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commencement of that operation, on latter, debased into the condition of the body of a notorious malefactor, automatons and slaves. But this is which lay stretched out on the table not the meaning of the axiom. It is before them : the surgeon, who had thought that the manners of the been placing it in a proper position, men of a nation are improved by turning to the company, addressed the equality or distinction of the them thus: I am pretty certain, other sex. gentlemen, from the warmth of the I am afraid this notion has no subject, and the flexibility of the very firm foundation in experience. limbs, that by a proper degree of At any rate, how shall we reconcile attention and care, the vital heat the moral, intellectual, and political would return, and life, in conse. refinement of the Greeks and Roquence, take place. But then, when mans with the debased condition of it is considered what a rascal we their women ? should again have among us; that The Roman notions of women he was executed for having murder- may be easily collected from their ed a girl who was with child by celebrated writers: at least there him; and that, were he to be re- is nothing else from which they can stored to life, he would probably be collected. murder somebody else: when all The women of Plautus are almost these things are coolly considered, uniformly bad. Those in Terence I own, it is my opinion, that we had are little better; and the only one better proceed with the dissection. among them who had done a good With these words, he plunged the action, begs pardon of her husband, knife into the breast of the culprit, as being convinced of her own cri. and precluded at once all dread of minality, in doing it. future assassinations, or hopes of future repentance.

“Mi Chreme, peccavi ! Fateor. Vincor."

It will hardly be believed by the

unclassical reader, that the fault for For the Literary Magazine. which the good lady begs pardon in

these humble strains, THE WOMEN OF THE ROMANS.

- I was wrong, my Chremes, I own IT has almost grown into an ax.

it. I am convinced of it," iom, that the real civilization of a nation may be estimated by nothing was neither more nor less than more accurately than by the condi- the saving her child from being murtion of its women. If women are thered, as her husband and its farespected as such, if attention be ther, had ordered. paid to their education, if the social Virgil, far from showing the least intercourse between the sexes be li- respect to the female sex, has treatberal and frequent, it is inferred ed them (even according to his that manners have more mildness panegyrist Dryden), in an unjust, and humanity than where these ap- unmanly stile. He has falsified both pearances are wanting

the æra and the character of Dido, Strictly speaking, that nation, the in order to render her odious and females of which are raised to an contemptible. He makes queen equality with the males, must be in Amata turbulent and tipling, and a better condition than another the princess Lavinia undutiful and where the women are degraded, unbelieving. Dryden adds, “ that oppressed, or neglected, because she looks a little fickering after the females are at least a moiety of Turnus." His goddesses are no bet. the whole, and, consequently, the ter than his mortals. Juno is always half which, in the former case, is in a passion, and surely (as Dryden equal to the other half, are, in the observes) Venus is too impudently



presuming, in expecting that her time affords a no less unfavourable husband should make armour for his picture of the age. wife's bastard.

The sentiments thus expressed or Camilla is the only female of implied of women can hardly be whom the poet begins to speak deemed characteristic of the indivi. well, but soon dashes down her duals who express them. If they character, by calling her

are to be viewed in this light, these

great geniuses, Virgil and Horace, “ Aspera et Horrenda Virgo;" are certainly open to great censure.

What, in particular, shall we think Which, like Bojardo's “ Gatta, of the morality, the taste, or the fiera, cruda, dispietata," applied to dignity of a poet who seems to know Marfisa, conveys a meaning as dis nothing of women but as they were tant from any thing amiable, as to be found in the dram-shop and words can paint.

the brothel ? There is, indeed, a As to Horace, it would puzzle any coarseness, I was going to say bruone to find one woman of common tality, in the manner in which Ho. decency spoken of in any of his race introduces women, which is works, unless, indeed, we except not to be found in the other amatory Livia, the wife of Augustus, whom poets of the age. Ovid and Tibulhe calls

lus are occasionally vulgar and

smutty, but they likewise abound Unico gaudens Mulier marito. with passages which show that they

had known and could comprehend The woman contented with one husband. female delicacy, dignity, tenderness,

and chastity. All the rest of his ladies are precisely such as are found, at this day, vagabond in streets, or permanent in brothels. They are all Chloes, For the Literary Magazine. Lydes, Lydias, and Cynaras. Their characters appear to have been

WITCHCRAFT. equally light, and most of them seem to have added the worship of Bac- WITCHCRAFT, in the present chus to that of Cupid : that is, in age, is so generally exploded, that plain terms, to be not only prostitutes it is difficult for us to imagine by but drunkards. He treats them ac- what means any part of mankind cordingly, and recommends it to one could be persuaded of its reality. of them to take care, lest her keep. To punish witchcraft, as it was forer, in a fit of jealousy, should spoil merly punished, we may be tempted her fashionable cap.

to consider as the wildest impulse One tolerably modest woman, in- of prejudice and folly, and account deed, Neobule, he seems to have for it merely by supposing the judge known; but his notions of her deli- under the dominion of a blind and cacy do not prevent him from con- obstinate delusion, similar to that doling with her on the severity of which governs the inhabitants of her uncle, who will neither per- Bedlam. mit her to entertain a lover, nor to And, yet, strange as it may seem, wash away her cares with wine. follies more palpable than this have

Juvenal need not be mentioned: had their strenuous champions, in he avows himself scarcely to have every age, and among the most ineven heard of a modest woman since genious and enlightened of mankind. the golden age.

