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est manner. A sharp instrument is Kotan dairy is a circular space, struck into their spine, which ends built round with apartments, suited their existence in an instant.

to the various purposes of making There is some difference in their and preserving milk, butter, and condition, according to the temper, cheese. In the centre is a court in knowledge, and wealth of the pro. which the cattle are folded, and prietor, but there is now a very which contains all the necessary great uniformity, in all these res. means for feeding, watering, and pects, throughout the kingdom, and sheltering them. the cow that fares worst may still No instrument of tillage is more be said to enjoy a terrestrial para familiar to us than the plough, and dise.

the great business of the ox and the A very small portion of the milk horse is to drag it over the ground. is consumed in its natural state. It The use of the plough has been sugis made into cheese and butter, and gested by the need there was of the residue composes the liquid part economizing labour; and it is so of their food. Their cheese is form- obvious an expedient, that no concd into various shapes, sometimes trivance is more ancient and genefanciful and imitative; but each ral than this. In Kotan, howerer, mass is always so modelled as to the inquisitive traveller looks in weigh about ten pounds. This is vain for a plough. The only instrusent to market in bamboo baskets. ments of tillage are the hand and

The colour of this cheese is a the hoe. The preparation of the bright orange. It is generally dry soil for beel, the planting, the weedand firm, and becomes harder by ing, and the taking up, when maage. It is so hard, before it is ture, are all performed by one incaten, as to endure being ground in- strument, which I call the hoe, beto powder, and in this state it always cause it is used oftener as a hoe comes upon table.

than as a spade, though it is so adTheir butter, the greater part of apted to the handle as to be screwed it, is consumed at a distance from on in different ways, and to serve the place where it is made, and after either purpose, as occasion requires. being kept for some time. It is The want of the plough appeared consequently seasoned with salt, and to me a very manifest defect in their formed into masses of ten pounds. system. The plough performs the

This cheese and butter are gene- work of a great number of spades, rally equal to the best wbich I ever in a shorter time, and sometimes in tasted. They are better in some a more effectual manner. Hence, districts than in others, but the food as there is no business more conof the cows being the same in all stantly and generally followed than cases, the products are sufficiently that of tilling the ground, no invenalike. There is in their milk, tion has done more towards lightencheese, and butter a peculiar fla- ing the most necessary of human vour, arising from the use of beel. labours. At first, this property displeased Finding the use of the hoe or my palate, merely because I was spade universal, I imagined that I unused to it. In a little time, I be- had a fine opportunity of improving gan to relish it extremely, and Sax. their art, and took a great deal of on butter is now insipid to my taste. pains, on many occasions, to show

In their dairies, running water is the great superiority of the plough. deemed indispensable. Their ves. I was never eloquent enough, howsels are formed of bamboo. Their ever, to make a convert of any who churn is a hollow cylinder of this was worth convincing. Their pre. wood, in which there is a turning judices as easily found arguments axis, with dashers affixed to it against the plough, as those of EuThis axis, when the power is at ropean farmers would find them hand, is turned by a jet of water. against the exclusive use of the spade. Every particular in our open the gate till there is a dozen management was such as to shock together of them." their established habits. The mutilation of cattle, the devoting of an animal, so sacred as this is in their eyes, to so toilsome a drudgery, For the Literary Magazine. were the first ideas that always occurred to their imagination. They

LONDON MANNERS. likewise denied that the use of the plough occasioned any saving of la FEW circumstances more strongbour. The oxen put into the yoke ly illustrate the present state of Lon. were to be maintained in health and don manners than the mode on vigour, and the most moderate cal. which gambling is conducted. About culation always makes the subsist. five years ago, a keeper of a gamence of a cow or ox equal to the bling-house became bankrupt. Af. quantity of food consumed by twelve ter having cleared himself of all men. The question, therefore, ne incumbrances by a statute, he imcessarily occurred, whether the mediately opened a subscription strength of two oxen was equal to gambling-house in Bond-street, on that of twenty-four men.'

a larger scale than ever, which All nice comparisons, however, in a few weeks obtained not less between the maintenance and la. than four hundred subscribers, at bour of men and oxen were pre- twelve guineas per annum each, cluded by the notion that the tho- making an aggregate rental of uprough cultivation of the hoe could wards of five thousand pounds a-year not be effected by any other instru. for him to subsist upon, indepenment, and that the present state of dently of half-a-guinea a night, in population and tillage did no more addition, from every person who than furnish wholesome and agree. touches a die or card. Much bu. able employment to that class who siness has since been performed in cultivated the ground : more com- this elegant circle of accomplished pendious modes are thought perni- life. Several of the associates had cious, inasmuch as they would oc- no great reason to bless the luck casion idleness in those who are at that has attended them: yet, in present employed in no greater de- every successive year, the business gree than is wholesome and agree- considerably increased. Lord B-hable.

was unfortunate enough, in a single night, to lose not less than one hundred and seventy thousand pounds, and hereby to render himself a beg

gar for life, or rather, perhaps, to For the Literary Magazine. establish himself as a gambler by

profession. ANECDOTE.

