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THE

INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES, ETC.,

OF THE

SOUTHERN AND WESTERN STATES:

EMBRACING A VIEW OF THEIR

COMMERCE, AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS,

SLAVE AND FREE LABOR, SLAVERY INSTITUTIONS,

PRODUCTS, ETC., OF THE SOUTH,

Together with

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL SKETCIIES OF THE DIFFERENT STATES AND CITIES OF

THE UNION-STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES, FROM THE EARLIEST PERIODS, COMPARED WITH OTHER LEADING POWERS-THE RESULTS OF THE DIFFERENT CENSUS RETURNS SINCE 1790, AND RETURNS OF THE CENSUS OF 1850, ON POPULATION, AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL INDUSTRY, ETC.,

WITH AN APPENDIX.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. III.

BY J. D. B. DE BOW,

PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, ETC., IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA.

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF DE BOW'S REVIEW,

MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE, NEW-ORLEANS;
167 BROADWAY, New-York; AND East BAY AND BROAD STREETS, CHARLESTON.

1853.

Eru Win

The two opening papers in the volume, upon Southern Direct Trade and Commerce, are from the pen of Lieut. M. F. Maury; the one on Southern Industry is by Gov. Hammond; those on the Future of the South and Southern Industry are by Thos. P. Kettell; The South's Position in the Union was contributed by Dr. Cartwright; South, How Affected by her Slave Institutions, by D. J. McCord ; South, Value of Life in, by Dr. J. C. Nott; South Carolina Capabilities, Gov. Seabrook ; the two papers on Sugar, pp. 195, 207, are by J. P. Benjamin ; that on Turpentine, page 350, by Edwin Heriot; on United States Immigration, by J. B. Auld; on Virginia, by R. G. Barnwell.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by J. D. B. De Bow, in the Clerk's Office

of the District Court of the United States.

INDEX TO VOL. III.

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111

UNIUNIUM.........

123

SOUTHERN DIRECT FOREIGN TRADE, by Lieut. Maury....

SOUTHERN COMMERCE-Its Extension

ea,....

SOUTHERN INDUSTRY-Progress of; Prospects of Cotton Interests, Position of South

Carolina, Influence of Mechanic Arts and Manufactures, What the South is Capable of in Cot-

ton Manufactures, Labor at the South, Facilities for Steam and Water Power; Employment

for the Poorer Classes, Etc...

SOUTH-Future of,.......

SOUTHERN INDUSTRY......

SOUTH-Position in the Union-Emancipation, Abolition, Natural Law of Slavery, Physical

Characteristics of Negroes, Fatal Results of Substituting White Labor for Black at the

South.............

.......... 53

SOUTH-How Affected by her Slave Institutions-Slavery at the South, and the Elements of

Character and Civilization it Developes on British Authority, and how they Compare with

those of the North,.....

SOUTH AND THE UNION-Resources and Wealth of the South, and What she has Con-

tributed to the Growth of the Nation........

BOUTHERN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION...

SOUTH-Value of Life in.......

SOUTHERN COMMERCIAL CONVENTION-Resolutions...................

Report of R. Y, Hayne............

i of Geo. McDuffie...

1 of F. Elmore...

SOUTHERN DIRECT TRADE TO THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE.....

117

SOUTHERN FOREIGN COMMERCE

119

SOUTHERN COMMERCIAL RESOURCES COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE

NORTH.........

120

SOUTH AND THE NORTH...

SOUTH-Her mode of Convincing the North on the Slave Question.........

123

SOUTHERN WEALTH......

SOUTHERN RESOURCES....

124

SOUTH-Tonnage Slave and Free States....

125

SOUTH-Public Domain of....

126

SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE REVOLUTION....

127

MEXICAN WAR...

128

SLAVES-See Negroes.

- SLAVES-Fugitive at the North .....

128

SLAVES-Dangers which Environ Slavery in the Union.......................

130

* SLAVERY NORTH AND SOUTH.....

130

- SLAVE TRADE.....

SLAVE TRADE OF AFRICA.

133

SOUTH CAROLINA--Minerals, Etc....

134

SOUTH CAROLINA-Statistics—(See Charleston)......

135

SOUTH CAROLINA..Agricultural and Physical Capabilities, Territory, Climate, Soil, Navi-

gation. Health, Minerals. Manures, Products, Etc.....

136

SAVANNAH, GEORGIA,...

.. 139

SAVANNAH-Commerce...

144

SAVANNAH-Statistics of...

.. 145

ST. LOUIS--Commercial Advantages of.

145

ST. LOUIS, AND THE PROSPECTS OF MISSOURI, (See Missouri)......

146

ST. LOUIS--Hist

.. 149

ST. LOUIS-Statistics of and Commerce............

151

STEAMSHIPS-Prospectus for Establishing a Line of Propeller Steamers between New-Or.

leans and Liverpool...

STEAM BOILER EXPLOSIONS....

.. 153

STEAMBOAT DISASTERS IN THE WEST....

