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“ It seems to be, Julia, that the as the respect of others, all manonly true grief is connected with kind must bow to fashion, by a subguilt. Every other has so many mission to which that respect can gleams and respites, and is so tran- only be purchased. sient, and carries in its train so Fashion, indeed, becomes somemany after joys! But remorse! times the standard of beauty and the sense of scorn deserved; the propriety in the minds of its followweight of indignation, human and ers, and hence, with such, whatever divine; that must be agony indeed.” evils their submission to the mode

may inflict upon them, no violence is done to their conscience or their

taste. But this is not always the For the Literary Magazine. case : frequently obedience to fa

shion is painful and reluctant, and is AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY. practised, not because her dictates

conform to those of reason, but beM. CHAPTAL'S account of the cause any evil, poverty, disease, and method of fertilizing the mountains even death itself, is better, in our in the Cevennes is curious, and deluded apprehensions, than to be shows how necessity will, at times, out of the fashion, render the most infertile regions In reading an account of the Bri. productive, though, perhaps, the tish embassy to Ava, I was much exertions of these mountaineers are struck with the following instance, not equalled by the patient industry in which fashion lays as heavy a of the Chinese in similar situations. load on a king as on a porter. The inhabitants of the Cevennes The ambassador was, in due time, raise walls at the bottoms of the admitted to an audience of his Birmountains across the termination of man majesty. We had been seated, the gullies, which suffer the water says he, a little more than a quarto escape, and retain the soil. Pa- ter of an hour, when the foldingrallel ones are erected at different doors that concealed the seat openheights; and thus nature forms the ed with a loud noise, and discovered hanging gardens which supply the his majesty, ascending a flight of mountaineer with the food which his steps, that led up to the throne attentive industry has so justly from the inner apartment. He admerited. The receding strata of vanced but slowly, and seemed not of the calcareous rocks are by a to possess a free use of his limbs, similar method formed into various being obliged to support himself plats of a smaller size.

with his hands on the balustrade. I was informed, however, that this appearance of weakness did not

proceed from any bodily infirmity, For the Literary Magazine. but from the weight of the regal

habiliments in which he was clad; THE BURTHEN OF POMP. and if what we were told was true,

that he carried on his dress fifteen IT is no new remark, that the viss, upwards of fifty pounds avoirhonours and distinctions of the world dupois of gold, his difficulty of asare generally purchased, not only at cent was not surprising. On reachthe expence of much money, but of ing the top he stood for a minute, much health, comfort, and ease. As as though to take breath, and then fashion is many-fold and ever-vary- sat down on an embroidered cushing, it must be in almost perpetual ion, with his legs inverted. His conflict with truth which is one, and crown was a high conical cap, richly with propriety which is uniform ; studded with precious stones ; his but as there is no consideration of fingers were covered with rings, and so much importance, in vulgar eyes, in his dress he bore the appearance of a man, cased in golden armour, all jargon, at which common sense whilst a gilded, or probably a gold- recoils; but, from its having been en, wing on each shoulder, did not once adopted, like many other figadd much lightness to his figure. ments, it finds the most strenuous

supporters among those who love to take things upon trust, and hate the

labour of a serious thought. For the Literary Magazine. Square and cube are modes of

continued quantity, and cannot be ALGEBRAIC ABSURDITIES. applied to numbers : the absurdity

is seen in the use of the word sur. IN the first attempts of a student solid; for, if there could be such a of geometry and algebra, one of the thing as a solid number, there might most discouraging circumstances he be a sursolid number, and a thing meets with is the strange language might be more than solid, which is in which the principles of these sci. absurd. ences are wrapt up. He will natu. People err much in supposing rally expect to find, and therefore that a word is of little consequence, will not be surprised or disheartened if it is explained. If that word has at finding, words entirely new to a very different meaning in other him; but he will be extremely respects, the learner will confound puzzled when he meets with terms, frequently the different meanings, with which he is already familiar, and pass through life without having used in a sense, not merely new, a clear idea upon the subject. In but contradictory.

educating children, we should take He well knows, for instance, that care not to use a word above their a number may be greater or less comprehension, nor, by our authothan another number; it may be rity, to impress a position on their added to, taken from, multiplied in- minds which is not true. If we to, and divided by another number; teach them little, we should teach but in other respects his reason in- them that little well : but we are forms him that it is very untract- doing them a real injury, when we able: though the whole world should fill their heads with a jumble of be destroyed, one will be one, and words, or with false and incoherent three will be three ; and no art notions. whatever can change their nature. These sciences deal so much in