IN a book printed at Bourdeaux, and composed to exalt the merit of For the Literary Magazine, one set of monks, St. Peter is supposed to ask of St. Michael, “ Who

MEDICAL ADVICE. is it that knocks at the door ?" The answer is, « A carmelite." "A WE sometimes meet, among an. carmelite !" repeats St. Peter, pee- cient authors, with advice, in giving vishly, “ a carmelite! I think we which it is doubtful whether they have none at the gate of heaven but were in jest or earnest. This doubt carmelites, from morning to night. can hardly fail of being entertained, Well, he must stay; I shall not when the substance of the counsel is


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considered, though other circum- dably engaged in explaining its stances fully convince us that they puns, illustrating its quibbles, and were serious. The following pas- unveiling its obscenities. sage, for example, occurs in the Thus have many ingenious peowritings of Hippocrates :

ple been employed, during the “In a fracture of the thigh," says last century, in raking together eve. this renowned sage, “the extension rything written by dean Swift. ought to be particularly great, the Nonsense, malignity, and filthiness, muscles being so strong, that, not- that would have eternally disgraced withstanding the bandages, their a living writer, derive a value contraction is apt to shorten the from having flowed from the pen of limb. This is a deformity so de, Swift, and are carefully inserted in plorable, that when there is reason the splendid and costly editions of to apprehend it, I advise the patient his works which are continually to suffer the other thigh to be broken issuing from the press. also, to have them both of one That the dean was a blind fanatic,

may be proved, if proof were want. ing, from the terms of high and fulsome panegyric of which he

speaks of the Memoirs of a Captain For the Literary Magazine. Chreighton, a Scottish officer of

dragoons, employed by the detestaDEAN SWIFT :

ble ministry of Charles II, to disco

ver and seize presbyterian preachSHAKESPEARE and dean Swift ers among the Highlands. The are surely memorable instances of dean extols this wretched tool of the extravagance to which fashion persecution as another Philip de will sometimes carry our veneration Comines. for particular writers. The merit The first exploit this hero boasts of performances in relation to these was the seizing, with a party of solwriters is never considered. The diers, one Stobow, a poor non-con only question is, whether the scrap teacher, and the leading him to belongs to them or not. If it be almost certain death, although his certainly their production, it is im- daughter offered him a hundred dolmediately admitted to a participa- lars to let her parent escape. He tion of their divine honours.

then tells his readers how he and his There was lately an attempt to comrades lived plentifully a whole take advantage of this popular su. year on a contribution raised to reperstition by palming upon Shake. cover a horse, which they had litespeare an antiquated tragedy called rally stolen from a lady who attend. Vortigern. The greatest abilities ed a conventicle. Soon after, our were immediately called into full Philip de Comines, at the head of action, not to ascertain the merit of twelve dragoons, took a very celethe work, and to admit its claim to brated preacher, and brought him notice and regard, in proportion to to the gallows. He now believed its merit. No. This seems not to himself such a favourite of heaven, have occupied the attention of the that he had revelation after revelamob of critics a moment. Their tion by dreams, and impressions on sole enquiry was whether it was his mind, to tell him the hidingShakespeare's or not. Had it proved places of the poor, persecuted to be his, it would instantly have Scotsmen, who were certainly by been multiplied ten thousand fold; no means greater fanatics than himall the splendour of painting, paper, self. These he loads with all the and typography would have been scurrility of a drunken trooper: lavished upon it; and the subtlest they are “ rogues, rascals, rebels," wit and most laborious erudition &c. He 6 rakes hell” to find a would have thought themselves lau. soldier that can mimic their clergy.

men ; in short, the whole work, re- tigably employed than in writing commended enthusiastically by the Latin verses. These compositions dean of St. Patrick's, is the most are, in general, a sort of mosaic, in extraordinary instance of blind fa. which innumerable fragments are naticism, both in the writer and in put together, so as to form a whole, the encomiast, that any age ever entirely different from those entires, produced.

of which these fragments originally contributed to the formation.

But one of the principal freaks of

dulness, and, it must be owned, one For the Literary Magazine. of the most amusing and least dull

of her freaks consists in parody. Of USE OF ASTRONOMY. facetious parody there are numerous,

examples, and there are not wanto THERE are few pursuits which ing instances of serious parody. have less practical connection with Thus the Iliad and the Æneid have the common offices and avocations been, more than once, by an ingeni. of human life than astronomy. It ous and elaborate process of substi. seems impossible to bring into do- tution, converted into histories of mestic application the most profound' our Saviour's life and death. or various knowledge of the heavens. What dulness has often attempt. One of the greatest efforts of astro- ed, genius, allied with patience, has nomical sagacity is the discovery of sometimes not disdained. One of a new planet ; but though the exist. the most extraordinary specimens ence of a planet be of the greatest of serious parody is the production importance in the scheme of the of a learned professor in a Saxon universe, the discovery of its existe university, who has, with infinite ence seems altogether useless to the labour, transformed the odes and regulation of our own private at epodes of Horace into pious hymns, fairs, either as goers to market, as preserving the original measure, superintendants of the kitchen, or as and, as far as possible, the words of presidents of the parlour.

