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An original work, on the Present The remarkable decrease of State of Peru, appeared in Febru- deaths by the small-pox, occasioned ary.

by the adopting of vaccine inoculaThe British and Foreign Bible So- tion, appears by the following comciety, of which lord 'Teignmouth is parative view, extracted from the president, has been presented with bills of mortality for London : à valuable collection of copies of the Scriptures, in foreign languages, the Deaths in 1803. In 1804. acquisition of which has engaged January

181 120 the donor's attention for many years. Febuary 121 An important work will soon ap March

95

44 pear under the title of Elements April and Practice of Naval Architecture, unfolding the Principles of the Art

June

48 9 of Ship Building, illustrated with numerous engravings.

August Mr. Collins proposes to publish, September by subscription, the Memoirs of a October 64 Picture ; containing the life and November 152 singular adventures of the Chevalier December 180 50 Vanderwingtie, and other celebrated characters; including a biogra

Total 1173 586 phical sketch of the late Mr. George Morland.

This decrease will appear still more A Statistical and Historical En- iniportant, when compared with the quiry into the Population of Ireland annexed deaths by small-pox, for will shortly appear.

50 years, within the bills of mortaA Narrative of Events recently lity, averaged by ten years : taken place in Ireland, among the Society called Quakers, has lately

Deaths. appeared. The writer is said to be From 1750 to 1759 19,642 Wm. Rathbone, a merchant of Li

1760 1769 24,435 verpool, a member of that society,

1770 1779 22,039 who, in their discipline, have insti

1780 1789 17,121 tuted proceedings against him, for

1790 1799 17,685 unnecessarily, as they couceive, exposing the weaknesses of their mem

Total, in 50 years 100,922 bers, and for deviating from their advice; which is intended to re. Making an annual average of 2018 strain publications by any member, deaths by small-pox. The following affecting the principles of the soci- is an annual statement of deaths io ety, unless previously sanctioned by the present century: their approbation. Dr. Thornton is engaged in a

Deaths. work in defence of the vaccine

1800

2409 system.

1801

1461 The English language continues

1802

1579 to make considerable progress on

1803

1173 the continent. In all the new Rus

1804

536 sian institutions, and in most of the German universities and academies, Mr. Goldson, of Portsmouth, has there is a master for teaching it; made several experiments to ascerand a number of elementary books, tain the effect of vaccination on the and selections from the writings of hand ; and has uniformly produced the best English authors, have been a vesicle distinctly different from lately published.

that in the arm, though the same matter was used in both cases. The every autumn, by the savages or result of these experiments, with white hunters, either by chance or further facts and observations on the with the design of facilitating their small-pox subsequent to vaccination, hunting. are now in the press.

The waters of the Missouri are muddy, and contain a fine sand, which soon precipitates : but this

circumstance takes nothing from For the Literary Magazine. their salubrity.

The waters of the Missouri are THE MISSOURI.

more wholesome than those of the

Ohio and the upper Mississippi. THE Missouri, with whose sour. The rivers and streams which empty ces we are still unacquainted, is, in the Missouri, below the river notwithstanding, ranked among the Plate, are clear and limpid; but, greatest rivers. Happily for our above this river, they are as muddy age, some intelligent travellers are as those of the Missouri itself. This engaged, under the auspices of go- is occasioned by beds of sand, or vernment, in tracing this river even hills of a very fine white earth, from to its sources.

whence they take their rise. The Missouri joins the Mississippi The bed of the Missouri is obfive leagues above the town of St. structed with banks, sometimes of Louis, about the 40th degree of north sand, and sometimes of gravel, latitude. After uniting with the which frequently change their place, Mississippi, it flows 1200 miles be- and consequently render the pavi. fore it empties itself into the Gulph gation always uncertain. Its course of Mexico. On ascending six hun. is generally west by north-west. dred leagues, no diminution is per. The flats are covered with huge ceived, either in its width or rapi- trees : the poplar; the sycamore, dity. The principal rivers which out of one piece of which are made empty into the Missouri are the canoes, which carry almost 18,000 Gasconade, the river of the Osages, weight; the maple, which affords the two Charatuns, the Great river, the inhabitants an agreeable and the river Des Canips, Nichinen, Ba- wholesome sugar. toney, the Great and Little Nimaha, 'The wild cherry tree, and the the river Plate, the river de Sioux, red and black walnut, so useful in the L'Eau Qui Court, &c.

joiners' work. As far as twenty-five leagues The red and white elm, necessaabove the Mississippi are found dif- ry to cart-wrights. ferent settlements of Americans, at The triacanthos, which, when Bonhomme, and Femme Osage, &c.; well trimmed, forms impenetrable beyond this, its banks are inhabited hedges. only by savages : the Great and Lite The water-willow, the white and tle Osages, settled 120 leagues on red mulberry-tree. the river of that name, the Canips, The linden-tree, the horse-ches. the Ottos, the Panis, the Loups, or nut of India, so much prized in the Panis Mahas, the Mahas, the Pou- European gardens, &c. kas, the Ricaras, the Mandanes, the On the shores are found, in abunSioux: the last nation is not fixed dance, the white and black oak, proon the banks of the Missouri, but per for every kind of ship-wrights' habitually comes there to hunt. and carpenters' work.

