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the most eminent mathematicians ed to lean against a wall, and that, have not disdained to devote a great aukward as it is, is my usual posdeal of time and labour to the solu- ture. tion of mysteries, which deserve no 4. I cannot stand alone but on better name than riddles. The fa- four legs, yet frequently support my mous puzzle of squaring the circle burthen standing upon two only. has perhaps obtained some attention 5. I never breathe but through my from every pupil of the mathema. nose, and I never breathe without tics. The greatest abilities have snoring. been occasionally employed in making the knight move into all the squares of the chess-board, in succession, without passing twice over For the Literary Magazine. the same. Volumes have been written to show the number of ways A SPECIMEN OF AGRICULTURAL in which the words in the following
IMPROVEMENT. hexameter-" Tot tibi sunt dotes, Virgo, quot sidera cælo," may be Extracted from the correspondence differently arranged, without des of a traveller in Scotland. troying the measure. Now the merit of such questions as these, the - THE northern estate called claim they have to our attention, C- , contains about twenty-five seems to consist altogether in their thousand acres, and consists of a difficulty, a difficulty which requires roundish piece of land, jutting out nothing but perseverance in calcu- into the Irish sea, connected, by a lation to surmount. But those ride narrow peninsula, with the main dies, of which Swift's enigmatical land of
shire. The wondescription of “a pen" may be men- ders wrought in this little territory, tioned as an example, seem in their by the genius of the proprietor, are discovery to add much more mate- still more remarkable than those efrially to our stock of ideas, and to fected in W- because its condibe far more excusable engrossers of tion was far more desolate and forour time, than the mathematical lorn, when it came into his possession. enigmas.
Its general aspect was that of sterile I cannot help avowing my appro- mountains, whose summits were bation of riddles in a speculative roughened with rocks, and whose way, and this, Mr. Editor, you will sides were covered with bog and probably think rather an adventu- moss, and overrun with heath and rous undertaking. And yet I feel fern. Scarcely a fruit or timber disposed, just now, to be guilty of a tree was any where to be seen... deed of still greater temerity, and Near the coast a species of negli. not only to justify the propounder of gent and slovenly cultivation took enigmas, but to become myself an place. About ten thousand acres, actual propounder. The following, or two-fifths of the whole, was diI believe, if not absolutely new, are vided into two hundred farms, each, yet far from being hacknied, and on an average, consisting of fifty may afford momentary diversion to acres, and containing, on the whole, some of your less austere readers. about fourteen hundred persons.....
1. I always stand upon four legs, Four hamlets, or villages, composed and move about upon eight.
of cottagers and petty tradesmen, 2. I have three legs, two of which contained, in all, one hundred and support myself, and the third sup- eight miserable dwellings, and about ports me and the burthen laid upon six hundred inhabitants. The chief me.
town was C- , containing five 3. I have two legs, yet cannot hundred houses, and two thousand stand without support. Unless up. seven hundred people. The meheld by some kind hand, I am oblig- thod of culture, with the farmers, was as defective, and the style of were allowed to collect a little peat living among all classes in this dis- and a few sticks as firing, and on trict was as mean and comfortless, which a few sheep and cattle as can well be imagined. The browzed in summer time. In the whole was divided into five pa- midst of this wild, which was digrishes, the town of C- being nified with the name of Cone. The pastors in each gleaned forest, was situated an old crazy a miserable pittance of about fifty mansion, a part of which was kept pounds a year, and the people being in habitable order by the steward, of the English church, the stipend for his own residence, but whose of the clergy consisted, except in outworks and enclosures had been the town, of the contribution called long gone to decay. tythe. Five little schools subsisted, The marriage of the heiress of one in each parish, where the ele. the C- s to sir A- , put this ments of knowledge were taught large estate, with all the authori. for the scanty recompence of twenty ties and territorial jurisdictions anpounds a year.