the Roman poet. The classical The ancients have left us a good reader will, at one glance, comprestory of Thales of Miletus, by which hend the amazing difficulties which the insufficency of these celestial such a parodist must undergo, and speculations to save us from the will be surprised to find these hemost common mischances of life is terodox productions not wanting in familiarly illustrated.

pure Latinity; however, that he A girl, of dubious character, see. may judge for himself, a specimen ing him gazing at the heavens, as he or two we will give him. walked along, and perhaps piqued at his not casting an eye at her at. tractions, put a stool in his path,

Ad Pyrrham. Ole V. Lib. I. over which he tumbled and broke

Quis multâ gracilis te puer in rosa his shins. The excuse she made

Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus was, that she meant to teach him to

Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro? look at home, before he indulged Cui flavam religas comam himself in star-gazing.

Simplex munditiis ? &c., &c.

Ad Mariam Deiparam. Parodia V.

Lib. I.
For the Literary Magazine.

Quis fæno recubans, in gracili tenes

Inuexus teneris te, pia, fasciis

Blandus, Virgo, puellus? LABORIOUS dulness, in modern Cui primos adhibes cibos. times, has never been more indefa. Dives munditiis ? &c., &c.

In Juliam Barinem. Ode 8. Lib. 2. Secondly, in adapting the language, Ulla si juris tibi pejerati

imagery, and taste of Roman lyric Pana, Barine, nocuisset unquam,

poetry to christian topics and alluDente si nigro fieres, vel uno

sions. This arduous task he has Turpior unqui.

performed with illustrious success; Crederem-Sed tu simul obligasti and what renders this success still Perridum votis caput, enitescis

more wonderful, is the situation in Pulchrior multo, juvenumque prodis which the undertaking was accomPublica cura, &c., &c., &c. plished. Buchanan fell, perhaps

deservedly, under the suspicion of Tipos cavutk Christi ad Peccatorem. infidelity, and was condemned to Parodia 9. Lib. 2.

make this version of the Psalms as Ulla si juris tibi pejerati

a penance, by the Portuguese inqui. Culpa, peccator, doluisset unquam sition, in a dungeon at Lisbon. How Mente, si tantum fieres vel unâ

strenuous, how well-stored must be Tristior hora

the mind, who could execute such a Plauderem-Sed tu, simul obligasti task, with such success, in such cirPertidum votis caput, ingemiscis cumstances ! Ob scelus nunquam, scelerumque prodis I confess I feel no small complaPublicus autor, &c, &c., &c.

cency for that pope of the last cen

tury, who, smitten with classical enIn Bacchum. Ole 23. Lib. 3.

thusiasm, meditated, for a while, the Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui

introduction of Buchanan's Psalms Plenum, Quæ in nemora, aut quod agor

into religious worship. When we in specus,

consider the sanctity ascribed by ca. Velox mente novâ ; quibus

tholics to the Latin language, by the Antris, egregie Cæsaris audiar

scholar to true classical Latinity, Æternum meditans decus

and by all christians to the hymns Stellis inserere & consilio Jovis, &c. of David, we shall see the powerful

recommendations which such a Parodia 23. Lib 3. Ad Christum. scheme possessed. The scheme, inQuo me, Christe, feram mali

deed, as soon as it was conceived, Plenum, Quæ in neniora, aut quos fu.

was abandoned as impracticable and gian in specus,

chimerical, but the greater is the Pressus mole gravi? Quibus

pity. Antris, ob maculam criminis occultar

Æternam meditans facem Infernum effugere, et simplicium Stygis, &c.

For the Literary Magazine. These samples will suffice. They

CRITICISM. are certainly remarkable proofs of human ingenuity ; and as they have The Guilt, Folly, and Sources of merit independent of their proto Suicide : two discourses, fireach. type, it is but justice to assign thein e d in the city of New York, Fe. the additional, though less honoura. bruary, 1805. By Samuel Miller, ble praise, to which they are entitled D. D., one of the pastors of the as parodies.

united presbyterian churches in Buchanan's version of the Psalms, said city. New York: T. & J. into Horatian language and metre, Swords. 1805. is the most extraordinary effort of genius and learning, in this way, THE author builds the reasonings with which the world is acquainted.' and exhortations of these pages on The task which the poet assigned the well-known counsel given to Job to himself consisted, first, in giving by his wife. After some judicious a christian form to the topics and remarks on the conduct and characallusions of the royal psalmist; and, ter of Job, he proceeds to define tho

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