are less than Jove!

Of systems possible, if 'tis confess'd That wisdom intinite must form the best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises rise in dne degree; Then in the scale of reasoning life 'tis plain There must be, somewhere, such a rank as man; And all the question (wrangle e'er so long) Is only this,- If God has plac'd him wrong?

Respecting man, whatever wrong we call, May, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, though labour'd on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God's, one single can its end produce, Yet serves to second too some other use : So man, who here seems principal alone, Perbaps acts second to some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal : 'Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. (strains

When the proud steed shall know why man reHis fiery course, or drives him o'er the plains : When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god; Then shall man's pride and dulness comprehend His actions', passions', being's, use and end; Why doing, suffering, check’d, impell’d; and why This hour a slave, the next a deity.

· Then say not man's imperfect, Heaven in fauit,
Say rather man's as perfect as he ought;
His knowledge measur'd to his state and place,
His time a moment, and a point his space.
If to be perfect in a certain sphere,
What matter soon or late, or here or there !
The bless'd to-day is as completely so
As who began a thousand years ago. [fate,

3. Heaven from all creatnres hides the book of
All but the page prescrib'd, their present state:
From brutes wbat men, from men what spirits know;
Or who could suffer being here below?
The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to day,
Had he thy reason would he skip and play?
Pleas'd to the last he crops the flowery food,
And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood.
O blindness to the future! kindly giv'n,
That each may fill the circle mark'd by Heaven;
Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,
A hero perish or a sparrow fall,
Atoms or systems into ruin burl'd,
And now a bubble burst, and now a world.
Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar;
Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore.
What future bliss he gives not thee to know,
But gives that hope to be thy blessing now.
Hope springs eternal in the human breast :
Man never is but always to be bless'd.

The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home,
Rests and expatiates in a life to come.

Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind;
His soul proud science never taught to stray
Far as the solar walk or milky way;

Yet simple nature to his hope has giv'n,
Behind the cloud-top'd bill, an bumbler heav'n;
Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd,
Some happier island in the watery waste,
Wheré slaves once more their native land behold,
No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold.
To be content's his natural desire ;
He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire;
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky,
His faithful dog shall bear him company.
· 4. Go, wiser thou! and in thy scale of sense
Weigh thy opinion against Providence ;
Call imperfection what thou fancy'st such ;
Say here he gives too little, there too much ;
Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,
Yet cry, if man's unhappy, God's unjust;
If man alone engross not Heaven's high care,
Alone made perfect here, immortal there;
Snatch from his hand the balance and the rod,
Rejudge his justice, be the god of God.
In pride, in reasoning pride, our error lies;
All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies.
Pride still is aiming at the bless'd abodes,
Men would be angels, angels would be gods.
Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell,
Aspiring to be angels, men rebel :
And who but wishes to invert the laws
Of order, sins against the Eternal cause.

5. Ask for what end the heavenly bodies shine,
Earth for whose use ?---Pride answers,“'Tis for mine:
For me kind Nature wakes her genial power,
Suckles each herb and spreads out every flower;
Annual for me the grape, the rose, renew
The juice nectareous and the balmy dew;

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