nexed to it, into his hands. It afPrevious to sir A 's time the forded him a noble field for the landlord resided wholly in London, exercise of his talents, and he lost and the only functions of a landlord no time in carrying his schemes of he ever dreamt of exercising, were improvement into execution. He those of naming a steward to collect visited C- in person, took a his rents. In this choice he was di- careful survey of the wliole, banishrected only by pecuniary calcula- ed all the official vermin who had tion. He who made the most punc- hitherto preyed upon the vitals of tual and liberal remittances was the people, and supplied their place the most acceptable. To the stew. by agents whose capacity and inard, frequently ignorant and mer- tegrity had been well tried. cenary, was transferred all the After rectifying the obvious erpower of the landlord ; and, as his rors and abuses which had crept conduct was under the influence of into the stewardship of this domain, only two motives, to enrich himself, he turned his thoughts to the condiand to satisfy the cravings of his tion of the waste land. An exact principal, we may easily imagine survey being made of Cunder what vexations and oppres- forest, it appeared that, among the sions the poor tenantry laboured. fifteen thousand acres of which it Notwithstanding the ingenuity of consisted, not more than seven hunthese stewards, not a little sharpen- dred and fifty were absolutely incaed by their own wages being fixed pable of being cultivated. These at a certain proportion of the sums were so encumbered with bare raised, they were never able to col- rocks as to make them altogether lect a larger annual sum than seven refractory. thousand five hundred pounds. The Of the residue about three thoucultivated land paid about five shilsand acres were devoted to plantalings an acre, the cottages and gar- tions. Spots, incapable of producing dens, annexed to them, about forty a single blade of corn, were foundt shillings a piece; and the houses in able to support the stately pine or town about ten pounds a piece. Out spreading oak. The soil beneath of this sum, however, little more improved yearly in fertility, from than five thousand ever came into the leaves which fell, avd the shielthe hands of the proprietor, with ter afforded by wood. Thus a conwhich his indolence was satisfied. siderable extent of ground became
Such was the condition of the cul- really entitled to the appellation of tivated portion of the estate, while forest, which had formerly been two-fifths of the whole was a naked conferred upon the whole. In the and dreary waste, from which the course of forty years the ground neighbouring farmers and cottagers was overshaded by lofty trees, whose
loppings afforded firing to the whole The greater part of the wool being district, and whose superfluous exported, this branch of commerce, growth afforded, for all the pur- though inconsiderable, contributes poses of the carpenter, the timber to increase, in some degree, the which the district had formerly employment and thrift of the town been obliged to procure at a dis- and its inhabitants. tance.
The surface of the whole waste At the end of twenty-five years appeared at first to be wholly barthis wood began to reward the ren and uncultivable. On the expeplanter by a revenue of at least five riment being made, however, a shillings an acre, so that he derived, stratum of excellent marle was from what had been wholly unpro- found in many places, beneath the ductive before, an income of seven surface. By a proper use of this hundred and fifty pounds a year. valuable substance, no less than
The larger portion of the waste, twenty-two hundred and fifty acres about seven thousand acres, was a were converted into excellent arawet and spungy soil, which had al- ble land. This portion was divided ways been deemed worthless and into small farms or homesteads of irreclaimable. The spade, how. five acres. ever, was now diligently set to work, These little farms were furnished and, in a short time, all the super- with neat and substantial dwellings fuous moisture being drawn off, the and barns, the fields were completewhole was converted into excellent ly hedged, or fenced, or ditched, upland pasture. The land, pro- and tenants admitted, under strict perly prepared and enclosed, was conditions as to the mode and obdivided into seven sheep farms, and jects of their cultivation. Each an ample stock of the suitable breed farm was divided into five fields, of sheep was imported from the and a certain rotation of crops estaheights of Cumberland. By placing blished in each. It was sir .- 's these farms under provident and notion that this quantity of ground skilful management, for several could be adequately tilled and mayears together, the produce of this naged without the aid of the horse tract, in wool, peltry, and mutton, and plough, and with the spade only, has been more than equal to fifteen by the farmer and his family alone, shillings an acre, one third of which leaving them, at the same time, a has been fixed as a reasonable pro- large portion of their time to be portion for the rent, so that, by this employed either in some mechanimethod of improvement, seven thou- cal occupation, or in labouring for sand acres of moor has been made to their neighbours, whose farms were produce an annual income to the of greater extent. landlord of two thousand three hun. Each of these farms maintain a dred pounds, and of twice that sum cow and calf, a sow with a brood of to the immediate cultivators. The pigs, with abundance of poultry. hands necessary to each of these It affords potatoes and garden proferms, and their families, amount ducts, forming an ample subsistence, to about twenty persons, and their in this kind of food, for a numerous stock to two thousand sheep, five family, and a quantity of grain equal cows, and five horses, with swine to fifty busliels at least. and poultry in abundance. By these These farms are not intended to means thirty-five horses, and thirty- enrich the possessors, nor to afford five cows, and fourteen thousand them their whole employment..... sheep were added to the stock, and They are merely to afford a sure one hundred and fifty persons to the refuge from that poverty, which the population of the barony. The an, want of regular employment might nual produce has generally been produce to the journeyman or laabout thirty-five thousand pounds of bourer, to enlarge his comforts, prowool, and thirty-five hundred sheep. mote his health, and encrease his
independence, and all these value isted on the old farms, and supplied able ends are fully accomplished by their places with new, commodious, this arrangement.
and substantial edifices. By a judi. The advantages of such an esta. cious system of rewards, by importblishment to the sober and thrifty ing farmers from his English estate, poor are so obvious, that sir A whose example was a visible and found no difficulty in filling his lite intelligible lesson to his ancient te. tle farms with industrious tenants, nants, he quickly banished the old the moment they were ready to be defective modes of cultivation, with occupied, and, by this means, he has the indolence and poverty which increased the useful population of followed it. his territory by very near three Under their ancient lords, the thousand persons; he has enlarged principal employment of the peaits farming stock by near a thousand santry was fishing. They were sahead of cattle; he has added to its tisfied if they could glean from their annual produce twenty-two thousand fields a miserable harvest of oats, five hundred bushels of grain, which just sufficient to provide the year the corn-dealer eagerly accepts for with bread, and of barley sufficient a sum not less than six thousand to keep a distillery of whiskey empounds; and he has added to his ployed, and to supply their own own revenue, as rent, upwards of cravings for that infatuating liquid, two thousand five hundred pounds and of hay for winter's food to a a year.
