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no other purpose than as a mark of distinction, like swaddling-clothes of different colours put on infants belonging to different mothers, in order that they may be distinguished from each other, and not be changed: II. That it is only a sign of introduction into the church, is evident from the baptizing of infants, before they come to the use of reason, and whilst they are as incapable of receiving any thing relative to faith, as the young shoots of a tree: III. That not only infants are baptized, but likewise all foreign proselytes converted to the Christian religion, whether they be young or old, and this before they have been instructed, if they do but confess themselves desirous of embracing Christianity, into which they are inaugurated by baptism; and this also was the practice of the apostles, according to the Lord's words, "that they should make disciples of all nations, and should baptize them," Matt. xxviii. xix. IV. That " John baptized all that came to him from Judea and Jerusalem, in the river Jordan," Matt. iii. 6, Mark i. 9: the reason why he baptized in Jordan was, because the entrance into the land of Canaan was through that river, and this land signified the church, because the church was there, in consequence of which, Jordan signified introduction into the church: that that land signified the church, and that Jordan signified introduction into it, may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 285. Thus it is upon earth; but in the heavens, infants are introduced by baptism into the Christian heaven, and angels are there assigned them by the Lord, to take care of them. So soon then as infants are baptized, they are placed under the guardianship of angels, by whom they are kept in a state of receiving faith in the Lord: but as they grow up, and become capable of thinking and acting for themselves, the guardian angels leave them, and they draw into association with themselves such spirits as make one with their life and faith: hence it is evident, that baptism is an insertion among Christians, even in the spiritual world.
678. The reason why not only infants, but all others are inserted by baptism among Christians in the spiritual world, is, because different people and nations are in that world distinctly placed according to their religious principles; Christians are in the middle, Mahometans round about them, idolators of various kinds behind them, and Jews at the sides. Moreover, all of the same religion are in heaven arranged into societies, according to the affections of love towards God and their neighbour, and in hell into congregations, according to the affections which are opposed to those two loves, thus according to the lusts of evil. In the spiritual world, by which we understand both heaven and hell, all things are most distinctly arranged, both in the whole and in every part, or both generally and specifically, and on this distinct arrangement the conservation of the universe depends this distinct arrangement, however, would be impracticable, unless every one, after his birth, were to be distinguished by some sign, so that it might be known to what religious community he belonged; for without the Christian sign, which is baptism, some Mahometan, or some idolatrous spirit, might apply himself to new-born Christian infants, and also to children, and infuse into them an inclination in favour of his religion, and so draw away their minds, and alienate them from Christianity, which would be to distort and destroy spiritual order.
679. In tracing up effects to their causes, it is very plain to discern, that on order depends the consistence of all things, and that there are manifold orders, both general and particular, and one which is most universal of all, and on which the general and particular depend in a continued series, and that this most universal one enters into all the rest as the essence into its forms, to which circumstance alone it is owing that they form a one; it is this oneness which is the cause of the conservation of the whole, which without it must needs drop asunder, and not only relapse
into its first chaotic state, but even become nothing. What, let me ask, would be the case with man, unless all and every single part of his body were arranged in a most distinct and orderly manner, having a general dependence on one heart and lungs? What would the whole be but a heap of confusion? for how else could the stomach, the liver and the pancreas, the mesentery and the mesocolon, the kidneys and the intestines, perform each their respective offices? It is by the order reigning in and amongst those several organs, that they appear to man, all and each of them as a one. Without distinct order, again, in man's mind or spirit, and without a general dependence on the will and the understanding, what would it be but a confused and undigested chaos? Without such order, how could a man think and will any more than his portrait or his statue, which ornament his house? What, again, would man be without a most orderly arranged influx from heaven, and the reception thereof? and what would this influx be without that most universal one, the influx from God, on which the government of the whole and of all its parts depends, and unless all things had their being, lived, and moved, in Him, and from Him? The above reasoning may be illustrated by numberless cases adapted to the apprehension of the natural man ; as for instance, what is an empire or kingdom without order, but a troop of robbers, several of whom collected together would slay their thousands, and at last, a few of this band would slay the rest? So again, what would become of a city, or even a house without order? and what would become of kingdom, city, or house, unless there were in each some supreme head and director?
680. To extend these illustrations: What is order without distinction, and what is distinction without its proofs, and what are proofs of distinction without signs or tokens, by which its qualities may be known and ascertained? for without the knowledge of qualities, order is not known to
to be order. The signs, or distinguishing marks, in empires and in kingdoms, are titles of rank and powers of administration annexed to them, whence come subordinations, and hence the co-ordination of all into one body; in this manner the king exercises his royal authority according to order, it being thus distributed amongst a variety of persons, in consequence of which the kingdom is a kingdom. The case is similar in many other things, as for instance, in an army of soldiers, which would not be efficient unless the men were arranged in an orderly manner, and formed into divisions, and these into battalions, and these again into companies, with subordinate leaders appointed to the command of each body, and one supreme commander over all; but where would be the efficacy of these arrangements and divisions without signs, which, in armies, are called standards, to point out to every soldier his proper station? by these means all act in the field of battle as one man, whereas, were those means of order wanting, they would rush headlong against an enemy, open-mouthed, like so many dogs, with tumultuous sounds and empty fury, till they were all cut off by their opponents, not so much in consequence of superior courage as of better discipline; for what can a disunited mob do against a well-disciplined and united army? These instances may serve to illustrate this first use of baptism, which consists in its being a sign, in the spiritual world, that the person baptized is of a Christian community; for in that world, every one is inserted into societies and congregations, according to the quality of Christianity, either within him or without him.
V. THAT THE SECOND USE OF BAPTISM IS, THAT THE CHRISTIAN MAY KNOW AND ACKNOWLEDGE THE LORD JESUS CHRIST, THE REDEEMER AND SAVIOUR, AND MAY FOLLOW HIM.
681. The second use of baptism, which is to know the Lord the Redeemer and Saviour Jesus Christ, inseparably
attends the first, which is, introduction into the Christian church, and insertion among Christians in the spiritual world: for what is this first use without the second, but a mere name? or like a subject who swears allegiance to his king, and yet rejects his laws, or those of his country, and goes over to a foreign king, and serves him? or like a servant, who engages in the service of some particular master, and receives his livery as a token of his service, and then runs away, and in that livery serves another? or like a standard-bearer in an army, who marches off with the standard, and having cut it in pieces, either disperseth the scraps in the air, or leaves them to be trodden under foot by the soldiers? In a word, to bear the name of a Christian, that is to be considered as belonging to Christ, and yet not to acknowledge Him, and to follow Him, which consists in living according to His commandments, is a vain and empty thing, like a shadow, like smoke, or like a picture dyed black; for the Lord saith, "Why call ye Me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things that I say ?" Luke vi. 46: "Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, &c. but then will 1 profess unto them, I never knew you," Matt. vii. 22, 23.
682. In the Word, nothing else is understood by the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, but an acknowledgment of Him, and a life according to His commandments: the reason why His name signifieth these things, may be seen in the explication of the second commandment of the decalogue, "Thou shalt not take His name in vain." Nothing else is meant by the name of the Lord in these passages: "Jesus said, ye shall be hated of all men for My name's sake,” Matt. x. 22, chap. xxiv. 9, 10: " Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them," Matt. xviii. 20: "As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to as many as believed in His name," John i. 12: "Many believed in His name," John ii. 23: " He that believeth not is condemned already,