You may put a mark before one, abstractions, that it is difficult which it will obey : it submits to be enough at any rate to make ourtaken away from a number greater selves familiar with the ideal existthan itself, but to attempt to take it ences about which they are conversaway from a number less than it- ant. It seems peculiarly absurd to self is ridiculous. Yet this is at. heighten these inevitable difficulties tempted by algebraists, who talk of by the addition of needless ones. a number less than nothing, of mul- Metaphors and fictions abound most tiplying a negative number into a in the two sciences where they would negative number and thus producing naturally be least expected, in maa positive number, and of a number thematics and in law. being imaginary. Hence they talk of two roots to every equation of the second order, and the learner is to try which will succeed in a For the Literary Magazine. given equation : they talk of solving an equation, which requires two SHAKESPEARE RE-EXAMINED. impossible roots to make it solvible: they can find out some impossible THE remarks made, in a former numbers, which, being multiplied number, on the similies of Shakestogether, produce unity. This is peare, has not met with the appro. bation of all your readers. Some find ten lines together not blemishobjection was made by the critic to ed by some of them. To point out the terms made use of by Troilus, and ponder on the beauties of when, speaking of his efforts to dis- Shakespeare is a pleasing and proguise his uneasiness, he says, that fitable task ; but these beauties will

his sigh was buried in wrinkle of be seen in their greatest splendour a smile."

only by the eye which most truly The term wrinkle was thought distinguishes between various shades to be exceedingly inapt and unsuit. of excellence, and between excelable, because a wrinkle is a furrow lencies and faults. produced by age upon the cheek or

CRITO. forehead, and cannot, therefore, be employed to illustrate the influence of a smile.

A correspondent, in the last num For the Literary Magazine. ber, has arraigned the critic before the tribunal of Johnson. He seems

DIAMONDS. tacitly to admit, that, if a wrinkle be a furrow produced only by age, A FRIEND of mine is at a loss that then the objection is a just one: to conceive by what means the great but he denies that this is a true de. fortunes which some few lucky mi. finition of a wrinkle, and refers us nions of the blindfold goddess in this to Johnson's Dictionary, in which a side of the ocean, and many more wrinkle is described to be

on the other side, possess, could be 1. A furrow or corrugation on the spent. I referred him to a lawsuit, skin or face ;

of which the report is to be found in 2. Any roughness.

all the London newspapers of the It may seem a little daring to de. day, in which certain jewellers ny the right of Johnson to decide in claim from the prince of Wales the cases of this kind; yet I cannot help value of certain jewels furnished, in observing, that I think the definition the course of three years, to his is a defective one. It is true that a royal highness. After an impartial wrinkle is a corrugation or rough- hearing, the jury awarded to the ness on the skin : but this is not plaintiffs, as their due, the trifling enough; it is a corrugation or rough- sum of fifty thousand nine hundred ness of a particular kind, and pro- pounds sterling. duced by a particular cause. A furrow produced by a hot iron, the scar produced by an old wound, by a healed abscess, all come within For the Literary Magazine. this definition ; and yet surely it would be a gross breach of propriety

THE GOLDEN AGE. to call a roughness or furrow, produced by burning, scarification, con- THE millenial period, or period tusion, or disease, by the name of of perfect terrestrial felicity, a wrinkle. The term wrinkle is, in christian poet always considers as my mind, inseparably associated future; the Greek and Roman poets with age. It is so generally used always as past. in this sense, both among writers The description which Tibullus and talkers, that I think no one is gives of Saturnean times is embel. justified in using it in any other. lished with all the fairest flowers of

That Shakespeare should err, on fancy; but there is this material dif. this occasion, is surely nothing to be ference between the Romans and wondered at, since errors of the ourselves : these happy times were same kind, and of every kind, are reviewed there with lamentation $0 plentifully strewed over his and regret, as past and gone, and works, that it would be difficult to never to return. By us they awak.

en only the sentiments of joy and and as a country where the misery hope, because we are hastening to and desolation of war were experiwards them, and our partaking of enced in their fullest extent ; and their blessings will wholly depend yet, if I have stated a just definition upon ourselves.

of liberty and happiness, it may be It is somewhat remarkable, that proved, that in no corner of the the Hebrew poets, when they de- world have they flourished more scribe the land of promise, should than in the dominions of the Prusselect the same images with those sian Fredericks for the last sixty adopted by Tibullus, in describing years. his happy land. Palestine is coin- The laws of Frederick are not monly pictured as a land flowing only good and just, but being made with milk and honey. These images by a man who knew the power of are thus amplified by Tibullus : words, are short, determinate, and

easily understood. Of the law's Ipsæ mella dabant quercus, ultroque fem obscurity, expensiveness, or delay, rebant

there is less occasion to complain Obvia securis ubera lactis oves.