The banks of the Missouri are The pine, so easily worked, and, alternately woods and prairies: the on the stoney mountains, the dua higher you ascend this river, the rable cedar. more common are these prairies, The plants are still more numer. and they seem to increase every ous. The Indians are well acq'iaintyear, by the fires which are kindled ed with the virtues of many of them. They make use of them to heal might be employed in more importtheir wounds, and to poison their ant works. They have also quar. arrows. They also make use of ries of marble, of which we only different kinds of savovanues, to die know the colour : they are streaked different colours. They have one with red. One quarry is well which is a certain and prompt cure known, and easily worked : a spe. for the venereal disease. In short, cies of plaster, of the same nature they carefully conceal from us a as that of Paris, and of which the plant, which renders thein, for a United States make great use. few moments, insensible to the heat They also find volcanic stones, of the most ardent fire. I have seen which demonstrate the ancient ex. them seize a red hot iron, or burn- istence of volcanoes. ing coal, without suffering.

Respecting the various mines on The lands on the Missouri are the borders of the Missouri, we capable of yielding all the produc- know with certainty only of those of tions of the temperate, and even iron, lead, and coal; there are, no some of those of the warm climates: doubt, some of tin, copper, silver, wheat, maize, and every species of and even of gold, according to the grain, Irish potatoes, and excellent accounts of the Indians, who have sweet potatoes. Hemp seenis here found some particles or dust of these to be indigenous ; even cotton suc- metals, either on the surface of the ceeds, though not as well as in more earth, or on the banks of small torsoutherly countries: its culture, rents. however, yields a real advantage to The products obtained from Inthe inhabitants settled on the Mis- dians and hunters, in exchange for souri, who find in a crop a field of merchandize, may be classed as about two acres sufficient for their follows: families.

Dolls. Cis. The prairies are a great resource, Castor, 12281 lbs, at 1.20 14737 20 being excellent pasture, and facili. Otters, 1267 skins, at 4. 5068 tating the labours of the man who Foxes,

7802 skins, is just settled, and who can thus en- Pouha foxes,

t .50 joy, with little labour, from the first Tyger cats, ) year a considerable crop.

Racoons, 4248 skins, at .25 1062 Clay fit for bricks is very com Bears, black, grey, and mon : there is also Fayance clay, yellow, 2541 skins, at 2. 5082 and every species of clay, which, in Puce, 2541 skins, at 2. 5082 the opinion of intelligent persons, is Buffaloes, 1714 skins, at 3. 5142 the real kaholin, to which the por- Dressed cow hides, 189 celain of China owes its reputation. skins, at 1.50

283 50 There are found many springs of Shorn deer skins, 96926 salt water, more than sufficient for Ibs. at 40

38770 40 the consumption of the country, Deer skins with hair, 6381 when inhabited. I

skins, at .50

3190 50 Salt petre is found here in great Tallow and fat, 8313 lbs. abundance, in numberless caves, at 20

1662 60 which are met with along the banks Bears'oil, 2310galls, at 1.28 2572 of the river.

Muskurats The stones are generally calcare. Martens ous and grit. There is one I be. lieve peculiar to the banks of the

$ 77971 20 Missouri. It is of a blood red colour, compact, soft under the chissel, The amount of merchandize enhardens in the air, and is suscepti- tering the Missouri, and given in ble of a most beautiful polish. The exchange for peltries, amounts to Indians make use of it for calumets; 61,250 dollars, including expences, but from the extent of its layers, it equal to one-fourth of the value.

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This commerce gives an annual stream of pure and sweet water. profit of 16,721 dollars, or about 27 If this country were peopled, the per cent.

working of these genuine salt mines If the commerce of the Missouri, would be very easy, by means of without encouragement, and badly the river Arkansas. This species regulated, gives so great profit, may of salt is found preferable to any we not rest assured that it will be other for salting provisions. greatly augmented, should govern- After leaving the river des Moens ment direct its attention to it? The the fur trade from the upper Misprice of peltry fixed by this table is souri is carried on entirely by Brithe current price in the Illinois; tish houses, and almost the whole of if regulated by the prices of Lon- the furs obtained from other Indian don, deducting the expences of traders, are also sent to Canada, transportation, the profit would be where they command much higher much more considerable.

prices than at New Orleans, where, At about 300 miles from the vil. in fact, there is no demand for them. lage of the Great Osages, in a wes- The further north we go, the great. terly direction, after having passed er the value of the peltries. It is several branches of the river Ar- but a few years since peltries have kansas, we find a flat, surrounded been exported from America by by hills of an immense extent, and way of the Ohio. It is to be de. about fifteen leagues in diameter, sired that the eastern part of Amethe soil of which is a black sand, rica should encourage this exportavery fine, and so hard that the hor- tion, by raising the price of peltries ses hardly leave a trace. During a to nearly those of Canada. warm and dry season, there exhales from this flat, vapours, which, after being condensed, fall on this black sand, and cover it with an incrusta. For the Literary Magazine. tion of salt, very white and fine, and about half an inch thick. Rains DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEdestroy this appearance.

