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stopped to quench their thirst; and a good deal of civil conversation went on. One old fellow, however, who seemed to be half-crazy, was preaching in a very abusive style. He used Bible language, it is true, but they were words of wrath. The "rebel" soldiers only laughed, and chaffed him goodhumouredly.

When we reached Greencastle reports were again rife of "Yankee" cavalry and "bushwhackers," and to our disgust it was determined that Ewell's waggon-train should move forward. That enormous train had parked on each side of the town, and we were in the middle of it, and had thus no choice but to move on too. So we tramped along. It was pitch dark, and by the side of the road innumerable fires were burning, surrounded each and all by groups of soldiers-a strange and picturesque sight. We marched several miles, for the road was too horribly bad for us to use the waggon; and at last halted again, and, finding a barn near at hand, we lay that night on the straw, and were comfortable. Next morning we went to a farmhouse close by, and persuaded the farmer's wife to give us some milk. The population of this part of the country is called Dutch, though neither they nor their ancestors ever had anything to do with Holland.

I find that when people mean to speak of a native of Holland, they call him an Amsterdam Dutchman; but when they speak of one of German race generally, they leave out the Amster. As most of the Germans of any education who come here were Freiheits helden at home, and left their country for their country's good, it is not surprising that they are considered a nuisance. There are quite enough demagogues already in this part of the world without any importations from "Fatherland."

The so-called Dutch, however, in this neighbourhood, are a simple race; they build enormous barns, in which their whole soul is wrapped up.

I talked with the farmer's wife and her two daughters, and attempted to elicit from them what part of Germany they or their ancestors had immigrated from to this country. "Mir seyn Pennsylvanisch Deutsch," was all the answer I could get. They knew nothing about their forefathers, and had evidently never heard of the "old country." Her grandfather had come here from Pennsylvania higher up. "Mir seyn Pennsylvanisch Deutsch," she repeated, with utter disregard of German grammar; and she evidently thought me crazy for asking any further questions. Her accent in speaking German was decidedly Swabian, and both she and her daughters spoke very broken English.

We reached Chambersburg about mid-day, and here I was at last at the headquarters of the army. I drove out immediately to General Lee's camp, about a quarter of a mile from the town. The General was holding council with Longstreet, A. P. Hill, and others, but I was received in a most friendly way by his Staff, to several of whom I brought letters from Richmond. After staying some time, Captain Scheibert of the Prussian army accompanied me back to the town, to assist me in getting quarters at the hotel there, where I should find L., whom I was particularly anxious to meet. After some trouble, and with the assistance of Colonel Allen, who was acting as commandant of the place, we got inside the house, and here I found L. ill in bed.


Through his and Colonel Allen's intercession, and on my promising to pay liberally, and in greenbacks, the landlord was at last induced to receive me into his house, and gave me a very comfortable room. confess I was a little surprised to see how entirely this matter depended upon the goodwill and favour of the landlord. We manage these things differently in some parts of Europe, in war-times, in an enemy's country. During the day numbers of troops passed through the town, amongst them the whole

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of M'Laws's division. They seemed in high spirits, and, as they passed through the crowd of lookers-on, would treat them to a little chaff and badinage. The chief joke was about having "got back into the Union at last, you see. ." The Chambersburg public looked on with stolid equanimity. As long as their persons and property are left alone, they do not seem inclined to take much interest in either side. There are a large number of young fellows "loafing "about the town, who ought to be in the army or in the State militia" at least; which last-named body of defenders of the soil has been called out by the State Government, but does not seem likely to come. Our landlord professes entire neutrality, and asserts that, as the Administration at Washington has done nothing to defend their State, he can see no obligation for them to turn out for the defence of the Government. His son has stronger Union sentiments than the old man, and thinks that Hooker is quite sure to whip Lee, but is content to see it done without his personal assistance. A thick-headed young fellow, a stanch Unionist, with whom I conversed in the parlour, assures me that the South will be benefited by a reverse. "It is just like a bad boy, sir; a good sound whipping does him a world of good!" But he does not seem at all inclined to assist in performing the operation himself. There is a fine wooden statue of Franklin, boldly perched on the top of the county court-house, and painted to resemble marble. I am sorry to say that this great man excited the derision of the passing soldiers, who saluted him with that "terrible scream and barbarous

howling," a real Southern yell, which rang along the whole line. I heard it that day for the first time. It was a very peculiar sound. By practice, many have arrived at a high pitch of perfection, and can yell loud enough to be heard a mile off. They learnt it from the Indians, I believe. Many of the regiments had little bands of three or four musicians who played rather discordantly. The Southerners are said to be extremely fond of music, though they seldom take the trouble to learn to play themselves, and seem not very particular as to whether the instruments they hear are in tune or not. The bandsmen are almost all Germans. I spent a pleasant evening at Colonel Allen's quarters, where there were a good many officers. Whilst I was there a sergeant reported that he had just come in from the country with a lot of horses, and we went out to look at them. There were about twenty big heavy animals, better adapted for draught than for the saddle. The parties sent out for supplies, horses, waggons, &c., give Confederate notes or receipts for everything they take, and the owners are thus sure of being paid eventually; as, if the Confederates do not pay them, they can, with a receipt in hand, easily prove their claim against their own Government for war damages, as indeed has since been done. Still they do not like the transaction, and hide their horses in the woods whenever they can, so that the scouting-parties have to exercise a good deal of ingenuity in finding them.* Next day L. was much better, and we breakfasted at the hotel. As none of the Confederate host were permitted to enter its sacred precincts, the guests at table were

