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that the absolute motion of the moon is slower than the motion of the Earth, from the beginning of her last Quarter to the end of her first, and swifter than the Earth's, from the beginning of her second quarter to the end of her third, her path being less curved than the Eartı's in the former case, and more in the latter. The curve, in both cases, is always bent, or concave, toward the Sun.

Although the moon moves round the Earth upward of twelve times in one year, and round the Sun in the same time, yet her real path in the heavens differs very little from the path of the Earth. Both paths, indeed, are so very similar in their curve toward the Sun, that the difference in their form, to an eye which could view both orbits, could not be noticed. The distance of the Earth from the Sun is 95,000,000 miles, and of the Moon from the Earth 240,000, which is only in the pro portion of one mile to 3,900, or one inch to 110 yards. a difference too minute to be perceived.

The moon is invisible at her conjunction with the Sun, having her whole enlightened disk, turned from the Earth. A few days after her conjunction, she is seen in the west in the form of a beautiful crescent. In this stage of her revolution, she appears the most beautiful object in the heavens when viewed through a telescope. During seven or eight days she increases in size, until she reaches her first quarter; and continuing still more to increase, she at length comes in opposition to the Sun; when, her whole illuminated hemisphere being turned toward the Earth, she is called the full Moon. From the full she gradually decreases, and daily rises later after sunset; and in the course of seven or eight days she finishes her third quarter, when she is seen with her convex side toward the east, and her dark limb toward the west; the line which separates between the bright and dark parts being without any curve. After this she continues to decrease in brightness until her conjunction with the Sun; when she is again invisible, having her whole illuminated disk again turned from the Earth.

Beside the apparent diurnal motion of the Moon

from east to west, she has an absolute motion from west to east, at the rate of thirteen degrees in twenty-four hours. If the moon is seen on any night in conjunco tion with any fixed star, she will appear the following night to have receded from that star thirteen degrees eastwarl, on the second night twenty-six degrees, and on the third night thirty-nie deprees; and at the end of twenty-seven days, seven hours, forty-three minutes, eleven seconds, sho wili bave returned to the same point of the heavens, or will be in conjunction with the same star. Since thelljun, while she appears to move daily round the eart'ı from east to west, advances in reality through thirteen degrees in lter orbit, from west to east, the time oi her riso, southing, and setting, must be later every rotation of the Earth upon its axis, or every day or night. This difference is nearly fifty minutes every day, at or near the equator. The greatest difference observed butween the time of the rising and setting of the Moon at London, upon any two successive nights, announts to one hour and seventeen minutes, which happens at the period of the vernal full Moon; and the least diilerence is seventeen minutes, which happens at the period of the autumnal full Moon.

PHILIP GARRETT.

REFLECTED HAPPINESS. To a man who possesses a good heart there can be nothing more pleasing than the consciousness of give ing pleasure to others. The luxury of doing good is a most exquisite, as well as a most innocent, luxury to him whose feelings and affections are such as make a man capable of enjoying, as well as bestowing happiness.

FEMALE MODESTY. Modesty, in a young female, is the flower of a tender shrub, which is the promise of excellent fruits. To destroy it is to destroy the germ of a thousand virtues, to destroy the hope of society, to commit an outrage against nature. The air of the world is a burning breath that every day blasts this precious flower.

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CARAVAN or KARAVAN-A Persian word used to de note large companies which travel together in the Levant and in Africa, for the sake of security from robbers, having in view principally, trade or pilgrimages. Such a company often has more than a thousand camels to carry their baggage and their goods. These walk in single file, so that the line is often a mile long. On account of the excessive heat, they travel, mostly, in the morning. As every Mahomedan is obliged to visit the tomb of Mahommed, once at least, during his life, care Avans of pilgrims go to Mecca, every year from various places of meeting. The leader of such a caravan to Mecca, who carries with him some cannon, for protection, is called Emir Adge. Trading caravans choose Vol. I.

33

one of their own number for a leader, whom they call

Caravan-Baschi. Much information on the subject of • caravans, is to be found in the travels of Niebuhr, who made many journeys with thein, and describes them, as well known, minutely, and faithfully.

A more particular account will be given of the cara. vans of the east, when we come to treat on the natural history of the camel.

NATURAL HISTORY.
GROUP OF AFRICAN ANIMALS.

(Continued from pa ge 359.) We now arrive at the pachydermatous, or thick skin. ned animals, corresponding to the order Bellux of Linnæus. In this division are included the elephant, the tapir, the rhinoceros, the hyrax, or Cape marmot, the pecaris, the babyroussa, the wild boar, the African boar, ihe hippopotamus, and the horse.

The most gigantic of all living terrestrial animals, the elephant, combines superhuman strength with almost human wisdom, in a manner otherwise unequalled among the brute creation. Many instances are on re. cord of its retentive memory, its grateful and affection. ate disposition, and its general intelligence as a discri. minating, if not reflecting creature. From the earliest ages its stupendous size, and unexampled sagacity, have formed a theme of w nder and admiration to mankind. Elephants in the wild state are gregarious and herbivorous. They are naturally averse to the extremes of heat and cold ; and, although inhabitants of some of the most sultry regioru of the earth, they shelter them. selves from the overpowering heat of the mid-day sun in the comparative coolness of those umbrageous for. ests which, both in Africa and Asia, are their chosen places of abode.

Second in size, though widely distant in sense, is the rhinoceros, an animal of a sour and stubborn disposi. tion, and in every way less trustworthy than the ele. phant. Of this genus there are several species, two of which (if R. Burchellii is entitled to specific distinction)

* For Engraving see Repository, vol. 1, page 355.

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inhabit Africa. The others are native to India, and the great islands of Java and Sumatra. The African spe. cies (R. Africanus) is armed with a couple of horns ; its coat is not distinguished by voluminous folds, and it wants the incisive teeth. The sense of sight is said to be rather defective in the rhinoceros : those of smell and hearing are acute.

Another animal, characteristic of, though not entirely peculiar to Africa, is the hyrax or Cape marmot. This species is supposed by some biblical annotators to be che cony of the Scriptures. It inhabits the rocky territories of many parts of Africa, and occurs, with little variation in its external aspect, in Syria. With the exception of the horns, it bears a strong resemblance to u rhinoceros in miniature. I

The Ethiopian hog (Phascochorus Africanus) is a fierce and savage animal, allied to the wild boar in its habits, but distinguished by a pair of large lobes or wattles placed beneath the eyes. The tusks of the upper jaw bend upward in a scini-circular manner toward the forehead. When attacked, it is apt to become furious, and, rushing on its adversary with great force and swiftnes 3, iuflicts the most desperate, and sometimes fatal wounds. It inhabits a wide extent of country along the western side of Africa, from Senegal to the Cape; and it also occurs specifically the same in Ethiopia. A jew species of this genus has been recently discovered A the north of Africa, by M. Ruppell. It is named Phascochærus barbatus. The ascertainment of the late ter animal is a proof, among many others which might be adduced, of the impropriety of denominating a species from the continent which it inhabits. Few species are so isolated in the animal kingdom as to exist alone over a great tract of country, without claiming kindred with any other; and we may fairly infer, à priori, that when one of a genus is discovered, a second or a third will ere long make its appearance. When this happens. such specific names as Africanus, Americanus, d-c. cease to be of a discriminating or exclusive nature, and consequently lose their value.

Next to the elephant and rhinoceros, perhaps the

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