horse and cow. On the produce of The remainder of this waste has their fishery they relied for the anbeen converted, by an elaborate nual portion of their food, and by system of draining, into excellent the sale of the surplus in the neighwatered meadow. This tract bouring towns, they were enabled amounts to two thousand acres, to pay their rent, and purchase such has been devoted to breeding cat- clothing as they could not do withtle, and produces a clear rent of out. Agriculture was an object of three thousand pounds a year. secondary importance in their view:
It thus appears, that a naked and they applied to it with murmuring desolate waste, always dreary to and reluctance. If fifty acres sup. the eye, injurious to the health, and plied them with bread and whiskey, detrimental to the climate, has it was all they exacted from it. been converted into a smiling and About two acres in oats, two in barbusy scene of cultivation; that, in ley, and four or five in grass for the course of a few years, upwards hay, with the rest of the farm in of three thousand persons were ad. pasture, was the ordinary state of ded to the population of the district, things. The use of manure was too and a clear annual revenue created troublesome and artificial. They of eight thousand five hundred and moved the plough yearly from one fifty pounds.
portion to another, and each field These schemes of improvement, enjoyed a fallow of six or eight however, were far from engrossing years. the proprietor's attention. He, at Sir A- , by introducing potathe same time, was active in devis toes, turnips, and carrots, by estaing means for improving the fertility blishing a rotation of crops, and by of the portions already cultivated, carefully collecting and applying and bettering the condition of the manures, has raised the produce of inhabitants. The farms, whose ex. twenty-five acres to five times the tent already was, in general, about produce of the ancient farm of fifty. fifty acres, he divided into portions Each family derives its whole vegeof twenty-five acres; he not only table and animal subsistence and erected new buildings on the new clothing from a field of five acres, farms thus created, but he demolish- while the produce in corn and cated the hovels which previously ex. tle of the remaining twenty is gene. 153
rally equal in value to five pounds and in consequence of the wise and an acre, or a hundred pounds in the equitable maxims of government whole. Only one fourth of this is adopted by the lord, this surplus of demanded by the landlord as rent. agricultural products gradually lesThe remaining seventy-five pounds sened, till it ceased altogether. As may be laid up, expended in addi- this product was more than suffitional improvements, or a revenue cient to purchase all the articles of derived from it as stock in trade, or manufacture consumed within the a capital at interest, or employed in district, or imported into it, a new luxury and show.
class of workmen or manufacturers The ancient tenant found it dif- began to be formed, whose produce ficult to scrape together twelve was sent abroad, and exchanged for pounds ten shillings, in ready mo. money, and the population continued ney, to answer the yearly calls of to encrease, till that point when it the steward. He owed this diffi- was sufficient to consume all the culty to his slothful and intemperate grain, though not all the meat, which habits, and his attachment to the the territory produced. In short, precarious and unprofitable life of a in thirty years after these improvefisherman. The present tenant has ments commenced, the villagers and been weaned from the sea by the townsmen exceeded eleven thousand superior profits and security of til. five hundred, and the whole populage, and sir A allows no spi- lation of the estate, as ascertained rits to be distilled within his barony, by an exact census, was distributed and none to be imported or sold as follows: within his jurisdiction. For a farm of half the extent he pays double Little farmers, or cottagers 2,870 the rent, and still finds himself sur. Great farmers
4,645 rounded with comforts, and growing Sheep farmers in opulence.
Villagers and townsmen 11,508 As the indispensable motive to industry is the power of exchanging
Total 19,176 its products with facility, sir Apaid particular attention to that The population, under the ancient class of his tenants who supplied family, amounted, as we have seen, the rest with articles imported from to four thousand seven hundred pera distance, or manufactured by sons. This number the wisdom of themselves, in exchange for the the present lord has more than produce of the land. The want of quadrupled, and between the happi. capital, knowledge, and industryness, the moral and intellectual digamong his tenants, compelled him nity of the present generation and to supply the deficiency from his the last, there is, as you will readily own purse, and from his own men- imagine, still less similarity than tal resources. Formerly nothing there is in point of numbers. had been exported, in considerable It was a maxim of the Cquantity, but fish, and bread had never to alienate any portion of sometimes been imported. Fish, their landed property, or to part under the new system, was wholly with any of the rights and privileges neglected, and a considerable sur. they possessed as territorial lords. plus, in the products of husbandry, Thcir estate, whether house or land, remained after the wants of the was occupied, universally, by tedistrict were supplied. This surplus nants at will, nor could any motive, found ready purchasers, at fixed and springing from indolence, facility, reasonable prices, in the agents of or avarice, induce them to grant sir A . As the population of leases for a longer term than a year. the villages and town rapidly en. This system can only be ascribed to creased, in proportion to the popu. the lust of power, for the rights of a lation and produce of the country, landlord, extending over a consider