* A little account of this campaign by a Mr Jacobs, professor of mathe matics at Gettysburg College, says of Ewell's "rebel corps, which passed through Gettysburg going to Carlisle: "They did not do much damage in the town. In the country, however, they treated the farmers less gently. They there enacted their old farce of professing to pay for what they took by offering freely their worthless Confederate scrip, which, they said, would in a few days be better than our own currency. Yankees never enact the farce of professing to pay in greenbacks for what they I need hardly say here that the take from the "rebels" when their opportunity comes.

pretty free and outspoken in their opinion of passing events. One lady was especially indignant at the way in which the soldiers marching along had not kept to the road (a thing which it was almost impossible to do, as it was crowded with waggons, besid... the mud being almost kneedeep): The bloodthirsty ruffians, she said, had actually marched through the fields by the side of the road, treading down the growing crops for about twenty yards on each side. The people here are, it seems, beginning to feel the horrors of war!

L. rather exasperated the company by showing them a twentydollar Confederate note, and saying that in a month it would be worth more than all their greenbacks in the North put together.

I went out to the camp again, and was presented to General Lee, who invited me to dinner. It was a frugal meal, and simply served. The General has little of the glorious pomp and circumstance of war about his person. A Confederate flag marks the whereabouts of his headquarters, which are here in a little enclosure of some couple of acres of timber. There are about

half-a-dozen tents, and as many baggage-waggons and ambulances. The horses and mules from these, besides those of a small escort, are tied up to the trees, or grazing about the place. The General has a private carriage, or ambulance, as it is called, of his own, but he never uses it. It formerly belonged to the Federal General Pope. I remained some time at headquarters, and had a good deal of conversation with the officers of General Lee's staff. Major Marshall mentioned to me, as one of the greatest misfortunes which has happened to them during the war (greater, he thought. than the fall of New Orleans), the accidental loss last year, through carelessness by a general of division, of a very important order of General Lee's. McClellan, who had been slowly and carefully feeling his way, totally ignorant of General Lee's plans, and the whereabouts

of his main force, is said to have exclaimed, on finding this order, “Well, if I don't destroy Lee this time, you may call me what you like;" and he immediately pushed on as fast as he could march, and caught the Confederates before they were ready. The drawn battle of Sharpsburg, or Antietam Creek, followed; and Lee, not destroyed, but thwarted in the main object of his campaign, soon afterwards recrossed the Potomac. In the mean time," however, Jackson had captured Harper's Ferry, with its garrison of 12,000 men, and immense stores, so that Lee still reaped some advantage from his ably-conceived plan of campaign. McClellan alludes to this matter, in his evidence before Congress on the conduct of the war, in the following terms :—

"When at Frederick we found the

original order issued to General D. H. Hill by direction of General Lee, which gave the orders of march for the whole The substance of the order was, that army, and developed their intentions. Jackson was to move from Frederick by the main Hagerstown road, and, leaving it at some point near Middleburg, to cross the Potomac near Sharpsburg, and

endeavour to capture the garrison of Martinsburg, and cut off the retreat of the garrison of Harper's Ferry in that direction. General M'Laws was ordered, with his own command and the division of General Anderson, to move out by the same Hagerstown road, and gain possession of the Maryland heights, opposite Harper's Ferry. General Walker, who was then apparently somewhere near the mouth of the Monocacy, was to move through Lovettsville, and gain possession of Loudon's height, thus completing the investment of Harper's Ferry. General Longstreet was ordered to move to Hagerstown with Hill, to serve as a rearguard. Their reserve trains to Manassas, &c., were ordered to take a position either at Boonsboro' or Hagerstown, I have now forgotten which. It was directed in the same order, that after Jackson, Walker, M'Laws, &c., had taken Harper's Ferry, they were to rejoin the main army at Hagerstown or in another sense. It shows very plainly Boonsboro'. That order is important that the object of the enemy was to go to Pennsylvania, or at least to remain in Maryland. Upon learning the con

tents of this order I at once gave orders for a vigorous pursuit," &c.

Singularly enough, the same General lost an equally important order before the seven days' fighting around Richmond, and it was found on a prisoner who was captured at Gaines's Mill. Unaware, perhaps, of its importance, he had not sent it on to headquarters, or it would have done incalculable mischief.

Next day we moved on a few 'miles on the road to Gettysburg, and encamped near a deserted sawmill. General Longstreet's head

quarters were, as usual, very near to General Lee's, so I walked over, and was introduced to the General and his Staff, to several members of which I had brought letters from Richmond. I dined and spent the afternoon very pleasantly. Besides L., who is staying with Longstreet's medical staff, there was Colonel F. of the Coldstream Guards, who came to the Confederacy by Matamoros, in order not to run the blockade, and had a most adventurous journey through the whole of the Southern States.