Genius does not protect men from The prose writers of the Augus- error. It only more fatally misleads tan ära seem to have favoured the them, by supporting them in their sex no more than the poets; and grotesque opinions by more plausi. Seneca's account of the ladies of his ble subtleties.

It is amusing to read the learned which riches are amassed. What Selden's defence of the witch act. made Johnson, Goldsmith, Cowper, Thus he reasons on the subject. and Burns poor? Nothing but their

“ The law against witches does indifference to riches. Had they not prove there be any, but it pu- been as deeply impressed with the ! nishes the malice of those people value of property as the majority of that use such means to take away mankind, there was surely no promen's lives. If one should profess fession, liberal or mechanical, too that by turning his hat thrice and high for their capacity. crying buzz, he could take away a It is true that few bright producman's life (though in truth he could tions have flowed from the pens of do no such thing), yet this were a enormously wealthy writers; but just law made by the state, that who this is only a new proof of the blessoever should turn his hat thrice sings of mediocrity. Men can only and cry buzz, with an intention to be rich by inheritance, according to take away a man's life, shall be put the legal phrase, or by purchase. to death."

Those that inherit wealth commonly receive an education that totally un

fits them for intellectual pursuits. For the Literary Magazine. Those who acquire it by their own

efforts must be qualified, by their ALLIANCE BETWEEN POVERTY taste and habits, for those profesAND GENIUS.

sions which are followed by wealth:

professions that fix the mind upon THE truest stimulus to literary objects very different from poetical efforts, in writing, it has been long fables and scientific theories. ago observed, is necessity. The Besides, though the rich are sel. most ingenious and eloquent of mor- dom authors, there are other me. tals is silent, when relieved from the thods of displaying a literary spirit necessity of writing for bread. This besides that of writing books. "To has been a very prevalent opinion, read, reflect, enquire, by deduction and yet it is either groundless, or it or experiment, is the occupation of admits of a considerable number of vast numbers who are free from the exceptions.

vanity of book-making. They know It does not appear that Spenser, that there are books enough in the Shakespeare, or Milton wrote prin- world, and their modesty forbids cipally, if in any degree, for the sake them to imagine that they can beneof a subsistence. The same may be ficially add to the number. said of Robertson and Gibbon, the Poverty is far from being a spur most laborious of historians. Those to genius; wealth is far less unmen had no objection to combine friendly, though its influence is cerprofit with honour, but the latter tainly not propitious to it. It is the appears to have been the chief mo. middle class that produces every tive of their zeal and industry. kind of worth in the greatest abun

The great improvers in science, dance. We must not look for ferfrom Bacon to Priestley, have been tility on the hill top, nor at the botinfluenced to commit their specula- tom of the glen. It is only found in tions to paper by other motives than the plains and intermediate slopes. mercenary ones.

B. If a great many authors have been poor, it does not follow, though this inference is vulgarly made, that po. For the Literary Magazine. verty made them authors; on the contrary, it is their authorship that PASTORAL MANNERS. has made them poor. Their little regard for wealth has made them THERE cannot be a stronger neglectful of the various ways by proof that the bulk of mankind have

had nearly the same ideas in all Immolatus est nobis," and with ages, than that Idyllium of Theo- great patriotism decreed that, in critus, adapted to modern times, by lieu of this offensive passage, the the ingenious Robert Lloyd. Who- priest should chant “ Qui Brisigi. ever will take the pains of compa- ellatus est nobis." ring the two poems, will find that the chit-chat of two Grecian women of a middling rank, the adventures they meet when in pursuit of a fine For the Literary Magazine. sight, their distresses, escapes, observations, and return homewards,

OATHS. are, with hardly any alteration, the same in Philadelphia in 1805, that NO tenet of the quakers, or they were in Egypt some hundred friends, exposed them, in early cars before the christian era. times, to so much persecution as

their scruples with respect to swearing. At this time one cannot look

back, without astonishment, on the For the Literary Magazine. stress that was formerly laid upon

an oath. The writers on these subBLUNDERS.

