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rods by which the machine is kept which, the person who works the together.

machine should grasp, with his left Having first ascertained, by look. hand, the rod immediately above ing into the chimney, what course that which he is separating with his the flue immediately takes, a cloth right hand, otherwise he may is then to be fixed before the fire- chance to have some of those above place, with an horizontal bar, to loosen and slide down the cord, keep it close, and the sides to be clos- which will render the work unpleaed with two bars of the same sort, sant and difficult; the rods as they placed upright; the next part of the are brought down, are to be laid operation is to introduce through an carefully one by one in as small a opening in the cloth, the brush in compass as they conveniently can be, its contracted form; this opening is that they may not dirt the rooms. then to be buttoned, or otherwise With a little attention they may be closed, to prevent the soot from placed like a bundle of sticks, side coming into the apartments; then by side, in very little space. When one of the rods is to be passed up the brush is down, it is to be shaken the cord into the socket on the low. withinside the cloth; the spring must er end of the rod which supports then be pushed in, and the brush, the brush; the other rods are in like which was expanded, will fall into the manner, one by one in succession, to form it went up. It will be proper be brought up, until the brush is to let the cloth remain a short time raised somewhat above the top of up (where great cleanliness is rethe chimney, observing to keep the quired) that the finer particle of soot cord constantly tight; and when may subside within it. those rods which have a screw in If the brush has been unused for the socket are brought up, they are a length of time, the hinges, &c. of to be placed up the purchase, the it must be examined to see if they cord put under the pulley, and will move freely, otherwise it may drawn very tight, and screwed not properly expand when in use. down, by which all the rods above When the machine is used for exwill be firmly connected together, tinguishing a chimney on fire, a and the whole may be considered coarse cloth is to be tied over the as one long flexible rod When it is brush, and dipped into water, then supposed that the brush is near the passed up as above directed for top of the chimney, the person who sweeping chimneys. is working it may move it up and It is now more than eighteen down gently, and he will find, if months since Mr. Smart, the inventthe brush is quite out, that it will or, first brought this machine into stop on returning on the pot, or use, since which the men whom he chimney. When it is known to be employs have swept with it about out, the machine is to be drawn two thousand times. The success down, when the edges of the brush and approbation with which he has striking against the top of the chim- met, has been far beyond what was ney will cause it to expand; and expected from any machine which there being a spring to prevent its could be worked entirely from becontracting again, it will sweep low, over and above the principal down the soot. The whisk being and important purpose for which it long and elastic, makes the brush was designed (that of preventing, in capable of filling flues of very dif. future, infants from climbing the ferent diameters. If, as sometimes flues), the vast quantity of soot it happens, there is any difficulty brings down, and great cleanliness found in drawing the brush into the with which the operation is performurer part of the chimney, the rods ed (where proper precaution is must be thrust up again somewhat taken), have brought it very deserhigher, to alter the direction, then vedly into great repute. One percarefully drawn down; in doing son is sufficient for performing the whole of the work with this machine, but it will be found very con For the Literary Magazine. venient to have an assistant, to give up the rods from the ground, and

POPLARS. re-place them there when brought down. Those unfortunate little THE poplar, commonly called creatures, whose miserable lot it has the Lombardy poplar, appears to be been heretofore to climb chimpies, nearly as fashionable in Britain as may now be employed as assistants in America. There are, indeed, for these purposes, who, as they several drawbacks on their indiscrigrow older, will become capable of minate use, which experience has working the machines themselves; discovered ; and if the balance be and, instead of being turned off with. not kept even by new discoveries of out any employment when their ap- their virtues and utilities, it is quite prenticeship is over, they may con- probable that they may grow into tinue with their masters as useful discredit with as much rapidity as hands. It appears from experience they have hitherto grown in popu. that about ninety-nine chimnies out larity. of an hundred may be cleansed by The following enquiry has been this machine, occasionally using made by cautious persons, and the brushes of different sizes and forms truth of the case is certainly of no as circumstances may require ; and limited or trivial inport : the remaining few can probably be Are the roots of poplar trees cacleansed by some of the following pable of insinuating themselves late. means, either 1st, by having a fixed rally under buildings near which apparatus at the top, with a chain they are planted, so as to weaken descending down the fue, and a and endanger the foundation ? brush fastened to it, which contri. vance has already been invented. 2d, By drawing up and down a rope, and a brush, one person being on the top, and the other in the room below, For the Literary Magazine. as practised in Edinburgh and many other placesSd, By firing the soot, ON ALPHABETIC REFORMATIONS. and burning it out, as is frequently done in Yorkshire and in country THERE are few subjects in which places in America. 4th, By taking schemes of reformation have been out a brick or tile, in the manner more frequently recommended, than now practised for cleansing hot in the arrangement and the sounds houses and other flues.

