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Art. XI. Beauties of Dwight ; or Dr. Dwight's System of Theology,

abridged: with a Sketch of his Life : a Portrait : and an original Essay on his Writings, &c. 4 vols. 24mo. Price 12s. London. 1829. *HIS work is correctly termed an Abridgement: the first

part of the title does not describe it. The beauties' of the American divine, in the general acceptation of the phrase, would consist of a selection of the most striking passages from his writings given at length. We confess that we should have thought this a more eligible plan, than the exhibiting of his system of divinity in this meagre analytical form. Dr. Dwight is generally very concise, and his lectures are sometimes skeletons very slightly filled up: they scarcely admit of advantageous abridgement. But there are defective parts of his system, to which we have adverted, and which, had the principle of selection been adopted, might have been omitted without detriment to the work. We are at a loss to understand the precise intention of the Editor. These skeletons do not appear to us at all eligible models for pulpit discourses, where plain persons compose the majority of the audience: the peculiar excellence of the original discourses was, their adaptation to the purpose of divinity lectures. To those ministers and students who cannot afford to purchase the larger work, these volumes may be acceptable. The merits and defects of the analysis will be best shewn by a short specimen.

• The manner in which revelation exhibits the Divine benevolence, is the following

• God directly asserts his character to be benevolent.

« The text is the strongest conceivable example of this assertion. Thou art good, says David, and thou dost good; and thy tender mercies are over all thy works. There is none good but one, saith Christ, that is, God.

• He recites a great variety of specimens of his goodness to indian viduals and nations; and exhibits them as being, unquestionably, acts of benevolence only.

· He explains the whole system of his dispensations, in those instańces not recorded in the Scriptures, in the same manner.

· He exhibits to us sin, as far more vile, and deserving of far more punishment; and virtue, or benevolence, as far more excellent and meritorious, than our reason would otherwise have enabled us to conceive.

• He exhibits to us, that he is kind, not only to such beings as are virtuous, but to such also as are singers ; and that this kindness in its extent and consequences is infinite.

: In the law which he has given to mankind for the regulation of all their moral conduct, he has required no other obedience, except their love to himself and to each other.

• God requires the whole regard which he claims to be rendered to Lim only as a benevolent God.

• In the Scriptures we are required to love, worship, and serve, that is, to exhibit our love in different forms to a God of love, and to such a God only.

• God has informed us in the Scriptures, that there is beyond the grave an immortal state of retribution ; in which whatever seems irregular in the present state will be adjusted according to the most exact dictates of benevolence and equity.

« The benevolence of God is strictly infinite.

• In the divine Mind every attribute is necessarily co-extended with the greatness of that mind. The benevolence of God is as truly thus extensive, as his knowledge or his power. To his love of happiness existing, to his desire of happiness as a thing to be produced, no limit can be affixed. Intense and glowing beyond degree, although perfectly serene and complacent, it furnishes the most solid foundation for the truth of that remarkable declaration in the text; God is love; or Infinite Love is the Infinite God.

• The benevolence of God cannot but be ever active.'

In the former part of the discourse, the proofs from reason, of the Divine benevolence, are exhibited in the same naked manner, as unsupported propositions. Sometimes these may seem to approach to the character of self-evident truths ; as, for instance, that God can have no possible motive to be • malevolent.' But to perceive the force and bearing of an assertion like this, a reader would need have been trained to habits of close thinking. And after all, the expressions are far from being nnobjectionable.

Art. XII. Statement in Regard to the Pauperism of Glasgotu, from

the Experience of the last Eight Years. By Thomas Chalmers, D. D. Minister of St. John's Church, Glasgow. 8vo. pp. 78.

