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Matt. v. 15.

* The word in the original signifieth a measure con

Matt. v. 16.

than a peck.
a 1 Pet. ii. 12.

Matt. v. 17.

* Neither do men light a candle, and put it un- Larkiv: 181. der a * bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giv- & xi.33. eth light unto all that are in the house.

Let your light so shine before men, a that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father a pint less which is heaven.

Think not that I am come to destroy the law, The design of or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but ing. to fulfil.

For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth Luke xvi. pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass

from the law, till all be fulfilled. • Whosoever therefore shall break one of these c James ii. 10. least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven : but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of hea

Matt. v. 18.

Matt, v. 19.


Matt. v. 20.

Matt. v. 21.


For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Ye have heard that it was said + by them of old Explanation time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall commandkill shall be in danger of the judgment:

Or, to them. But I


That whosoever is angry 13. Deut. v. with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council : but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire 46.

d Exod. xx.

Matt. v. 22.

say unto


rank and title of their proud countrymen—" Light of the world." bbw 7), said the disciples of Rabbi Jochanan ben Saccai, Why do you weep, &c. &c. Schoetgen. Hor. Hebr. vol. i. p. 24.

46 Here are three gradations of crimes mentioned by our Lord, and three degrees of punishment respectively annexed to each. The first is causeless anger, unaccompanied with any abusive expressions to aggravate it; the second may be supposed to arise from the same source, increased by an exclamation, which denotes the triumph of vanity, mixed with insult and contempt; the third seems naturally to rise one degree higher, and occasions the opprobrious epithet, “ Thou fool. The two former, we may observe, are threatened with the temporal punishment or animadversion of the Jewish tribunals, the council and the judgment, which were now deprived of the power of life and death, and could therefore take cognizance only of minor offences.

Now, it is highly analogous to our Saviour's reasoning to suppose, that the punishment annexed to the last crime would be of a temporal nature also, particularly as it can only be considered as an abuse of speech, like that of the pre

Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, Matt. v. 23. and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;

Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy Matt, v. 24. way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come, and offer thy gift *7.

ceding, though in a more aggravated form. On the contrary, to imagine that, for the distinction between Raca,' and thou fool, our blessed Lord should instantly pass from such a sentence as the Jewish Sanhedrim could pronounce, to the awful doom of eternal punishment in hell-fire, is what cannot be reconciled to any rational rule of faith, or known measure of justice. But a critical examination of the original text will remove this difficulty,

What we render “ in danger of hell-fire,” is in the Greek évoxos isai ług την γέενναν τα πυρός, , “shall be liable to the Gehenna, of fire;" or, “ the fire of Gehenna." It is well known that Gehenna is not a pure Greek word, but a compound formed of yộ, land, and a proper name to correspond with the Hebrew expression the valley of Hinnom, or rather from the two Hebrew words, dia, a valley, and 011377, Hinnom, the name of its possessor. (See Schleusner in l'évva, and Lightfoot's Chorogr. Cent. ch. xxxix.) In this desecrated spot the Jews burnt bones, the dead carcases of animals, the refuse and offal of the numerous victims, &c. and from the loathsome scene which this place exhibited, as well as from the fires which were kept constantly burning there, it was frequently used as the emblem or symbol of hell, and of hell torments in a state of eternity. But our blessed Lord may well be supposed to use it here in its literal sense, without any reference to its metaphorical meaning; and this will serve to clear the text of its supposed difficulty. For, when we consider what immense quantities of half putrid and offensive animal substances must have been consumed in that valley, to prevent contagion in so hot a climate, and in such a city as Jerusalem ; we may with certainty infer that a great number of persons must be constantly employed in carrying all kinds of filth and offal to the spot, in supplying fuel, in attending on the fires, &c.

Now this must have been the lowest, most degrading, and offensive employment, in the estimation of a Jew, to which any human being could be devoted ; and to this wretched state Christ declares, that he who indulges himself in the habit of treating his fellow-creatures with insolence and contempt, is in danger of coming. It is a common saying, that a man would rather be thought a knave than a fool : the appellation of thou fool, therefore, is attended with a degree of insult that is not easily forgiven ; and he who practises such abuses of the tongue must every where expect to find an enemy, instead of a friend; till at length he sinks to the most loathsome offices that can be allotted to him, in order to gain a wretched subsistence.

This exposition derives further countenance from the use of the Greek adjective čvoxos in the original, which, connected with the future, isan, may mean, shall be held, or bound, as a slave is to his master. See Hewlett's Commentary in loc. Matt. v. 22.

47 It has excited surprise among some writers, that the Gospels should be written in Greek, instead of the Syriac, or Aramaic, or Syro-Chaldee dialect. The observation will only apply to St. Matthew's Gospel: the three other Evangelists

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Matt. v. 25.

Matt. v. 26.

Matt. v. 27.

Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles e Luke xii.58. thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.

Ye have heard that it was said by them of old explanation time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I


That whosoever looketh on f Exod. xx. 14 a woman, to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.

& And if thy right eye * offend thee, pluck it out, . Mark ix.47 and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee theedoen that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

command. ment.