of the English alphabet. The strange, That new-built chimnies may be capricious, and violent anomalies swept with machines of this kind, it which use has sanctioned in the prewill be necessary to pay some atten- sent arrangement and pronunciation, tion to the construction of them. are evident to every observer, and Some persons have already had the young and sanguine, who ima. their chimneys so constructed that gine that truth has great efficacy they may be easily and effectually when eloquently or seriously enfor. cleansed with machines. The mode ced, are extremely prone to pubadopted is that of making the shape lish their favourite schemes, and of the flues square instead of a pa- even to set the example of a better rallelogram, with long sweeps at mode in their own practice. the elbows; a circular form though Experience, however, has long more expensive would have been ago shown the impossibility of intropreferable.

ducing any scheme of this sort into A very useful purpose, has been popular use ; and if such a change answered by this machine, that of could be wrought, the permanence extinguishing chimnies when on fire of any scheme of uniformity may

VOL. III. NO. XIX.

reasonably be doubted. Though an the true mode of pronunciation, as alphabet were formed, that should to sound, and quantity, and accent contain a number of letters precisely of the learned languages. From a equal to the number of simple arti. vain notion that the Greeks and Roculate sounds belonging to the lan- mans must have spoken their own guage, are we sure these simple languages best, their inquiries have sounds would not rapidly deviate almost wholly turned, not on the from their alphabetical exactness, true system, but on the system that when they became subjected to those actually prevailed in old times. I numerous combinations that are re- hope none of my readers will laugh quisite to form a copious language? at me for this distinction between the Would they be not liable to the same true and the actual system. The instability, arising from fashion, essence of every just system must be from caprice, and a disregard of simplicity and regularity; but all uniform pronunciation, that is so the actual modes of speaking lanmuch objected to our present lan- guages is replete with confusion and guage, both oral and written? irregularity.

Sone few of those who have be. That the Greeks were as culpastowed most attention on the for- ble, in this respect, as others, might mation of a new and more consistent be truly inferred from analogy ; but alphabet, seem to have thought its this has, in some sort, been lately adoption impracticable. There has evinced by the evidence of hearing. not, perhaps, been a more accurate There is a curious paper, in a late investigator of the formation of let- volume of the Transactions of the ters than Holder, whose treatise on Royal Irish Academy, containing an the Elements of Speech was printed account of an interview between the in the year 1669: yet he was chief. writer and some Greeks, natives of ly led to study the subject from the Athens, and well educated men. laudable motive of discovering a He requested them to read passteady and effectual way of instruct. sages in the poets and orators, and ing deaf and dumb persons; and carefully noted their pronunciation, after pointing out the imperfections and found it as anomalous, and as of our present alphabet, he very totally regardless of quantity and candidly concludes

accent, as that of any inhabitant of " It is not be hoped or imagined England in reading or speaking that the incongruous alphabets, and Greek. abuses of writing, can ever be jostled “Il n'y a presque pas une seule out of their possession of all libraries voyelle," says a French writer, and books, and universal habit of speaking of his own language, « une mankind. This were to imply that seule diphthongue, une seule conall books in being should be destroy- sonne, dont la valeur soit tellement ed and abolished, being first new constante, que l'euphonie n'en puisse printed after such rectified alpha- disposer, soit en alterant le son, soit bets; and that all the age should be en le supprimant." prevailed with to take new pains to unlearn those habits, which have cost them so much labour.”

This irregularity might be easily For the Literary Magazine. proved to be inseparable from the very nature of language. It is com- STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF mon to all tongues, living or dead;

FRANCE. for, if the latter be preserved at all, those that read and speak it commit FRANCE is situated in the midthe same murder on its uniformity dle of the temperate zone, between that they do upon their own. the 42 and 51st degrees of north la

A great deal has been said, by titude, extending 720 miles from ancient and modern scholars, on north to south, and 660 miles from

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east to west, and contains 32,791,253 year, in a central part of England, inhabitants.

will enable us to form a juster conIts civil government is divided into ception of the British climate, than 108 departments, 108 prefectures, any loose or popular description can 417 circles, and 47,458 communes. convey :

Its military government com- The mean height of the barome. prizes 27 divisions, commanded by ter, for the year, was equal to 27 generals of division.

29.75; that of the thermometer to Its ecclesiastical state is divided 500 65'. The quantity of rain someinto 11 archbishopricks, 58 bishope what exceeded 34 inches. Rain fell ricks, 4600 curacies, 31,800 subcu. on 103 days of the year, which is a racies, and 80 confestorical or re proportion of not much less than one formed churches.

in three. It snowed or hailed on 17 The war establishment of the days. 144 days were very brilliant; army is 554.407 men, viz.

that is, somewhat more than one
Infantry of the line, 341,401 third of the year. The remaining
Light infantry, 100,180 102 were nearly equally divided be-
Cavalry, of the line, 14,150 tween cloudy and fair.
Light cavalry,

