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notions of these improvements to he walked out and home twenty-six some, their dulness is humoured and miles in one day, and read the aided by plates, which exhibit the smallest print, without glasses, as improved apparatus or process to distinctly and easily as a boy of sixthe eve, in such a manner that no teen. Till two days previous to bis eye can fail to comprehend it. He death, he never remembered to perceives that the book is printed have had any complaint or sickness in a cheap and portable form, and whatever, toothache only excepted that, in populous cities at least, The first fifty-six years of his life where such instructions are most passed entirely free from even the useful, they are always to be easily toothache, having enjoyed, till then, had.

sound teeth. After that period, his He then naturally infers, that teeth began to decay ; but, in the every body is acquainted with these course of fifteen years, a new set improvements, and has reduced appeared, of which he continued in them to practice. He lays down possession till his death. his book, and walks forth to enjoy Of his moral character, it is only the spectacle which a reformation recorded, that he was a steadfastly so entire and so beneficial, in a honest man ; sober, regular, and large city, will present to him.- perfectly upright in his deportment What is his surprise and mortifica. His mind was naturally strong and tion, when he finds that every thing acute, not disciplined by a literary is exactly on its old footing !- education, but enriched by observa. Rooms are lighted and warmed, tion and experience. He spent his victuals are cooked in exactly the life in the cultivation of the same same wasteful, dirty, troublesome, farm, the property of which he had and dangerous manner as formerly. acquired early in life, and bent his Of the middling and higher classes attention chiefly to agriculture, in of mankind, there is probably not which he was generally allowed to one in ten whom he does not find be eminently proficient. He was familiar with the name of Rumford; one of the earliest who introduced but they have no conception of the and propagated the potatoe, which real nature and utility of his im- he has cultivated for the last seventy provements ; nor, should you spend years. hours in enlightening their igno- We naturally feel some curiosity rance, will they move a step towards as to such a man's connection with reducing these improvements to the other sex, and as to the postepractice, in their own chambers, rity he leaves behind. We are told parlours, or kitchens.

that he was seven times married. He was first married at the age of twenty-one. With his last wife,

who survived him, he lived longer For the Literary Magazine. than with any of the previous ones,

that is, twenty-four years, having LONGEVITY.

married her when ninety-three

years old. In general, they were THERE died, in February, the short-lived, and were young women present year, at Gloves, near Athen- of his immediate neighbourhood. ry, in Ireland, of a short illness, The years of his widowhood, taken Dennis Coorobee, of Ballendanging together, amounted to eleven. AU aged 117 years. The life of this the children born to him were fortyman was remarkable not only for eight, which is, on an average, one its duration, but for its exemption in every two years, since the first from most of the evils of humanity. year of his first marriage. He had He retained his mental and corpo- three sets of twins, and his third real faculties in full vigour to the wife bore him eleven children in last. Three weeks before his death, twelve years.

His grand children were in num- thinking and habitual security and ber two hundred and thirty-six, confidence grows upon him. Every which is a little more than five to new escape is a precedent on which each child, His great-grand-chile he builds a blind belief of his escapdren amounted to nine hundred and ing for the future. His understand. forty-four, which is more, propor. ing will perhaps readily acknowtionally, than six to each grand- ledge, when the question is put to child. He had twenty-five great- him, that his chances for subsequent great-grand-children, the oldest of escapes are diminished by every whom is now four years old. Of new escape ; but there is a wide twelve hundred and fifty-three de- difference between the habitual conscendants of his body, four hundred viction and the argumentative as. and eighty-seven survived him. sent; and men will always be found

By his last wife he had six sons, to grow confident and wanton, in the youngest of whom is a fine lad proportion to the success of their of eighteen.

past enterprizes. Thus, the man who These facts are extracted from a has lived a hundred years, without register, kept by the old man, of the disease or decay, must feel, in spite names, births, marriages, deaths, of reflection or of argument, as if and general situation of his wives he were exempted, by a peculiar and descendants. The keeping of decree, from death or disease, at this register was his principal a- least another hundred years. It musement, and his descendants be. would be impossible for him to make ing scattered far and wide over the the case of an ordinary mortal his earth, he took great pains to make own, or to feel that terror or that the catalogue exact and complete. Sympathy, which grows out of the

It is to be hoped that some curi- belief of ourselves being liable to the ous person may rescue this docu- ills we witness in others. ment from oblivion, by committing A s knowledge is the child of obit to the press. It must certainly servation and experience, what inlead to some very valuable infer- estimable opportunities for amassences, as to the constitution of hu- ing knowledge would such a long man bodies, and of human society. succession of years afford, to a mind

