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smaller lines and the cost of doing the work is greatly in excess. A great part of this however does not come from the shipper, but is paid as a rebate by the trunk lines to the smaller lines for gathering up and delivering to them in car-load lots. The general policy pursued seems to be, to as nearly as practicable, equalize the rates at points on subsidiary lines with those of the main lines.

We have carefully revised the returns of the companies, and find the average amount received per ton per mile for transportation of freight, as equalized by the reported mileage, to be 1 211-1000 of a cent; the actual cost of carriage, 785-1000 of a cent. This leaves 4261000 of a cent as the proportion derived by the owner and the creditor from their investments, or sixty-five per cent of the entire transportation charges is paid out for doing the work, and thirty-five is paid to the stock and bondholders. We have no means of determining whether these proportions are the equitable ones or not, but we have thought it not out of place to introduce here a letter from Mr. Ives, the president of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Railway Company, in answer to a communication addressed him by this Board, enquiring if his road had advanced rates within the year, and whether, considering the low prices of all farm produce, a material reduction of rates might not be made without doing injustice to the owners of the property. We further suggested that there seemed to be a popular demand, based upon the theory that the railways should share with the producer the misfortunes that come with hard times and low prices.

Mr. Ives' letter is as follows:

CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA, December 13, 1884.

E. G. MORGAN, ESQ., Secretary Railway Commissioners, Des Moines, Iowa:

DEAR SIR:. In reply to yours regarding advance of rates, would say no advance has been made by this company on rates of any kind, of grain, stock or other produce, or of merchandize, except where rates have been temporarily reduced by undue competition. On the contrary, rates have been steadily reduced from year to year since the opening of the road. I enclose sheet showing reductions, 1878 to 1884.

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This I do know, that it is with the most careful economy only that this railway company can earn, at present rates, enough to pay the interest on its bonds at $15,000 per mile at five per cent, and keep the property in a safe condition to serve the public. If further reductions are made by law I know no way to meet them except by reducing the pay of employes and not keeping up the property. I know there has been some loud talk about the doing away of rates “special"' to jobbers. But this amounts to but little, two cents per one hundred pounds on sugar in car loads, and nails two and one half cents per one hundred pounds in car lots, Chicago to Cedar Rapids, being samples, and this not affecting the points to which the goods finally reach, but equalizing in a manner the rates between Chicago and jobbing points in Iowa and the towns to which the goods from either point were shipped.

The rates as shown on grain make a reduction of over thirty per cent in the six years, and while rate on stock by car load does not show as much, the increase in the size of stock-cars from twenty-eight feet to, in some instances thirty-four and thirty-six feet, with the fast time made, really works a greater reduction on stock than on grain. Hoping this may answer your questions satisfactorily, I am

Yours truly,

C. J. IVES, President and Gen. Supt. B., C. R. & N. R’y Co.

The following is the table enclosed:

Rates on Corn, etc., and Stock to Chicago in 1878 and 1884.

FROM

CORN AND OATS,

STOCK.

YEAR.

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20 cents per 100 lbs.. . $55 per car.11878. 15 cents per 100 lbs... 15 per car. (1884. 22 cents per 100 lbs... 60 per car. (1878. 16 cents per 100 lbs... 56 per car. 1884. 25 cents per 100 lbs... 60 per car. 1878. 19 cents per 100 lbs... 56 per car. 1881. 30 cents per 100 lbs... 60 per car. 1877. 20 cents per 100 lbs... | 56 per car. 1884. 30 cents per 100 lbs... 65 per car. 1878. 20 cents per 100 lbs... 60 per car. (1884. 30 cents per 100 lbs... 70 per car. 1878. 20 cents per 100 lbs... 60 per car. 1881. 30 cents per 100 lbs.. 65 per car. 1878. 20 cents per 100 lbs...' 60 per car. '1881.

PERCENTAGE OF LOCAL FREIGHT.

The data furnished 18 insufficient to give a correct estimate of the proportion of local freight, but the Commissioners conclude that it is increasing, and is probably not far from twenty-four per cent. We had thought the development of the coal trade would materially increase this proportion, but in this we were mistaken, for if the coal trade largely increases the market for a large percentage of the increase must be in the country north and west, where there is no coal, and beyond the state limits.

EQUIPMENT.