jects would persuade us, that the

principle of gravity is not more IGNORANCE of the ancient necessary to keep the universe tolanguages has sometimes been pro. gether, than the formulary of an ductive of whimsical, and sometimes oath is to preserve the system of of very direful mistakes.

human society whole. That conAt a period when it was a preva. Struction which Robert Barclay put lent fancy, among the Italian lite- upon the scriptural prohibition to rati, to adopt favourite names from swear was universally and promptly the Greek or Latin tongues, in pre- rejected, not only in consequence of ference to their own original ones, certain principles of interpretation, Antonius Palearius chose to signa- but because of the social evils which lize his love of the muses by altering must flow from admitting it : evils, his first name to Aonius. A fana- as they imagined, fatal to the very tic, who had taken the name of La- foundation of the social system. tinus Latinius, accused him of hav. Hence, with what caution and reing abandoned the appellation Anto- luctance did the legislature admit nius, merely that he might expel the followers of Barclay to attest from his name the letter T, which their sincerity by other means than represents the cross; and this an oath! And to this day, if I charge, among others, contributed mistake not, nothing but an oath is to bring him into the fangs of the listened to, by judge or jury, in all inquisition, by whom he was con- criminal cases. demned to the stake.

I lately met with the following During the civil contests of Italy, little incident, which, I think, illus. two little towns, Brisiguella and trates, with no small force, the prinImola, both in the district of Bo- ciples that really govern mankind logna, were remarkably incensed on these occasions : against each other, although near The oath used among the Highneighbours. Those of the former landers, in judicial proceedings, place not being very great profi- contains a most solemn denunciation cients in the Latin tongue, were of vengeance, in case of perjury, and peculiarly disgusted with the com. involves the wife and children, the pliment which they apprehended arable and the meadow-land, of the was partially paid to their adver- party who takes it, all together in saries, in the daily service, « Qui an abyss of destruction. When it

is administered, there is no book to ments merely innocent, or, at least, be kissed, but the right hand is held only troublesome and inconvenient, up while the oath is repeated.

till about six weeks ago. At that A Highlander, at the Carlisle as. period a shocking event took place sizes, had sworn positively, in the about three leagues from the town, English mode, to a fact of conse

and in the neighbourhood where the quence. His indifference during

youth's family resides. A young

lady, travelling with her father by. that solemnity having been observa

night, was shot dead upon the road, ed, by the opposite party, he was

by some person unknown. The offi. required to confirm his testimony

cers of justice took a good deal of by taking the oath of his own coun

pains to trace the author of the try to the same. “ No, no," said

crime, and at length, by carefully the mountaineer, in the northern

comparing circumstances, a suspicion dialect, “ ken ye not thar is a han.

was fixed upon this youth. After tle 'o difference 'twixt blawing on a an accurate scrutiny, by the tribunal buke, and domming one's ain saul ?” of the circle, he has been declared

author of the murder : but what renders the case truly extraordinary is,

that there are good reasons for beFor the Literary Magazine. lieving that the deed was perpetrated

by the youth while asleep, and was LOVE.

entirely unknown to himself. The

young woman was the object of his AMONG the various forms in

affection, and the journey in which which love manifests itself, it will

she had engaged had given him the

utmost anxiety for her safety.”] not be easy to produce a case pa. rallel to that of Margaret of Valois, wife of Henry IV, who accompa --OUR guests were preparnied the duchess of Nevers, at a ing to retire for the night, when very early age, on a midnight expe- somebody knocked loudly at the dition to fetch from the gibbet the gate. The person was immediately heads of two infamous courtiers, admitted, and presented a letter to their gallants, Coconnas and La Mr. Davis. This letter was from Motte. These they embalmed and a friend, in which he informed our preserved in their cabinets.

guest of certain concerns of great importance, on which the letterwriter was extremely anxious to

have a personal conference with For the Literary Magazine. his friend; but knowing that he in

tended to set out from four SOMNAMBULISM.

days previous to his writing, he

was hindered from setting out by A fragment.

the apprehension of missing him up

on the way. Meanwhile, he had The following fragment will require no deemed it best to senda special mes, other preface or commentary than an sage to quicken his motions, should extract from the Vienna Gazette of he be able to find him. June 14, 1784. “ At Great Glogau, The importance of this interview in Silesia, the attention of physi

was such, that Mr. Davis declared cians, and of the people, has been

his intention of setting out immediexcited by the case of a young man, whose behaviour indicates perfect

ately. No solicitations could induce health in all respects but one. He

him to delay a moment. His daughhas a habit of rising in his sleep, and

ter, convinced of the urgency of his performing a great many actions with

motives, readily consented to brave as much order and exactness as when the perils and discomforts of a nocawake. This habit for a long time turnal journey. showed itself in freaks and achieve. This event had not been antici

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