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these lectures were delivered at Manchester, it is probable the Author's attention was more immediately directed to it, by witnessing the alarming progress which the tenets of the Romish Church are making in that quarter. There is nothing in them, however, of a local nature, or which is calculated to limit their usefulness to any particular part of the kingdom. They are adapted for universal perusal, and entitled to an extensive circulation.

The first lecture is on the claim of the Church of Rome to the appellation of catholic, the futility and absurdity of which the Author has confuted in a concise but highly satisfactory manner. On this part of the argument he very acutely remarks, • That no church which is not coeval with Chris'tianity itself, ought to pretend o be the universal Christian Church.'

• The contrary sentiment is evidently unreasonable and absurd ; for it supposes, that something which has already a distinct and complete existence, may be a part of something else which is not to come into being until a future period; or, which is equivalent to this, that what is entirely the creation of to-day, may include that which was created yesterday. This would be in opposition to all analogy; and therefore, if the Church of Rome had not an earlier commencement than all other Christian Churches,- if the origin of that Church be not coincident and simultaneous with the first moment of Christianity, then the pretension of the Church of Rome to be the “ Catholic Church," is altogether vain. Now it is clear from the Acts of the Apostles, that many Christian Churches flourished in the East, before the Gospel was even preached at Rome. It was enjoined on the Apostles that their ministry should begin at Jerusalem, and in that city the first Christian church was actually constituted. Until the persecution which arose about the stoning of Stephen, Christ was not preached beyond the borders of Palestine, and even then, with a scrupulous discrimination, “ to the Jews only.' In fact, churches were formed in Jerusalem and Judea, at Damascus and Antioch, and the Gospel was sent even into Ethiopia, before there is any evidence of its being known at Rome.' pp. 10, 11.

The second lecture is an historical exposition of the principal events which led to the elevation of the Church of Rome to supremacy: in tracing these, much acumen is evinced, as well as an intimate acquaintance with ecclesiastical history.

The third lecture consists of a masterly delineation of the genius and characteristics of the papai ascendancy. In this part of the work, the judicious Author eniers deeply into the interior spirit of Popery. After setting in a striking light, the seeming impossibilities it had to encounter ere it could accomplish its object, he enumerates the expedients employed for

this purpose under the following heads. The votaries of the papal see succeeded, 1. By enslaving the mental faculties to huinan authority.-2. By giving to superstition the semblance and sanction of religion.-3. By administering the affairs of their government on the corruptest principles of worldly policy. Each of these topics is illustrated with great judgement, and a copious induction of facts. On the last of these heads we beg leave to present to our readers the following extract, as a specimen of the style and spirit of this writer.

"“ My kingdom is not of this world,” said our Lord; “my kingdom is of this world,” is truly the sentiment of the Pope; and here lies the difference. The only consistent view of this Church, is that of a political establishment, employing indeed religious terms and denominations, but only as the pretext and colour of an inordinate pursuit of secular and iemporal objects. Read its history as that of à Christian Church, you stumble at every step, and every period shocks you with the grossest incongruities : read the same history as of one of the kingdoms of this world, all is natural and easy, and the various proceedings and events are just what you are prepared to expect. The papal supremacy was conceded by an earthly monarch mall its interests have varied with the fluctuations of human affairsand when the princes of this world shail withdraw their support, it will fall, and great will be the fall thereof. The bishops of Rome have ever pursued, under the guise of religion, some earthly advantage; and thus Pope Leo the Tenth exclaimed most appropriately, “ Oh how profitable has this fable of Jesus been unto us!”

• The first object of these subtle politicians, was to provide a revenue, ample and permanent. Kings and nations were accordingly laid under tribute, and to the utmost extent of papal influence, the treasures of Christendom flowed into the Exchequer of Rome. On every hand, art, fraud, and intimidation, were equally and successfully employed, in transferring the wealth of the world to the coffers of the church,

• This was effected partly by regular ecclesiastical taxes, but principally by selling every thing the Church of Rome had to bestow, and by perpetually inventing new articles of bargain and sale. Hence the multiplying of sacraments; hence the sale of pardons, indulgences, benefices, dignities, and of prayers for the living and the dead. Every thing was prostituted; and under the pretence of being the “ bride, the Lamb's wife,” this church became the “ mother of barlots.” In the same spirit, the death-beds of the rich were besieged, that they might bequeath their property to the Clergy; and the con. sciences of opuleni criminals were appeased, in return for liberal donations to ecclesiastical funds. Thus an amount of riches almost incredible accrued to the papal treasury' pp. 94-96.

The fourth lecture is occupied by giving a rapid sketch of the most interesting events in the past bistory of the Romish community. We have seldom, if ever, seen so large a body of facts exhibited with perfect perspicuity within so small a compass : the Author's complete mastery of the subject appears from the ease with which he has condensed an immense mass of historical matter, without the least indication of disorder or confusion.

The last of these lectures presents an animated and instruc. tive view of the prospects which are opening on the Christian Church, and the probable issue of the causes and events which are in present operation,

The notice we have taken of this publication will, we trust, induce our readers to avail themselves of the instruction and the pleasure which an attentive perusal cannot fail to bestow. It is distinguished for precision and comprehension of thought, energy of diction, and the most enlarged and enlightened principles of civil and religious freedom; nor should we find it easy to name a publication which contains, within the same compass, so much information on the subject which it professes to treat. A little redundance of ornament, and excess in the employment of figurative language, are excrescences very pardonable in a young writer, and which more mature years and experience may be safely left to correct. On the whole, we cannot dismiss the work before us, without sincerely congratulating the Author on that happy combination of philosophical discrimination with Christian piety, which it throughout displays.