The total number of locomotives reported is 3,253. The weight of standard gauge engines varies from thirty to seventy tons; of narrow gauge, from seventeen to twenty-five tons. The total number of cars is reported as 103,337; of these, 1,328 are passenger cars, 790 baggage cars, and 180 parlor, sleeping, and dining cars, 60,344 box freight cars, 10,727, stock cars, 22,128 platform and coal cars, 7,840 other

cars,

STATIONS.

The total number of stations reported in Iowa is 1,178.

EMPLOYES.

The total number of persons reported as employed regularly in operating the roads in this State is 26,731. This is less than last year, but by a comparison of the table with that of last year, it will be found that the falling off in number is with those roads that were employing a large force in construction last year, and that table was evidently in excess of the actual regular employes in the business of transportation. The amount paid for personal services was $13,970,661.65, or $1,486,305.83 more than the net earnings over operating

expenses.

TRUSS BRIDGES.

The number of wooden truss bridges reported is 212; the length 31,983 feet. Of combination truss bridges, 105; length 24,052. Of iron truss bridges, 90; length 14,126.

WOODEN TRESTLE AND PILE BRIDGES.

The total number of wooden trestle and, pile bridges is 11,147; their length, 828,432 feet, or their combined length is 157 miles.

ARCH AND OTHER CULVERTS.

There are 26 arch culverts with openings of 20 feet or more; 703 with less opening. There are 1,290 stone box culverts, and 5,764 wooden box culverts.

BRIDGES BUILT WITHIN THE YEAR.

There were built within the year 26,899 lineal feet of bridges, including those rebuilt.

CATTLE GUARDS.

The number reported is 9,882.

RAILROAD CROSSINGS.

The number of railroad crossings at grade is 228; over or under crossings, 42. These crossings are reported by both companies and are double the actual number.

HIGHWAY CROSSINGS.

The number of highway crossings reported at grade is 5,216; over track, 76; under track, 121; bridges 18 feet above track, 70; under 18 feet, 4; crossings at which there are flagmen, 55.

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Deducting from this amount for freight twice reported from the short lines to the trunk lines, estimated by the Commissioners, 802,224 tons, we have the entire Iowa tonnage as 11,239,023. Applying as we did last year the canal valuation, products of the forest $20 per ton; the product of animals $150 per ton; vegetable product $40 per ton; other agricultural products $40 per ton; manufactures $25 per ton; merchandise $250 per ton; other articles at $20 per ton, we have a total value for the tonnage transported by the Iowa railroads of $817,319,681. This is simply an approximation, but it gives an idea of the magnitude of the commerce that is moved by rail in the State.

ACCIDENTS TO PERSONS.

During the year one hundred and twenty-nine persons were killed. Of these six were passengers, seventy-two employes, and fifty-one others not connected with the roads or their operations. Nine by derailments, three by collision, eleven caught in frogs, eight in coupling cars, ten falling from trains, eleven from getting on and off cars while in motion, seven at highway crossings, thirty-four from miscellaneous causes, four from stealing rides, nine while intoxicated, twenty-four walking on track and two suicides.

There were four hundred and forty-nine persons injured during the year. Of these forty-seven were passengers, three hundred and fortythree employes and fifty-nine others. Of these thirty-two were by derailment, nine by collisions, one caught in frog, one hundred and nine coupling cars, fifty-seven falling from trains, fifty-nine getting on and off trains while in motion, ten at highway crossings, one hundred and thirty-eight from miscellaneous causes, six from over head obstructions, seven from stealing rides, fifteen from walking on track and six while intoxicated.

The number killed is twenty-two less than last year; the injured, one hundred and nineteen more. There were eleven killed and one injured by being caught in frogs. We regret to find this item again so large, as we had hoped the adoption of safe-guards might have prevented accidents from this cause. Two of these cases were on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern, one on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, three on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, two on the Chicago & Northwestern, and four on the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific. We are not sure whether all of these companies have in use the best appliances for protection against these accidents. Eight persons were killed and one hundred and nine injured while coupling

We shall refer to this cause of accident fully in another place in this report and forbear comment here.

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cars.

FALLING FROM TRAINS.

Ten persons were killed and fifty-seven injured, falling from trains. We know of no remedy for this class of accidents, except as suggested hereafter.

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