Matt. v. 28.

say unto

8 Matt. xviii.

Matt. v. 29.

thee to offend

addressed their Gospels to Grecian or Roman converts. But the necessity of adopting the Greek language, as the dialect of all others most universally spoken, will appear from the remarkable fact, that the Jewish writers who were contemporary with our Lord, or the immediate successors of the apostles, have used many Greek words in their Hebrew, apparently without knowing that the Greek was foreign to their language. Many instances have occurred of this kind among the extracts I have met in Dr. Gill, Lightfoot, and Schoetgen, though it did not seem necessary to observe them. I have, however, collected some few.

1. Ipooppeug đióp 38, Matt, v. 23. 3 Pn 2m x run on D Tanchuma, fol. 54. 2.

2. "Lobi évvoñv töö ávridicus pov, Matt. v. 25. 1*p*TUIs avons Debarin rab. § 5. fol. 257. 1.

3. 'Eni bnjaros, Judæi retinent vocem græcam, m's Schoetgen. vol. i.

p. 235.

4. Kúpie , 'ax 90 gp Schemoth rabba, § 46. fol. 140. 2. ap Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 232.

5. Súln, oyo yon by ano po y Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 252. 6. 'YTOTódov, sw 9775*9*x Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 192.

and yas gava 179131 Targum Jerusalem on Exod. xxiv. 10. 7. Venit quidem servum emere cupiens, et dixit ad dominum ejus : Servus iste quem vendis 8101 rombxp 18 **977 roogapnp num karnyópos, an calokayatos est ? Schemoth rabba, $ 43. fol. 138. 3; Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 214.

8. 'A távonois, gho buy •395 7837 Tanchuma, fol. 56. 1. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 216.

9. Sudapiov, Luke xix. 20. 7797710 6971 goy nin pecunias sudario ligavit. Ketuvoth, fol. 67. 2, &c. 771da 1998 Rasche et Bava Mezia, fol. 42. 1.

Many others might be selected from the writers who have endeavoured to illustrate Scripture from the Talmudical writings ; but these are sufficient to justify us in asserting that the Greek language was in general use in Judæa, as well as in other parts of the Roman empire ; and was the language therefore most suitable to the designs of the Evangelists.

h Deut. xxiv. 1.

i Lukexvi, 18. I Cor. vii, 10.

I James v. 12.

And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and Matt. v. 30. cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

It hath been said, "Whosoever shall put away Matt. v. 31.
his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:
But I


That i whosoever shall put Matt. v. 32.
away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication,
causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever
shall marry her that is divorced committeth adul-

tery. Swcaring pro

Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by Matt. v. 33. k Exod. xx.7. them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, Levitx ix.112.. but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:

But I say unto you, Swear not at all'; neither Matt. v. 34. by

heaven; for it is God's throne :

Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither Matt. v. 35. by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.

Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because Matt. v. 36. thou canst not make one hair white or black.

"But let your communication be, Yea, yea ; Matt. v. 37. Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

Ye have heard that it hath been said, m An eye Matt. v. 38. 24. Lev. xxiv. for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But 1




resist not evil : Matt. v. 39. n Luke vi, 29. but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek,

turn to him the other also.

And if any one will sue thee at the law, and take Matt. v. 40. away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.

And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, Matt. iv. 41. go with him twain.

Give to him that asketh thee, and 'from Matt. iv. 42. him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away: and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them Luke vi. 30. not again.

And as ye would that men should do unto you, Lukc vi. 31. do ye

also to them likewise. Ye have heard that it has been said, p Thou Matt. v. 43, shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy.

But I say unto you, which hear, Love your enemies; do good to them Luke vi. 27.

that hate you ; bless them that curse you ; and Matt. v. 14. 9 Luke xxiii. pray ? for them which despitefully use you:

That ye may be the children of your Father Matt. v. 45. which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise

Of revenge.
m Exod. xxi.


20. Deut. xix. 21.

say unto

I Cor. vi. 7.

o Deut. xv. 8.

Christians are to love their enemies. p Lev. xix. 18.

Matt. v. 44. Matt. v. 46.

31. Acts vii. 60.

al men.

Matt. v. 47.

Luke vi. 33.

Luke vi, 31.

Luke vi. 35.

Luke vi, 36.

Matt. v. 48.

on the evil and on the good; and sendeth rain on
the just, and on the unjust.
For if ye love them which love

what reward

Christians are

to do good to have ye? Luke vi. 32. for sinners also love those that love them : Matt. v. 46. do not even the Publicans the same ?

And if ye salute your brethren only, what do you more than others ? do not even the Publicans so?

And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same.

And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again.

But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again ; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest : for he is kind unto the unthankful, and to the evil.

Be ye therefore merciful,

Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father

which is in heaven is
Luke vi. 36. merciful, (and)
Matt. v. 48. perfect.
Take heed that

do not your
alms before men, Directions on

to be seen by them : otherwise ye have no reward
* of your Father which is in heaven.

Therefore 'when thou doest thine alms, +do not r Rom. xii. 8. sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do not a trumpet in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward.

But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:

That thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.

And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the How to pray. hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

Matt. vi. 1.

Or, with.

Matt. vi. 2.

to be sounded.

Matt. vi. 3.

Matt. vi. 4.

Matt. vi. 5.

Matt. vi. 6.

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