Early on the following morning, the 1st of July, the troops began to advance. The trains were enormously large in this army, as, being now separated from their base of supplies, they had to carry everything they wanted with them. Amongst other things, they carried their tents wherever they went, and the troops were never quartered in any village, nor allowed to enter houses on any account. Although this was the case with the Confederate army, I believe the Yankees are not so particular, at least when they are encamping in an enemy's country.

First came A. P. Hill's corps and waggon-train. After Hill's, Longstreet's corps, and in his train L. and myself occupied an ambulance. We got on but slowly, for we were crossing the South Mountains, and the roads were steep and crowded with waggons. Presently we heard cannonading, and news came from the front that Hill's corps was hotly engaged. Just as it was getting dusk we reached the crest of the mountains, whence we had a magnificent prospect of the country beyond us; but of the battle we could see nothing, as the town of Gettysburg, around which it had been raging, was still hidden from our sight. A mile or two farther on we reached our destination for that night. Of course we

were excited and anxious to hear how things had been going; but it soon became pitch dark, and we could not move about, but had to wait patiently till some one should come in from the front. We lighted fires, tents were pitched, and presently the doctors Cullen, Maury, and Barksdale, of whose camp and mess I was henceforward to be a member, rode in and brought us the glorious news. Ewell and Hill, after a stubborn fight, had routed the force opposed to them, driven them through Gettysburg, and taken from five to seven thousand prisoners. The Federal General Reynolds had been killed. Presently General Longstreet and his Staff came in and confirmed the news. The Yankees would probably make a stand to-morrow on the hills south and east of the town, as their position was strong, and a general action was pretty sure to take place. I had not been able to procure a horse for myself as yet, although I had luckily brought a saddle and bridle from Richmond; however, Major Walton, of General Longstreet's Staff, very obligingly supplied me with one. Major Clarke lent another to Colonel F., and L. had brought one from Richmond, so this important affair for us three strangers in camp was satisfactorily arranged. It was still dusk next morning when the sound of cannon aroused

me from my sleep. "C'est le sanglant appel de Mars!" I sang out to my tent-mates. I went over to Longstreet's quarters, a few hundred yards off, "fixed" my saddle and bridle on the horse I was to ride, and then breakfasted with General Longstreet and his Staff. We had to ride some five miles before we got to the front, where we halted at the top of a hill, from which there was a full view of the enemy's position. General Lee was there with his Staff, and we let our horses loose in an enclosed field close by, and lay about for some time looking through our glasses at the Yankees, who were near enough for us to distinguish every individual figure, gun, &c., and who were apparently engaged in the same occupation as ourselves. As evidently a long time would elapse before Longstreet's corps, which was to do the chief fighting that day, could be placed in position, I determined meanwhile to ride into the town of Gettysburg with the doctors. We crossed the ground which had been fought over yesterday. The Confederate wounded had been removed and their dead buried, but there were still a large number of dead Yankees lying about, and some of their wounded, especially in the cutting of a railroad where some of the fiercest fighting had taken place. I saw one man who had been entirely cut in two, his head and shoulders lying a couple of yards from the rest of his body-a horrible sight. The wounded men, too, who had lain there all night were ghastly to look at; and indeed a battle-field the day after the fight is anything but a pleasant place to come near.

Gettysburg is an insignificant little town, but contains some large buildings-county court-house, colleges, &c.-in and about the town. These have been turned into hospitals. At the end of one or two of the streets some sharpshooting was going on at the Federal position on the Cemetery Hill behind the town,

and the Yankees were returning the fire, but without doing any mischief, as far as I could see. Still we did not take the trouble to go beyond the town in that direction.

We met General Chilton, Lee's Inspector-General, in the town. He was riding about seeking whom he could devour in the shape of a depredator or illegal annexer of private property; but I do not think he found any. Indeed, the good behaviour and discipline of the men of this army is surprising to me, considering the way in which the Northerners have devastated the country and wreaked their wrath


women and children in the South wherever they had an opportunity.

They are as cheerful and goodnatured a set of fellows as ever I saw-seem to be full of fun, and are always ready to talk, and joke, and "chaff," but are never pushing or insolent.

We also met General Early, a gruff-looking man, but with a high reputation as a soldier.

On returning to the hill where we had left the generals in command, we found them still there. They had been joined by Generals A. P. Hill and Heth, the latter of whom was wounded in the head yesterday, and several others.

General Hill sent for water, and they brought him some dirty stuff in a pail, with an apology that no good water was to be had within a mile, and an inquiry whether he would wait. "Oh no, that will do very well," said the General, and I began to realise that we were actually campaigning.

Wherever an army is stationary for a few days, the wells and pumps are soon drunk dry; and in fact, before we left this neighbourhood, most of the wells had a guard on them, who only permitted water to be fetched for the wounded. For men in health, water brought from the nearest brook or creek is good enough, and sometimes details of men have to be sent a considerable distance for it.

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