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rior, that is, of the internal and external man; so that he can play the sycophant, or act and talk in one character before the world, and in another before his intimates; before the world his actions and words proceed from the will of his external man, but before his intimates from the will of his internal man; in this case however we mean the will of the internal man where the ruling or governing love hath its abode. From these few observations it is evident, that the interior will is the real man, since it is there that both the esse and the essence of his life reside, the understanding being nothing more than its form, by which the will renders its love visible. All that a man loveth, and from a principle of love, willeth, is free, for whatever proceedeth from the love of the internal will is the delight of his life, and as the same is the esse of his life, it is also his proprium, which is the true ground and reason that whatever is received from the freedom of this will remaineth, because it addeth itself to the proprium. The reverse happens in case any thing be introduced in a state of mind not free, for in such case it is not received in the manner above described; but on this subject we shall speak more hereafter.

494. It should however be carefully observed, that although the spiritual things of the Word and of the church, which man imbibes from a principle of love, and which the understanding confirms, remain with him, yet matters of a civil and political nature do not remain in the same manner; and the reason is, because spiritual things ascend into the highest region of the mind, and there form and arrange themselves, that being the place of the Lord's entrance into man with His divine truths and goods, and as it were the temple in which He dwells; whereas civil and political concerns, as relating to the world, occupy the inferior parts of the mind, and some of them are like buildings on the outside of the temple, and some like the courts introductory to it.'

Another reason why the spiritual things of the church have their abode in the highest region of the mind, is, because they belong peculiarly to the soul, and regard its eternal life, and the soul is in the supreme regions, and its nourishment consisteth of such food only as is spiritual, for which reason the Lord calleth Himself bread, as where He saith, "I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever," John vi. 51. In that region also man's love hath its residence, which constituteth his blessedness after death; and in the same region likewise his free-will in spiritual things principally resideth, from which all the freedom that he enjoys in natural things descends, and in consequence of such its origin, it communicates with all free determinations in natural things, by means of which the love that reigneth in the supreme regions assumeth to itself whatever is conducive to its purposes. This communication between spiritual and natural freedom is like that which subsisteth between the fountain-spring and the waters that flow from it; or like that between the prolific principle in the seed and all and every part of the tree to which it giveth birth, particularly the fruit, in which it renews itself by the formation of new seeds. But in case any one denieth free-will in spiritual things, and in consequence of such denial rejects it, he maketh for himself another fountain, and openeth a communication with it, and changeth spiritual freedom into a freedom merely natural, and at length into that which is infernal: this latter freedom is also like the prolific principle of seed, which bath a free transit through the trunk and branches of the tree into the fruit, but then the fruit in this case is inwardly rotten, by reason of the corrupt source from which it is derived.

495. All freedom which is from the Lord is freedom indeed, but that which is derived to man from hell is not freedom but slavery; still however spiritual freedom must needs appear like slavery to one who is in infernal freedom,

because they are in opposition to each other; nevertheless all who are in the enjoyment of spiritual freedom have not only a knowledge, but also a clear perception, that infernal freedom is slavery, on which account the angels hold it in the utmost aversion, like the stench arising from a putrid carcase, whereas the infernal spirits regale themselves with it as with an aromatic perfume. It is an acknowledged truth collected from the Word of the Lord, that worship proceeding from a free principle is true worship, and that the Lord is well pleased with whatever is spontaneous or voluntary; it is therefore said in the Psalms, "A voluntary offering will I sacrifice to Thee," liv. 6; and in another place, "The willing among the people are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham," xlvii. 9. Hence among the children of Israel whose worship consisted principally in sacrifices, spontaneous or free- will sacrifices were instituted, for the same reason it was enjoined, "That every one whose heart stirreth him up, and every one whom his spirit made willing, should bring the Lord's offering to the work of the tabernacle," Exod. xxxv. 5. 21, 29: and the Lord saith "If ye continue in My word, then are ye My disciples indeed, and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free ; whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin; if the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed," John viii.

31 to 37.

496. The reason why that which is received in freedom remains, is, because the will of man adopts and appropriates it to itself, and it gains admission into the love, and the love acknowledges it as its own, and forms and fashions itself by it. This circumstance may be illustrated by comparisons taken from natural things, supposing only that in the place of love we substitute heat. Now it is well known, that by heat, and according to its degree, the pores are opened in every vegetable, and as this is effected, the vegetable returns inwardly into the form of its own nature, spontaneously re

ceives its nutriment, retains what is suitable and salutary to it, and encreases by growth. The case is the same with respect to the brute creation; whatever food they choose and eat, from the love of nutrition which is called appetite becomes a part of their bodies, and thus remains and abides; and the reason of such incorporation of suitable and salutary substances is, because all things that enter into the composition of the animal body are in a perpetual state of renovation; a circumstance this which is indeed known, but not to many. Heat also, in its action on the brute creation, opens all parts of their bodies, so that their natural love can act freely; and hence in the time of spring and summer they experience a return of the instinct of prolification and of the education of their young, which functions they perform with the utmost freedom, because they are effects of that ruling love implanted in them by creation, for the sake of preserving the universe in its created state. The reason why freedom of love may be illustrated by the freedom occasioned by heat, is, bebecause love produceth heat, as is evident from its effects in causing man to take fire, grow warm, and burst out into a flame, when the love is exalted into zeal, or kindled into anger: this is the true and only source of the heat of the blood, or the vital heat of man, and in general of all animals; and it is owing to this correspondence, that the bodily organs, by means of heat, are adapted freely to receive such things as the love desires and seeks after. All the internal parts of the human body are in the same kind of equilibrium, and consequent freedom; the heart in this state of freedom impels its blood with an equal force upwards and downwards, the mesentery its chyle, the liver, the kidneys, and the glands perform their several operations of separating, secreting, and purifying the blood, &c.-supposing this equilibrium to be affected, each member would be disordered, and would labour under a paralysis, or an ataxy. Equilibrium and freedom are in this case one and the same thing;

and there is not a substance to be found in the universe of creation, which hath not a tendency towards an equilibrium, that it may be in a state of freedom.

IX. THAT THE WILL AND THE UNDERSTANDING of MAN ENJOY THIS FREEDOM OF DETERMINATION; BUT THAT THE COMMISSION OF EVIL, BOTH IN THE SPIRITUAL AND NATURAL WORLD, IS RESTRAINED BY LAWS, OR ELSE SOCIETY WOULD PERISH IN BOTH.

497. Every man may be convinced that he enjoys freedom in spiritual things, by attending only to his own thought; for who has it not in his power to think of God, of the Trinity, of charity and his neighbour, of faith and its operation, of the Word and all the subjects which are thence derived? and after having studied theology, who is not able to reflect on the particulars of the system? Who has not the power to think, nay more, to determine, teach, and write, either in favour of such subjects, or against them? Supposing this freedom to be removed from man but for a moment, must not his thought instantly cease, his tongue be dumb, and his hands hang down motionless? Wherefore, my friend, you may if you please, only by observation on your own thought, reject and renounce that absurd and pernicious heresy, which at this day has brought a lethargy over men's minds, throughout all Christendom, in regard to the heavenly doctrine of charity and faith, salvation, and eternal life. The following are the causes why this freedom of determination resides in man's will and understanding: 1. Because those two faculties are first to be instructed and reformed, and by them the two faculties of the external man, by which he speaks and acts: 2. Because those two faculties of the internal man constitute his spirit, which continues to live after death, and is subject to no other law than the divine law, the first principle of which requires that man should reflect on the law, should practice it and obey it, as of himself, and yet from the Lord : 3. Because man as to his spirit is in the midst between

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