Glasgow. 1823. DR. CHALMERS alludes, in the preface to this pamphlet,

to a pretty general imagination,' that he had relinquished his charge in Glasgow, because of the misgiving, of his schemes for the extinction of pauperism. He has met this injurious and unfounded suspicion with substantial facts. Our readers will perhaps recollect, that Dr. Chalmers's undertaking was, on being allowed to appropriate the whole of the weekly collection made at the church doors of St. John's, (at that time 4001. a-year,) to the support of the poor of that parish, — to send no new poor, either casual or permanent, to the Town Hospital. To meet the new cases, the evening collection was presumed to be sufficient; and the result bas so far justified the expectation, that, from September 1819 to June 1823, all the new applications have been met with a sum not exceeding

or 321.

The cases

801. a-year, arising from this fund. During the same period, comprising three years and nine months, the number of paupers admitted on the ground of general indigence, is thirteen, at a · monthly'expense of 2. 13s. 4d., per annum. of extraordinary and hopeless disease are two; one a lunatic, the other, deaf and dumb-monthly expense 11. 4s 8d. or 141. 16s. per annum. Two illegitimate children and three families of run-away husbands, have been admitted on the same fund—monthly expense ll. 12s. 6d.; per annum 191. 10s. Total, 20 regular paupers at a monthly expense of 5l. 10s. 6d., a yearly expense of 661. 6s. In the mean time, the old sessional poor, which, in October 1819, were 98, have sunk down (by deaths and dismissals) to 57; making, with the new cases, 77: a diminution in the total of 21. The total yearly expense of maintaining the poor of this parish, the population of which is upwards of 8000, is 3081. But this includes the Town Hospital cases, and the relief of paupers received from other parishes.

The most extraordinary circumstance connected with the success of this management, is, that it has been effected at a very inconsiderable sacrifice of time and labour on the part of the individuals in whom was vested the charge of the evening collections which were to meet the new cases. The details contained in the reports of the several deacons, printed as a note, form a mass of testimony highly deserving of attention. They shew how much may be accomplished, under any system of management, by a prudent and well-principled discharge of the office, towards reducing the expenditure, and, at the same time, promoting the best interests of the poor.

Still, while we warmly congratulate Dr. Chalmers on the success of his philanthropic experiment, we see no reason to retract the opinion, that his general deductions with regard to the Poor Laws of England are unsound,

proceeding on a limited and mistaken view of the subject. The mere substitution of church collections for an assessment in this country, we should esteem no improvement. The total abolition of a parochial fund is happily too visionary a scheme to be thought of: it would be as iniquitously unjust as it is impracticable. The evil lies in the management, and this evil is not less susceptible of remedy on the English system than on the Scotch. The circumstances of the two countries are totally dissimilar, as regards not only the physical and moral habits of the

population, but their resources.' It is stateit that the population of Glasgow, which in 1820 was 73,796, was in 1821, 72,765 an'inconsiderable decrease, but yet, proving that the surplus population of Scotch towns more readily finds vent, than, we apprehend, is possible in England.

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A Prospectus has been issued of a new In the press, a second edition of Sabedition very considerably enlarged, of baths at Home. By Henry March. Memoirs and Correspondence of Du. In the press, a Present for a Sunday plessis Mornay, relating to the history School, adapted for the Capacities of of the Reformation and the Civil Wars little children. By a Minister of the jo France under Charles IX., Henry III. Established Church. Henry IV., and Louis XIII., from 1571 A new edition of Mr. Alaric A. Watts's to 1625; published from the original Poetical Sketches, with illustrations, is manuscripts in the possession of the preparing for publication, which will inprince of Montnsorency-Robecq, and elude Gertrude de Balm, and other adbe marquis de Mornay ; to which will ditional poems. be prefixed, Memoirs of her husband, Preparing for publication, a Practiwritten by Madame de Mornay, for the cal Guide to Eoglish Composition; or, instruction of her son. By P. R. Augius a comprehensive system of English and A. D. de la Fontenelle. In 15 vols. grammar, criticism, and logic; arranged 880. This edition will contain the mat. and illustrated apon a new and imter suppressed in the four volumes of proved plan; containing apposite printhe original publication, besides a great ciples, rules, and examples, for writing number of unpublished letters from correctly and elegantly on every sub

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