Elementary Treatise on Steam and Locomotion: Based on the Principle of Connecting Science with Practice, in a Popular Form. With Illustrations

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John Weale, 1852 - 324 страници
 

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Страница 62 - ... of perfect combustion are — Steam, invisible and incombustible. Carbonic acid, invisible and incombustible. The products of imperfect combustion are — Carbonic oxide, invisible but combustible. Smoke, partly invisible and partly incombustible. Steam is formed from the hydrogen gas given out by the coals combining with its equivalent of oxygen from the air, in the ratio of 2 volumes of hydrogen to 1 of oxygen, or by weight as 1 to 8, as already explained. Carbonic acid is formed from the carbon...
Страница 243 - Locomotive, 1688. cock, is mounted " upon little wheels, so as to move easily upon a horizontal plane ; and if the hole be opened, the vapours will rush out violently one way, and the wheels and the ball at the same time will be carried the contrary way.
Страница 218 - Aboads : that so we may instruct Our Ship, you to your Country to conduct ; We use nor Helm nor Helms-man. Our tall ships Have Souls, and plow with Reason up the deeps. All Cities, Countries know, and where they list, Through Billows glide veiled in obscuring Mist ; Nor fear they Hocks, nor Dangers on the way...
Страница 50 - ... 1'279 cubic feet of air 1° per minute, when it is in contact with the glass. Reflecting Power. The reflecting power of different bodies is generally estimated as being inversely as the radiating power, so that if brass reflects 100 parts of heat, silver would reflect 90, and with these others as they stand below. Brass 100 Silver 90 Tinfoil 85 Block tin 80 Steel 70 Lead 60 Tinfoil, softened by mercury 10 Glass 10 Glass, coated with wax 5 Specific Heat. The specific heat, or the comparative capacity...
Страница 293 - Even this mediation of England's great naval captain failed to secure Bell any better treatment than had been meted out to Savary. The machinery was taken out, and the boat sold. Another application in 1803 shared no better fate, and in 1812 Mr. Bell constructed the Comet, steamboat of 25 tons, worked by an engine of about three horse-power, which realised about five miles per hour on the Clyde. As soon as Mr. Bell had overcome popular prejudice and obtained passengers, powerful companies started...
Страница 59 - Sauchie coal-mine, and put out a fire of about 26 acres area and 30 years' duration. Carbonic Oxide. This is a colourless, transparent, combustible gas, which burns with a pale blue flame, as may be seen at times on opening a locomotive fire-box door. Its presence in a furnace is evidence of imperfect combustion, from a deficient supply of air, as it indicates that only 8 parts of oxygen instead of 16 parts have united with 6 parts of carbon. As much more is required to produce complete combustion...
Страница 48 - ... less than that of polished cast silver. It has been considered that, at the same temperature, the radiating and absorbing power of bodies are equal. Much of the comparative economy of steam boilers depends upon their absorbing power ; for no matter how ably the furnace performs its duty, if the heat given off from the fuel cannot be taken up as rapidly as it is produced, then of course waste exists. The rapidity of production of heat in a locomotive furnace is not favourable for the entire absorption...
Страница 14 - To find the area of a segment of a circle. Rule. — Divide the height, or versed sine, by the diameter of the circle, and find the quotient in the column of versed sines.
Страница 58 - When combustion takes place, the carbon of the fuel unites with the oxygen of the air to form carbon (COo) — and this reaction generates heat.
Страница 53 - ... more important features. A coal, for instance, thrown on a fire, evolves, amongst others, the two principal combustibles of carbon and hydrogen, which, uniting with the oxygen of the air, an incombustible yet a necessary supporter of a fire, produces heat and light at the same time. Simple as this may appear, its analysis is yet a complicated chemical problem. The chief agents operating in the furnace, are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and their union in certain proportions produces other bodies,...

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