It is difficult for one who has only enlightened and disciplined ! Comseen thirty years to realize the feel. mon men, however industrious or ings and experience of one who has inquisitive, have their hours of imseen four times thirty. Still harder provement continually encroached must it be to one who has had his on by infirmity or disease; but such customary proportion of infirmity a man as Mr. Coorobec not only and pain, to conceive the intellectual lives a century, but every hour of situation of him who has been utterly his life is rendered active and sera stranger to pain and infirmity for viceable by health. one hundred years together. Every How many generations must pass thing must conspire to remind the before the eyes of such a one! Supformer of the brevity of life and the pose him to have been born and to frailty of mortality ; but it would have lived in the vicinity of London. not be surprising if the latter should He would have seen that vast me. gradually admit the notion that he tropolis almost entirely change its he was wholly unobnoxious to pain inhabitants four times. Being born or to death.

in 1688, the year of the revolution, He that enters a battle, for the he would be fourteen at the accesfirst time, is greatly alarmed for his sion of queen Anne; an age when safety. If he goes through the day men are capable of noting appearwithout injury, his terrors begin to ances around them. Four sovesubside. If the same good fortune reigns have since occupied the attend him through a great number throne, of whom the first reigned of successive battles, a kind of un- twelye, the second thirteen, the

ure

third thirty-three, and the fourth siderably amuse, and somewhat in. (grind-son to the third) the old struct us. man lived to see accomplish the The prince of Torgoff, in Lusatia, forty-fourth year of his reign, and who died the last year, was distinthe sixty-fifth of his age. Had Den- guished by a passionate fondness for nis Coorobee been a protestant son books. He formed, in the course of James the second, he would have a long life, a vast collection of them, occupied the throne instead of Wil. and his attention was exercised, not liam of Nassau, and been, at the so much in studying their contents, opening of the present year, in full in making them subservient and possession of all his faculties, and in instrumental to his progress in a quiet and glorious possession of the particular science, as in ascertaincrown, which he would have worn ing their history; the names of one hundred and three years. their authors and publishers; the

date and place of their publication ; and the department, in a grand ana

lytical system of human knowledge, For the Literary Magazine. to which they properly belonged.

In this collection were deposited STATE OF BOOK-MAKING IN all the works printed in any part of GERMANY.

Germany, during ten years, between

1790 and 1800, which the industry THE number of books published of his numerous agents was able to in any country, in a given time, is a procure. Their number was as very inadequate picture of the state follows: of its authors or its literature. All that can be gathered from such statements General literature

125 relates to the extent to which the Philology

3,006 trade of writing and printing is car. Divinity - - 9,743 ried. We may add, indeed, that it Jurisprudence - 4,010 throws some light upon the number Medicine and surgery 3,440 of readers, since books would not be Metaphysics and moral philopublished but with a view to sell sophy

1,878 them, and they are read by a great Education

997 many more than buy them.

Politics and finance - 3,400 Such computations have, I be Military sciences lieve, never been made in relation Physics and natural history 3,316 to any country but Germany; but Arts and manufactures 1,999 Germany is so extensive a country, Mathematics

977 and so diversified in religion, go- Geography and history

8,235 vernment, and manners, that any History of literature

1,453 computation of this kind, applicable Belles lettres

7,580 to the whole empire, can afford very Miscellaneous

1,190 inadequate information as to its real condition. All the presses

51,638 throughout Germany may, together, annually produce five hundred Thus it appears that only ten poems, but Saxony alone may pro- years produced, in a single landuce four hundred out of the five. guage, upwards of fifty thousand Now Saxony is only one tenth of the books. How these publications whole: so that if that number be were portioned out among the difequally distributed throughout the ferent provinces of Germany, we empire, it will communicate only are not informed. There is good erroneous ideas of the whole. But, reason, however, for believing, that notwithstanding these objections, by far the greater part was pubsuch statements will certainly con- lished and distributed in four cir

phy

289

cles, the Upper and Lower Saxony, carefully attended to, and has as and the Upper and Lower Rhine. great a number of physicians, as the As to Suabia, Bavaria, Franconia, body natural. These are only a . and the Austrian territories, the few scores a-head of physics and number produced by them must be natural history; which, in their comparatively small.

turn, have the advantage, by some By this statement it appears, that hundreds of philology. divinity has produced the greatest Literary history, which, doubt. number of works: very near ten less, comprehends reviews and catathousand; so that to write upon logues, alphabetic and analytic, extheological topics must be more fa- tends to no less than fourteen hunshionable than to write on any other dred publications. When the hisIndeed, when we consider the num- tory of books would form a consideber of the clergy, with their studi- rable library, how voluminous must ous course of life, and that to write be the library which is formed by is part of their profession, we shall the books themselves! But in what not be surprised at the superiority of a desperate state must be the rising their numbers in the list of authors. generation, when it stands in need Germany must contain, exclusive of of near a thousand systems of eduthe monastic orders, not less than cation ! twenty thousand clergymen.