Art. III. Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of John Howard,

the Philanthropist. By James Baldwin Brown, Esq. LL.D. Second

Edition. 8vo. pp. 689. Price 15s. London. 1823. IN consequence of unfortunate circumstances connected

with the original publication of these memoirs, the first edition escaped our cognizance. We are happy in availing ourselves of the present opportunity of supplying the omission. The absence of a complete biography of John Howard, left a blank in that portion of our literature which records the actions, and describes the characters of our English worthies. A few brief sketches of leading events and incidental circumstances, were all that existed in a permanent form; and the precious recollections of contemporary friendship were fast sinking into the oblivion of the grave. All this was the more to be regretted, as calumny, anonymous calumny, had been busy with the fame of “ the Philanthropist,” accusing him of gratuitous harshness and capricious tyranny in his domestic relations, and attributing to his stern and

unrelenting discipline, the mental aberrations of his son. This was, at best, a dastardly accusation. Howard was not living to answer for himself, and his assassin knew the difficulty, under the most favourable circumstances, of proving a negative; especially in a case that could be met only by complicated evidence, and minute as well as protracted detail. The slander was not suffered to go forth without immediate reply, though not of that specific kind which deprived the insinuations of the calumniator, of that shadow of plausibility which they derived from the peculiar texture of Howard's mind. Dr. Aikin, and other friends of the deceased, denied the imputations, and called indignantly for proofs. But it was reserved for Dr. Brown to take up the whole business in the only way that could set it at rest. His habits of legal investigation gave him many advantages, and of these he has availed bimself with much patience and dexterity, in the collection and discrimination of a mass of testimony, personal, traditional, and documentary, bearing directly and satisfactorily on the point in question, and establishing, beyond all controversy, the falsehood of the charge. In fact, the motives which actuated its framer, were betrayed by the absurdly rancorous intimation, that Howard was a tyrannical husband and a harsh parent, because he was a rigid Predestinarian! Well might Dr. Aikin say, when writing in refutation of this base attempt to blot the fame of bis illustrious friend : My • hands tremble with indignation and horror while I copy it; • and scarcely can I restrain myself within temperate bounds, • whilst I refute a slander black as hell, against a man whose • unparalleled benevolence rerdered him the pride and ornament of human nature.'

Analysis of the comprehensive detail of facts which makes up the biography of this transcendent man, is, of course, completely out of the question. No regular series could be given, without trespassing on our limits to an extent altogether inadmissible. Nor has Dr. Brown been able to compress his ample materials within the compass of a single octavo, without the sacrifice of some interesting matter, and the exercise of a difficult, though skilful discrimination. We shall, therefore, merely advert to such leading circumstances as may tend to give specific illustration of the character of Howard, and as may connect themselves most readily with the observations that we may find it expedient to make.

John Howard ‘appears' (for there is considerable uncertainty on the point) ' to have been born about the year 1727, at Clap

ton,' near London. His father, who had retired to the enjoyment of a considerable fortune, acquired in business, was a


Calvinistic dissenter; and the son remained, through life, firmly and on principle, attached to the same religious profession; although his views of doctrine and discipline, as an Independent, did not prevent him from cordially uniting in Christian worship, with pious men of different sentiments on non-essen

points. His education, though not intentionally neglected, was entrusted, in a great measure, to tutors evidently incompetent, since we find him incapable of writing his own language with grammatical, or even orthographical accuracy. His original destination was to mercantile pursuits; but, on the death of his father, he abandoned the warehouse, and left England on his travels through France and Italy.

• In this tour, he either acquired or strengthened that taste for the fine arts, which induced him, during his earlier travels--for in his latter ones he had more noble objects to attend to-not only to embrace every opportunity of contemplating with the eye of an ardent, if not an enthusiastic admirer, the most finished specimens of the magic skill of their ablest professors; but, as far as his means would allow, of becoming the possessor of some of the productions of their creative genius. It must have been during these travels, that he obtained those paintings of the foreign masters, and other works of art, collected upon the Continent, with which he afterwards embellished his favourite seat at Cardington ; for when he had once entered upon the execution of his great scheme of universal benevolence, it so completely absorbed all the energies of his mind, that he never suffered himself for a moment to be diverted from carrying it into effect, even by the most attractive of those objects which formerly possessed all their most powerful influence upon his curiosity and his taste.' p. 12.

We have inserted this paragraph as illustrative of an excellence in the character of Howard, which has not been sufficiently adverted to. There is, we think, a strong tendency to jealousy in our common nature; and when we find an individual who has made himself eminent by the cultivation of a specific virtue, we are apt to resolve much of his consistent conduct to natural tendency and disposition; and, while he is entitling himself, by a steady course of self-denial, to our love and veneration, to view him as doing little more than seeking his own gratification in a somewhat more respectable and useful way than the average routine of human action. Nor is this lowering estimate of benevolent or heroic character always erroneous. Take away the immediate influence of religion, which ennobles motive by marking it with a Divine impress, and the feelings which stimulate man to honourable enterprise, as well as the principles which guide and sustain him in its execution, will seldom stand the application of a rigorousi

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