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“ not be content, except that power should enable “ him to establish the Catholic worship throughout “ his dominions."

A complete to Mr. Rose acknowledges that James's conduct became leration of Catholics only in more bold, as he felt his power increase, and observes contemplation of James.

that the Parliament having not shewn much concern, Rose, p. 83.

or jealousy at the King's having gone publicly to mass, or at the disclosure of his brother having died a Catholic, “ he thought he might take measures of a much more decisive nature."

And it is upon contemplation of these measures, and the evidence from Ib. p. 84.

the French correspondence, that Mr. Rose finds it impossible to agree with Mr. Fox, and takes upon himself to prove that the earliest intention of James, “ after his accession, was to go much further than “ to obtain merely a toleration for his own religion."

Fox, p. 78.


may be suspected that Mr. Rose has misunderstood the meaning of the expression, used by, Mr. Fox, who says, “ it is by no means certain that he “ had yet thought of obtaining for it" (i. e. the Catholic religion) “any thing more than a complete “ toleration.” For Mr. Rose drops the word complete when he states the proposition he means to disprove. Mr. Fox is speaking of a toleration of religious opinions, unattended with any civil tests, or disqualifications. Mr. Rose may have in contemplation a toleration of



a more confined nature, and much of his argument will, then, be irrelevant to the subject in dispute. This observation applies most strongly to the first proof produced, namely, the determination of James to dispense with the penal laws, and give commissions in the army to Catholic officers ; for the suspension of those laws was necessary in order to render the toleration of Catholics complete ; and therefore without militating against the opinion of Mr. Fox, it may be conceded, that this was one of the objects of James at his accession to the throne. This renders it unnecessary to examine the acts in Acts of James England, or Scotland, enumerated by Mr. Rose; their Scotland. tendency being to shew, that James was struggling only for a complete toleration for the Catholics, and that Mr. Fox is perfectly correct in what he has stated.

With respect to the transactions of the King in In Ireland. Ireland, which took place before the Revolution, the same answer may be given; for not one of those manifested a will to change the established religion of the country. Mr. Rose seems not to be aware of this distinction, or not to have recollected that the intention of James, immediately after his accession, cannot be inferred, from measures, to which he fruitlessly had recourse after his abdication, to extricate himself from difficulties, and replace himself upon the



throne. The period, to which Mr. Fox's observation more particularly alludes, is between James's accession, and the execution of Monmouth, after which, intoxicated with success, it may be admitted, that he extended his views to objects, which he had not ventured to contemplate before.

Barillon s correspondence



With these short remarks, we shall dismiss the proves James consideration of the conduct of the King in England, view a complete Scotland, and Ireland, and the numerous facts de Rose, P. 98. tailed by Mr. Rose, upon which, as he says, “ The

proof that James's principal object was the firm " establishment of his own religion throughout his " dominions, might safely be rested," and proceed to the correspondence of Barillon, upon which it seems both the contending parties principally rely. Mr. Fox however only refers to it generally; Mr. Rose cites passages out of several letters, which he supposes to contradict Mr. Fox's general inference, and it will, therefore, be most convenient to examine the import of Mr. Rose's quotations, presuming that if they fail to shew its fallacy, Mr. Fox's hypothesis is well founded. But it may be necessary first to observe, that Mr. Rose seems to be misled in the judgment, he has formed of the effect of this correspondence, by his not having attended to the meaning of the French word “ établissement." A system of religion is de nominated an “ establishment,” or “ an established

« church," when it is selected by the governing power," SECTION
declared to be the religion of the state, and endowed
with exclusive privileges, and revenues, but a tolera-
tion, also may be said to be established when it is se-
cured by the legal exercise of the King's prerogative,
or an act of the legislative power, And in the course
of our examination of the correspondence, it will be
apparent that the establishment alluded to on all sides,
with reference to the Catholic religion, was not the
substitution of it for the national church, but a com-
plete toleration for its professors. *

The first letter, of the 19th February, 1685, cited Rose, p. 98. by Mr. Rose, would be alone decisive. It was written immediately after Barillon's first interview with James upon the death of his brother, and James is stated to have said, that “ he knew well that he should never “ be in safety, unless liberty of conscience for them

* In this manner the French verb 6 etablir" was used in the Histoire de articles agreed upon at Flex in 1580, between the Duke of Anjou, Vol. 1. App.pl

l'edit de Nantes, and the King of Navarre, and deputies of the reformed religion. 55. By the 6th article, the selection of a place,“ pour y etablir l'ex" ercise de leur dite religion," was submitted under certain conditions to the King. And section the ninth of the Edict of Nantes Ib. p. 66. begins thus. “Nous permettons aussi a ceux de la dite religion, faire « et continuer l'exercise d'icelles en toutes les villes et lieux de notre Kebeissance, ou il etoit par eux etabli, & fait publiquement, par plusieurs et diverses fois en l'annee,” &c.


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" should be fully established in England, that it was to that he meant wholly to apply himself, as soon

as he should see a possibility.” James had not, at this time, courage to pledge himself to obtain, or even to attempt to obtain liberty of conscience for the Catholics, he doubted the possibility of compassing it, but he was perfectly assured that it was a step necessary for his own safety. Does he feel the love of the Catholic religion as the first motive of action ? as the governing principle of his mind? No such thing, his own safety was next his heart, and a toleration of the Catholics so far as to allow them the free exercise of their religion, only an expedient for secur

ing it.

Rose, P. 99.

li In a letter, (from which Mr. Rose has made two

short extracts), dated 5th March, a few days after Fox, App. xliv. James had gone for the first time' publicly to mass,

Barillon says, that some persons were so discontented with the King's having taken that step, as to have entertained great suspicions of what was to happen in future, and feared that a design was formed to ruin the Protestant religion, and tolerate only the Catholic; but this he treats as a project so difficult in the execution, not to say impossible, that sensible people have no apprehensions of it. Having dismissed that supposition as too wild, he describes the King and his ministers as exerting themselves to convince reasonable

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