.. 155

STATISTICS-Science of....

.. 157

STATISTICAL BUREAUS IN THE STATES...

.. 157

SILK AND SILK CULTURE-Origin, Early History, Progress-Manufacture, Silk in the

United States; Advantages of the South for the Silk Industry; Communications from Practi.

cal Nen, Etc....

160

SHEEP HUSBANDRY IN THE SOUTHERN STATES, by Ely .................... 188

SUGAR--Cultivation and Manufacture of...

195

SUGAR-Mannfacture. Etc..

• SUGAR MANUFACTURE-Crystallization of Sugar-Chemical and other Doctrines of

Sugar..........:::::

SUGAR-Its Cultivation. Manufacture and Commerce-Vegetable Principles, Properties of

Cane Sugar, Molasses, Treacle, Cane Juice, Saccharine Matter, Analysis of Sugar Cane, Varie-

ties of Sugar Mills, Etc.......

tc...........................................

266

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SUGAR CANE-Extracts from a Memoir on the Structure and Composition of the Sugar

Cane, by M. Payen....

262

SUGAR CANE CULTURE ON THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ESTATES...

SUGAR PLANTERS-Notes for..

269

SUGAR INDUSTRY OF LOUISIANA....

275

SUGAR OF FLORIDA........

276

SUGAR-Production and History.

277

SUGAR-The Early History of...

282

SUGAR CULTURE IN TEXAS.

284

SUGAR OF LOUISIANA......

285

SUGAR CROP OF LOUISIANA.

286

SUGAR TRADE OF UNITED STATES...

288

SUGAR-Imports of......

289

SUGAR MANUFACTURE IN LOUISIANA....

290

SUGAR CULTURE IN THE EAST INDIES....

299

SUGAR CULTURE IN THE WEST INDIES...

307

SUGAR ESTATES OF CUBA......

311

SUGAR TRADE OF THE WORLD...

312

SUGAR-Process of Culture, Manufacture, Etc..............

314

TEXAS-Climate, Rivers, Lands, Products, Animals, Minerals, Government, Etc..... 321

TEXAS- Sugar Lands..

331

TEXAS-Resources, Products, Etc..

335

TEXAS-Brazos Country -------

337

TEXAS-Her Natural Ady

TEXAS-Growth of...............

339

TEXAS--Galveston, Etc....

341

TOBACCO-Prize Essay on the Culture ar

341

TOBACCO--Cuba.....

345

TOBACCO-Growth and Consumption of, in United States........

346

TURPENTINE BUSINESS OF NORTH CAROLINA.

350

TURPENTINE-Process of Manufacture, Profits, Etc.,..

350

TURPENTINE BUSINESS IN GEORGIA.....

.... 354

TEA CULTURE IN THE SOUTH...............

.....355, 356

UNION--Its Stability-British Policy in Regard to Tropical Products and the Slave Trade,

Commercial Advantages of the South, What the North Gains out of the South, Etc.....356, 357

UNITED STATES-Progress

D STATES-Progress of the Republic- Growth of States and Population

367

Early and Growing Commerce of........

378

Commerce and Navigation--Progress of from 1790...

386

Population, Debt, Loans, Revenues, Etc. since 1790...

391

Centre of it Moving West......

393

Territorial Extent of....

393

Sea and River Shore Line.........................................

395

Immigration into........ .

Operation of the Laws of Population in Europe and United States..... 400

Population from Earliest Times, with all the Census Retur

400

Census of 1850-- Analysis of Growth of Population every Ten Years---

Population, Square Miles, Density of Regions North, South, East and

West, Etc.........

.-.-.... 420

420

Census Statistics—Comparative Tables....

423

Finances, and of the States, Debts, &c..

433

Commercial Navigation Compared with Great Britain............. 434

Tariffs- Internal Improvements, &c., Copy-right and Patent-right.-.....

VIRGINIA-Early History-Education, Schools and Colleges, Government, Resources, Inter-

nal Improvements, Slavery........

IL VIRGINIA GOLD MINĖS...

VIRGINIA COMMERCIAL CONVENTION–Resources, Industry and Improvements of

Virginia, her Contest for the Trade of the West, and Proposed Foreign Trade..... 462

VINEYARDS OF THE SOUTH.......

......468, 471

WESTERN VALLEY-Progress of the Great West in Population, Agriculture, Arts and

Commerce...................

475

WEST-Commerce and Resources of, Etc.....

511

WEST-Advantages for Manufactures.....

513

WESTERN HUNTERS AND, TRAPPERS...

516

WISCONSIN-Progress and Resources..

518

WISCONSIN-Mineral Resources...............

519

WEST INDIA ISLANDS-Position, Importance, Etc,, Cuba, Porto Rico, Martinique,

French, British, Danish, Swedish, Dutch West Indies, Etc. Etc..

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APPENDIX--Canadian Commerce, 551_Cuba Trade, 551-Coast Trade of Pennsylvania, 552-Commerce

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