68,988
Artillery on foot, 20,656
Horse artillery,
Sappers, miners, and en-

For the Literary Magazine. gineers,

5,873

MADELINA. 554,407 The conscription alone will fur

A female portrait. nish near a million of soldiers. France on a great emergency, might The writer of this was frequently imselect her defenders from six mil portuned, by a lively, volatile girl, lions of men able to carry arms. to draw her character: in compliance

Her marine power is inferior to with this request, the following was what it was in the reign of Louis

written. XIV, or to what it may yet become under Bonaparte. A navy is not

MADELINA, you wish me to formed with the same promptitude draw your character. What a that an army is raised; but France strange wish, to be preferred by a possesses the men, the ship builders, young lady to a young man, who has the instruments, and, above all, the seldom seen you, at times and in situ. emulation of her great nautical neigh- ations which admit of no disguise, bour, which are requisite to pro- and which draw forth all our secret duce, when the violent restraints of foibles, and who, at best, has neither the present war are removed, a a sober nor impartial judgment. navy as vast and formidable as her Still, however, I will do my best. army.

If I blame you, your pride may reaThe nett amount of the revenue sonably impute it to my ignorance ; of France was, in the year 11, about if I praise, your modesty will natu115 millions of dollars.

rally suggest some doubts of the Her public debt demands an an- sincerity of one, who sets a very nual interest of about 16 millions of high value on your good opinion, and dollars.

who thinks your smiles cheaply bought, even at the price of some

duplicity. For the Literary Magazine.

And now to begin : but how?

With the person to be sure. Beauty ENGLISH WEATHER.

is never of small moment in a woTHE following summary of the man's eye, and that is a cause of state of the weather, for the last deep regret to those, who love true female dignity, happiness, and virtue, tration is clear enough to see the In the passion for beauty, shall we guilt and folly of impatience, in any find the source of all the follies, situation. She has no sullen looks; and many of the crimes of women. no hasty plaints ; Do keen retorts; So common is this passion, that, all is placid sufferance, and heaven. though a distinction of the sex, it is ly serenity. She is good, inasmuch no characteristic of the individual. as she never treats others hardly or And yet had I a seraph's eloquence, capriciously. She is perfect, inas. it should be incessantly exerted to much as the injuries of others, so persuade the woman whom I value, far from provoking vengeance, that, inasmuch as she prizes beauty never even cause indignation, nor (particularly if she herself be beau. stop the current of that charity that tiful), is she silly, wicked, or unfor- flows for all. tunate. After this, you will hardly She cultivates her mind, by regu. expect me to say any thing of your lar and close attention to every properson.

fitable study. She has leisure, and But there is another reason for the greatest part of it is spent in my silence : my decision would be reading. She deems this an amuseno test of the truth. The female ment indeed, but also a duty. She form generally pleases in different indulges, without scruple, that in. degrees, as it is viewed in different clination, which leads her to works lights, at different hours, and by dif- of taste, fancy, and domestic moraferent eyes. The sentence of to- lity, because she regards these as the day, suggested by negligence of regulators, sweeteners, and embel. dress, captious behaviour, or una. lishers of life; but while these are miable sentiments, would be revers- her favourite pursuits, she by no ed to-morrow, at the intercession of means despises or shuns the more a few smiles and affabilities, or at rugged paths of history or science. the pleading of a robe, brilliantly Still, however, she is no bookfair, and enchantingly becoming. worm, no recluse, no pedant. She So, we'll say nothing of thy person, meditates and reasons for herself, Madelina.

and her studious hours are betrayed, Are you witty? Are you amia. not by mere literary talk, by anecble? Are you wise? How hard dotes of authors, and criticisms on to answer these questions, so as to their works, by hard words, and convey to the object of our scrutiny, formal quotations, but by a certain our precise meaning! I am almost dignity of thought and refinement of afraid to proceed. To tell the truth language, which nothing but fami. is not always to make either wise or liar converse with books can give, happy; and, when the truth breeds and which diffuse themselves through nothing but resentment or misery, all her conversation. why should it be told? But come, She is fond of society. The worin order to be safe, I will sketch thy she caresses; the gay, thoughtwhat I think a good character, and less, frivolous, immoral, or indecent, leave it to you to find its resem- she treats, when she meets them, blance to yourself.

with strict politeness, but she never The good girl, whom I wish to seeks them, and is at home to them meet with, has a face that nothing as rarely as possible. She endures but the soul within makes beautiful. their company, when unavoidable, It never yet was clouded by anger; but you cannot subject her to a more never yet had peevishness, resent. mortifying penance. ment, envy, even a momentary place In her dress, she studies not in it. The perverseness or malig, merely the decent and becoming, nity of others cannot be so great or but also the frugal. One of her chief incessant, as to conquer her pati. cares is to shun all superfluous ex. ence. Her charity is large enough penses. She always remembers, to take in every offence. Her pene. that her family are not opulent; thai

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