than in any kingdom on earth; and during the greater part of his reign after he had reformed his

courts of justice, there scarcely ocFor the Literary Magazine. cur, in the lapse of thirty years,

three instances of legal oppression. NATIONAL LIBERTY AND HAPPI It may be alleged, that the PrussiNESS.

ans, however well governed, enjoy

not any share in the public adWHERE is a nation free and ministration, and cannot therefore happy to be found? These terms feel themselves much interested in are thought to be correlative. A the public good. But these prenation is said by some to be happy mises are untrue. The truth, howonly as it is free.

ever, is, Frederick acknowledged Most readers will probably smile with pleasure the states of each when I direct them to Prussia, in province: they met regularly at the reign, almost one continued and stated times in national assemblies; destructive war, of the great Frede. he consulted them on matters of rick; and yet, were I called upon to general legislation ; listened paname a country, the freest and most tiently to their advice ; committed prosperous of all countries, I should to them the administration of their not hesitate to name this.

internal government, and entrusted The meaning of the word liberty them with the collection of the taxes. is continually varying. At no time These institutions, which he introhave any two nations used it in the duced and confirmed, represent same sense. In my opinion, to con- not the image of a military despotstitute civil liberty, there must be ism, but rather breathe the genuine equal laws, and those impartially spirit of just monarchy, which of all executed; justice must be promptly, governments promises perhaps the equitably, and cheaply dispensed; greatest share of public happiness. and the nation at large should be Though it may reasonably be reentitled to express its sense of pub. gretted, that this patriot king did lic measures, and to confine the ex- not crown his great work, and, enertions of political power within the forcing manners by law, render that sphere of public good.

constitutional and unalterable, which The Prussian territory in Ger. is in some measure casual and armany is vulgarly considered as af- bitrary; yet, with the education fording the most complete example which that extraordinary man gave of a military despotism, especially the princes of his fainily, a king of under the reign of Frederick II, Prussia cannot be suspected of wishing to govern despotically; and their revenues, whose operations, should he ever entertain that mad domestic and foreign, have been project, it is boldly insinuated by a crowned with unexampled success, Prussian minister, that considering who, amid the greatest and most the sentiments and principles with glorious wars recorded in history, which Frederick inspired his sub- have improved their agriculture and jects, such an unworthy successor extended their manufactures to a could not hope to enjoy a peaceful degree almost incredible, and who or durable reign.'

from obscurity and contempt have Of national prosperity, liberty risen to the highest rank of national seems a component part, because renown, must, both collectively and without liberty there cannot be se. individually have been employed in curity, and without security there such a series of prosperous actions cannot be enjoyment. To insure the as could not fail, notwithstanding faithful execution of just laws, the the occasional calamities of war, to people at large should have a share afford an extraordinary balance in in enacting and administering them; favour of public happiness. That but as to the degree to which that the Prussians enjoyed this happi. influence should extend, and the mode ness, and referred it to its true cause, in which it should be exerted, no two the wisdom and virtue of their king, reasoners fully concur. The diffe. appears from events, the history of rent forms, therefore, of just govern- which might serve to revive the ment (for despotism or tyranny is obsolete virtue of patriotism, and to an abuse, whether it be exercised teach the true duties of citizens to by one or ten thousand) must be re- those who have long branded the lative to the national character; and Prussians as slaves. opinion, which governs all things, will render that system good in one country, which would be bad in another.

For the Literary Magazin.. Some of my readers may not be able to comprehend that species of ON RUMFORD'S ECONOMICAL IMhappiness which a nation enjoys,

PROVEMENTS. whose point of honour is obedience, whose pleasures are purchased by THE imperfect state of human toil, and whose frugal luxuries are society is not owing so much to men's seasoned by habitual temperance, total ignorance of modes and operawhose amusement and delight con- tions better than those in ordinary sist in the performance of their civil ,use, as to a kind of apathy or obstiand military duties, and whose nacy, which makes them turn a dearest reward is the approbation deaf or listless ear to the voice of of their superiors.

their instructors, and to the influTo measure the relative happie ence of habit, which, if it does not ness of individuals, who act from annihilate certain evils and disdifferent motives, and pursue diffe. tresses, yet lightens them to the rent ends, is impossible ; because, imagination of the sufferers. where no similarity prevails, no Let a man in his closet take up comparison can be made. But in the works of count Rumford. He estimating national felicity, and par. finds a great variety of improveticularly that of Prussia, there are ments in those processes, on which two considerations of irresistible the comfort and subsistence of all weight. If happiness consist in ac- immediately depend. He finds these tion, that nation cannot be misera, improvements verified by a vast ble, whose public transactions have number of experiments; he finds been always prosperous. A people them explained in the most comwho, in the course of forty years, plete and satisfactory manner. If triple their population, and triple words be insufficient to convey just

VOL. III. NO. XXI.

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