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the earth puts forth its blossoms, so by their conjunction the human mind puts forth its blossoms; but with this distinction, that the blossoming of the earth is occasioned by natural heat and light, whereas the blossoming of the human mind is occasioned by spiritual heat and light, and of consequence this latter blossoming, as being of a spiritual nature, consisteth in wisdom and intelligence. There is also a correspondence between the earth and the human mind, and hence the mind, wherein charity is conjoined with faith, and faith with charity, is in the Word likened to a garden, and is also understood and signified by the garden of Eden; a point fully proved in the work entitled ARCANA CELESTIA, published at London. It is further to be noted, that, unless the doctrine of faith be succeeded by that of charity, it will be impossible to comprehend what faith is; for it has been asserted and proved, in the foregoing chapter, that faith without charity is not faith, and that charity without faith is not charity, and that neither hath any life but from the Lord, n. 355 to 361: also, that the Lord, charity, and faith, constitute a one, like life, will, and understanding; and that in case they are divided, each perisheth, and is destroyed like a pearl bruised to powder, n. 362 to 367: and further, that charity and faith are together in good works, n. 373.

393. It is a certain truth, that faith and charity cannot be separated, consistently with man's enjoyment of spiritual life and his consequent salvation. This is a proposition so clear and self-evident, that it requires neither depth of judgment, nor the advantages of learning, to see and comprehend it. When we hear it asserted, That whosoever leadeth a good life, and believeth aright, will be saved, who doth not acknowledge the truth of the assertion, by a kind of interior perception, and a consequent assent of the understanding? And when we hear it asserted, That whosoever believeth aright, and doth not lead a good life, will

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also be saved, who doth not reject the assertion, it being just as offensive to the understanding, as dirt is to the eye into which it falls? For every person, in such a case, is immediately led, by an interior perception, to reflect thus within himself, "How is it possible for any one to believe aright, who doth not lead a good life? And what is his belief, in such a case, but as a painted figure of faith, and not its living image?" In like manner, when we hear it asserted, That whosoever leadeth a good life, although he do not believe, will be saved, doth not the understanding see, perceive, and think, whilst it revolveth this proposition, that there is an incoherence in it? For to lead a good life is to live from God, since all really so, is from God; what then is a good life unattended with faith, but like clay in the hand of the potter, which is not capable of being formed into any vessel of use in a spiritual kingdom, but only in a natural kingdom? Moreover, who doth not see the contradiction contained in each of those two propositions, first, That whosoever believeth, and doth not lead a good life, shall be saved, and secondly, That whosoever leadeth a good life, and doth not believe, shall be saved? Now whereas the nature of a good life, which is the life of charity, is at this day understood and yet not understood, being understood in a natural sense but not in a spiritual sense; we shall enter upon the consideration of this subject, as having relation to, and being connected with, charity, and shall reduce it into the form of a series, under distinct articles.


394. We begin with the consideration of these three kinds of love, since they are the universal and fundamental of all, and charity has something in common with each of them; for by THE LOVE OF HEAVEN is meant

love to the Lord and love towards our neighbour; and because each of these regardeth use as its end, it may be called the love of uses. THE LOVE OF THE WORLD is

not only the love of riches and property, but also the love of all things which the world supplieth for the delight of the bodily senses, as beauty for the eye, harmony for the ear, fragrance for the smell, delicacies for the palate, soft blandishments for the touch, besides handsome apparel, convenient habitations, the pleasures of company, and consequently all the satisfactions resulting from these, and many other objects. THE LOVE OF SELF is not only the love of honour, glory, fame, and distinction, but also the love of meriting and seeking after high posts and employments, and thus of bearing rule over others. The reason why charity has something in common with each of these kinds of love, is, because charity, considered in itself, is the love of uses; for charity wisheth to do good to its neighbour, and good is the same thing as use; and each of the forementioned loves regardeth uses as its ends, the love of heaven spiritual uses, the love of the world natural uses, which may be called civil uses, and the love of self corporeal uses, which may be also called domestic, for itself, or for those with whom it is connected.

395. That those three loves are implanted in every man by creation, and consequently that he inherits them by birth, and that they tend to his perfection, when they are rightly subordinate to each other, but to his destruction, when they are not rightly subordinate, will be shewn in the following article; at present we shall only observe, that those three loves are in right snbordination, when the love of heaven, constituteth the head, the love of the world, the breast and belly, and the love of self, the feet and soles of the

* See note, n. 38, concerning the author's allusions to the human body and its several parts.


The human mind, as was observed in a former chapter, is distinguished into three regions, from the highest of which a man regardeth God, from the second or middle, the world, and from the third or lowest, himself; and in consequence of this its true nature and constitution, the mind is capable of being raised, and of raising itself, upwards, because it can look towards God and heaven; it is also capable of being diffused, and of diffusing itself, laterally in every direction, because it can look round into the world, and its nature; and lastly, it is capable of being sunk, and of sinking itself, downwards, because it can look towards earth, and towards hell in these respects, mental vision is like that of the body, the latter also having a power to look upwards, to look round about, and to look downwards. The human mind is like a house with three stories, which have a communication with each other by means of stairs, in the highest of which dwell angels from heaven, in the middle, men from the world, and in the lowest, genii. Where the three loves above-mentioned I are in due subordination, man hath power to ascend or descend at pleasure: when he ascendeth to the highest story, he is in company with angels as an angel; when he descendeth thence to the middle story, he is in company with men as a man-angel; and when he descendeth thence below, he is there in company with genii as a man of the world, and instructs, reproves, and brings them into subjection. In the mind where those three loves are in a due subordination, they are also in such a state of co-ordination, that the supreme love, which is the love of heaven, is inwardly in the second love, which is the love of the world, and thence in the third or lowest love, which is the love of self; and the love which is within directeth that which is without at its pleasure: if then the love of heaven is inwardly in the love of the world, and thence in the love of self, man is an instrument of uses in each love, from the

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God of heaven. Those three loves, in operation, are like will, understanding, and action; for the will entereth by influx into the understanding, and there provideth itself means, for the production of action. But more will be said on this subject in the following article, where it will be shewn, that those three loves, when they are in due subordination, advance man in perfection, but that when they are not rightly subordinate to each other, they invert and destroy him.

396. In order however that the contents of the present chapter, and of those that follow on the subjects of freewill, of reformation, and regeneration, &c. may be exhibited clearly in the light of reason, it will be expedient to premise some particulars concerning THE WILL AND THE UNDERSTANDING; concerning GoOD AND TRUTH; concerning LOVE IN GENERAL; and specifically concerning THE LOVE OF THE WORLD AND THE LOVE OF SELF; Concerning THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL MAN; and concerning THE MERELY NATURAL AND SENSUAL MAN; for unless some light be thrown on these subjects, the rational sight of man, in the apprehension of what is to follow, will be like a person in a thick fog, wandering, as it were, through the streets of a city, till he cannot find the way to his own house. For what is theology without understanding? And unless this be illustrated in reading the Word, what is all theological truth, but as a lamp in the hand without a light in it, such as the five foolish virgins carried, who had no oil? But now to the consideration of each subject in its order.


1. Of the Will and the Understanding. "1. Man is endowed with two faculties, which constitute his life, the one is called will, and the other understanding : they are distinct from each other, yet so ordered by creation, as to become a one, and when they are so united, they are called mind: the human mind then consisteth of these two

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