MENTS FOR THE PRESENT YEAR. About eighteen miles from this Aat are found mines of genuine salt, MR. FORSTER, of Royston, near the surface of the earth. The Hertfordshire, has made a successful Indians, who are well acquainted experiment of feeding sheep, during with them, are obliged to use levers winter, on potatoes. In the course to break and raise it.

of the last winter, his turnips fail. About fifteen leagues from the flat, ing, he gave his sheep potatoes, and and in a southerly direction, there with them nothing more than fresh is a second mine of genuine salt, of straw, night and morning; and, at the same nature as the other. These the end of March, the ewes and two mines differ only in colour; the lambs of his flock were allowed to first borders on blue, the second red. be in better condition than those of Further south, and still on the any fock in the neighbourhood. branches of the Arkansas, is a sa A new method of forming roads line, which is one of the most in- on clay, or wet bottoms, is the folteresting objects in nature.

lowing :-First throw the soil from On the declivity of a small hill, the sides, leaving a groove in the there are five holes, about a foot middle for the materials, beginning and a half in diameter, and two in with kid or brush-wood plentifully, depth, always full of salt water, then stones and gravel : if the grawithout ever overflowing. If a per- vel be very sharp and good, there son were to draw any of this water, is no occasion to round the road, the hole would immediately fill it. Even a concave surface is found to self; and about ten feet lower, there answer very well ; but where the flows, from this same hill, a large materials are tender, it may be bet

VOL. III. NO. XX.

ter to round it a little, but not so rarefaction of the air in air-tight much as is frequently done, being stone chambers, placed one above often dangerous, and hurtful to the another. For this invention he has road, by obliging the carriages to been presented with a gratuity of keep in one track.

3000 dollars by the Board for the A new method has been discover. Encouragement of Arts at Paris, ed of dving cotton a rose colour, for The public will soon possess very which purpose wild plums and mu. accurate and complete details relariatic or sulphuric acid, are em• tive to Georgia, a country the preployed.

sent state of which is but little A very curious experiment has known. Besides the expedition unlately been repeated before the Na- dertaken by order of the Russian tional Institute. If the air be very government under count Mussin rapidly compressed in the ball of Puschkin accompanied by several an air-gun, a quantity of heat is dis- literary and scientific men, the baengaged from the first stroke of the ron of Biberstein, who has already piston, so great that it is capable of published a work relative to the seting fire to a piece of fungus inatch west coast of the Caspian sea, is now placed within the pump. If the travelling in Georgia to examine body of the pump terminate by a every thing relating to the agriculmoveable end, formed of a piece of ture and the commerce of silk. stcel firmly screwed in, and furnish- Three engineers have recently been ed in its centre with a glass lens, dispatched to that country, to collect which admits of the inside being farther information. seen, at the first stroke of the piston, A method of cleaning and prea ray of vivid light will be perceived serving statues, described by Vitruto be suddenly disengaged.

vius and Pliny, has lately been tried, The fruit of the carobe tree (ca- with complete success, at Paris, on roubier), hitherto cultivated along the beautiful sculpture of the founthe coast of the Mediterranean tain of Grenelle. It consists in merely to feed cattle, is found to stopping all the pores of the marble yield, after fermentation, excellent with a mixture of oil of carnation brandy, in the proportion of a pint and virgin wax, applied hot to the to five pounds of dried fruit. marble, which must likewise be

M. Strauss has, after many ex- previously heated, and preserves it, periments, succeeded in applying in future, from those black spots platina to the coating of copper, produced by humidity, which are which will undoubtedly be superior nothing but the vegetation of lichen, to that of tin; not only in resisting a species of very fine moss, the roots acids and salipe matters, but in du- of which strike into the pores of the rability, from the greater hardness marble, whose surface they, in time, of platna, and the process is not corrode and destroy. This operamore difficult than the common ope- tion, performed with care, comration of tinning.

pletely fills the pores of the marble. M. Hermestadt, of Berlin, has dis- The surface must afterwards be covered that the tormeniilla erecta, rubbed with wax, and then with a a plant that grows almost every fine linen cloth; and thus a kind of where, and the polygonum bistorta varnish is formed, that repels the furnish excellent materials for tan). water, and pervents the lichen from ning leather. A pound and a half striking its roots inward. The of iormentilla, or double that quan- most beautiful productions of antitity of bistorta, will tan as much dry quity were polished in this manner hide as seven pounds of oak bark with wax.

M. Trouville has made a new hy. Dr. Salvage has executed some draulic machine, which throws up coloured drawings, which have been water to a great height, without any engraved, representing the beautiollier mechanism, and solely by the ful statue called the Fighting Gla

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