The law is likewise a profession in which books or the pen are the proper instruments or tools. That For the Literary Magazine. upwards of four thousand law-books

MADRAS AND PHILADELPHIA by a profession consisting of not less COMPARED, AS TO CLIMATE. than twice that number of practitioners, is not very surprising. But THE exaggerations and mistakes what sort of thing is German divi- of travellers have been a theme of nity and German law, which affords common declamation these some an opportunity for so many publica- hundred years; but when the fretions ? Desperate must be the lot quency of these mistakes is consi. of these professions, if their mem- dered, we shall readily excuse the bers be required to read even the repetition. I do not mean, at pretitle-pages of all the books annually sent, to renew the topic, or to point published in their respective sci- out the ill consequences that someences.

times spring from these misrepreNext to theology, geography and sentations, but merely to add anc. history seem to have the greatest ther and a lively example of this number of pens in their service. spirit, into which travellers are Belles lettres occupies the third misled by their own partial views place in the scale. Of these there or individual feelings. are more than seven thousand I lately had an opportunity of conworks. Under this appellation, I versing with a person who had suppose, is included poetry, novels, spent a year at Madras. From and plays. Those who relish that him I received the following account luxurious sort of diet must, there of the climate, in which, however fore, be amply provided for. Alas! incredible it may appear, I saw nohow small a part of this poetic and thing but what I had often seen be. dramatic library will wander be- fore, in the books of English travelyond the precincts of Germany, or lers in Inclia. survive the extinction of the present According to this person's ac, generation. Medicine and surgery count, the climate is tolerable during seem to be nearly on a par with po- spring, but in the month of May the litics and finance; so that it should weather becomes so intensely hot appear that the body politic is as and disagreeable, that one cannut, with the smallest degree of pleasure, than with the natural hair. A stran. sit down to any occupation, being ger must be very cautious how he under the necessity, even at table, of bathes in the open air ; for, before he having a handkerchief placed on can re-dress himself, he is liable to each side to wipe away the excese have the skin of his back entirely sive perspiration. The land-winds stripped off by the sun : in which are frequently so violent as to un. case it must be immediately anointroof houses and raise small cattle ed with oil or spirits. into the air. Indeed I have myself The heat of the sun is not the found it difficult to keep my legs only oppression felt at this season when caught in one of those whiri. of the year, there being a wind winds. When they are seen ap- which regularly blows strong from proaching, all doors and windows the land for four months without cea. are instantly barricadoed, to pre. sing, that in the day-time conveys a vent suffocation from sand and dust, burning heat, and during the night and having every thing in the house occasions quite a contrary sensation. rendered useless. I have been of a I may compare the feeling, arising party when one of those tornadoes from a gust of those scorching winds, forced us to enclose ourselves in to that of thrusting one's face into this manner, and to sit down by the door of a heated oven; and it candle-light to dinner, which ren instantly cracks the skin in the dered the heat intolerably suffocat- most painful manner. These gales ing. Notwithstanding the manner are seen some time before they ar. in which the doors and windows rive, driving fariously from the were thus blocked up, the sand and west in great whirlwinds and tor. dust was forced by the wind through nadoes, raising, to the very heavens, many imperceptible crevices, and sand, and everything else which fell so thick upon our plates as to they encounter, in awful clouds and be taken up upon a point of a knife pillars of dust. like pounded pepper.

After listening to this account, one The land-winds are lulled to very naturally concludes that the wards evening; and before it is country is either quite uninhabitable, midnight become quite cold. This or that the people are obliged to transition is very unwholesome use such precautions against heat, and if a person sleeps where there for the greatest part of the year, as is a strong draught of air, which a to make their lives, for that period stranger is naturally led to do from at least, both useless and burdenthe heat, he will, in all probability, some. lose the use of his limbs before Proceeding, however, to put new morning upon the side exposed to questions to my friend, I was inthe wind.

formed, of what indeed is generally Some people in this season change known, that the city, whose atmotheir linen three or four times a day, sphere is thus described, is crowded which is labour in vain; as that new. with some hundred thousands of ly put on becomes as moist in one people, who are, with the exception minute as the former; and the of one in a hundred, busy and dex. heat relaxing a person so much that terous artizans and shopkeepers, he becomes quite feeble and ex. who pass active and long lives in hausted before the operation of shift. constant exercise ; who have nei. ing is completed. Some are, how ther money nor leisure to provide ever, agreeably refreshed in the themselves a shelter from these morning by having several pots of showers of sand, these clouds of incool water thrown over them as sects, or this intolerable sun. That they rise from their beds ; but this the neighbouring country is highly is only a temporary relief. Those peopled and cultivated by peasants, who wear wigs most certainly en- who have no defence against these joy this luxury in greater perfection evils but huts of reeds and cotton

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