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wish to elevate themselves above the an instance of the permanence of level of their fellow-citizens, and to federal states, is equally faulty. acquire a power independent of The cantons had no common treathem. They forget that, in a re- sury, no common army, even in public, the magistrate, of whom time of war, no common court of they are thus suspicious, holds his justice, nor any one property of power only for a short period ; that federal government: they were when this is expired, he must re- kept together by the particular cirtire to the station of a private citi- cumstances of their situation ; by zen; and, if he has laid any burthen the consciousness which each has on the community, must afterward of its weakness as an individual bear his portion of it. It must how- state; by the dread of powerful ever be acknowledged, that some neighbours, to one of whom they degree of this jealousy is not more were once enslaved ; and by other natural to republicans, than it is considerations of a similar nature. necessary to prevent their govern Whatever efficacy this league ment from degenerating into an may have had in common cases, it aristocracy: but when it is carried has always been found impotent in so far as to deprive the executive differences of great importance. power of that vigour which is re- Disputes concerning religion have quisite to enforce the laws, and to three times occasioned the most viomaintain the constitution, it is preg- lent and bloody quarrels, and have, nant with ruin to those liberties in fact, dissolved their union; for which it professes to guard.

the Romish cantons have since held The grand vice of the American their separate assemblies, and very union was that which has generally little business is transacted in the attended federate governments, the general diet. The history of the want of sufficient sanction to its laws, United Provinces affords strong or of power to compel the several proofs, that a sovereignty over so. members of it to comply with the vereignties, a legislation to states, conditions under which they were which does not extend to the indiviunited. This was the fault of the duals of each state, is not only a feudal monarchies, which were only political absurdity, but is inconsistprivate bodies, in which the king, or ent with order and the objects of civil liege lord, was little more than the government, by its tendency to subchief in a confederacy of petty sove- stitute violence for law, and the reigns, each of whom had a su- compulsion of the sword for the preme authority within his own ter- coercion of the magistrate. The ritory; hence they were frequently extreme facility with which both of engaged in wars, not only with each these states have been lately overother, but also with their king, who run and subdued by their Gallic had no other means of reducing neighbours sufficiently proves, that them to obedience, than the preca- their safety from foreign invasion rious expedients of violence, in and intestine war was built on founwhich it was impossible always to dations equally precarious. command success : hence the king. It was another fault, that the condoms of Europe were at that time stitution of each state was not continually involved in intestine guaranteed by the rest ; by which I war. The same vice prevaded the do not mean that congress should inAmphyctionic and Achaian leagues terfere with the domestic concerns of ancient Greece, and is found in of the states, nor that it should prethe Germanic body ; which would vent them from effecting, in a long since have been dissolved, but peaceable and lawful manner, such for the vast influence which the alterations in their respective conhouse of Austria derives from its he- stitutions as the majority of citizens reditary territories. The Helvetic in each may deem necessary, but league, though often mentioned as only that it should guard against such changes as may be produced new constitution, in which most of by violence. The contribution of the imperfections of the former were men and money to the union, by avoided; and which, though not quotas assigned for each state ; the entirely perfect (for what can be so want of a general and uniform pow. that is of human invention ?) is cerer for regulating commerce, and of tainly the best republican governa national court of justice; the equa- ment hitherto known. lity of the smaller with the larger Posterity will do justice to the states, with regard to the votes in wisdom and honesty of the govercongress; the power of each to nors of the United States of Ameissue paper currency; the too fre- rica, who did not make the acknowquent change in the members of ledged imperfection of all human congress; and the whole power of le- institutions a pretence for persisting gislation for the union being vested in in errors, and for perpetuating a single assembly, were the principal abuses, but were ready to prevent imperfections in the old constitution the wishes of their countrymen, by of the states. The bad consequen- such a voluntary reformation of ces of these are shown by what has their constitution, as, without desince happened, both with regard to parting from its spirit, might best internal differences between the se- secure its permanence, and promote veral states, and the want of the the great ends of government ; confidence of foreign powers in a which was ordained by Providence, confederation, for the continuance of not to gratify the ambition of prin. which there was so little security. ces, the pride of nobles, and the va

And yet, when we consider the nity of ministers, but to promote the circumstances of the old confedera. wealth, the peace, and the happition, instead of wondering that it ness of the whole. has these faults, we are only astonished that it has so few. The articles were drawn up, not in the cool hours of peace and security, For the Literary Magazine. when their authors had leisure to examine all the possible consequen

LITERARY FASHION. ces of each, and could protract the conclusion till every difficulty could THE caprices and revolutions be removed; but they were planned in literary taste form a subject of amid the horrors of war, when im- curious speculation. How many mediate exertions were necessary works and how many authors owe against a common enemy; and their popularity to fashion! The when it was infinitely more prudent popularity of truly meritorious to produce, with all expedition, a works is entirely owing to fashion, plan of union, however imperfect, for some time, at least, after their which might effect an immediate publication. Perhaps the endurance combination of the several states of this popularity may be admitted than to consume their time in vain as the test of merit. That popular deliberations in search of a perfec- approbation is governed almost tion, of which their actual situation wholly by caprice or fashion is a rendered them incapable. It was truth well known to booksellers. probably never intended for a last. The following anecdote will show ing, and certainly not for an unaltera- how little we are able before hand ble, constitution ; but the American to distinguish the public pulse with legislators acted judiciously in not accuracy: producing a second before the incon- The celebrated La Bruyere used veniences of the first had been fully to frequent the shop of a bookseller, experienced. These inconveniences named Michallet, where he amused were felt, and induced the Ameri- himself with reading the new pamcans, in the year 1787, to form a phlets, and playing with the book

seller's daughter, an engaging child, sable hue. This appearance is not of whom he was very fond. One confined to hotels alone. The taday taking the manuscript of his verns are the same. The streets Characters out of his pocket, he are filled with wretchedness and offered it to Michallet, saying, grandeur, idleness and extrava“ Will you print this? I know not gance. It is not the habit of a few; whether you will gain any thing by it is the characteristic of the nation: it; but, should it succeed, let the a popular concern to unite at once profits make the dowry of my little every species of dissipation, filthifriend here.” The bookseller, ness, and extortion. though doubtful with respect to the The streets and avenues to this result, ventured on the publication; city are crowded with miserable the first impression was soon sold objects, whose importunate clamours off; several editions were after- for charity are troublesome in the ward printed, and the profits of the highest degree. In the environs, work amounted to a very large sum; we saw numbers of dirty wretches, and, with this fortune, Miss Michal- whose sole employment seemed to let was afterwards very advantage- consist in divesting each other of filth ously married.

and filthy insects. If you enter a fruit-shop or a tavern, a crowd of those poor creatures infest the door,

through which you must press your For the Literary Magazine. way, and deem yourself fortunate if

you escape the detached parties of PICTURE OF DUBLIN. vermin.

Beggars and prostitutes swarm in HOW far will a native of Ireland, every street, and fill the air with and especially of Dublin, assent to their importunate cries. Extravathe truth of the following picture, gance is the leading trait in their drawn up by a traveller, who, só character. I frequently saw chilfar from carrying into Ireland any dren with broad laced frills to their prejudices against that country, was shirts, who had neither shoes nor strongly prepossessed in its favour? stockings to their feet. An instance This kind of prepossession is indeed of this may be seen at Drury's bilas unfavourable to truth as the op. liard-table every day, where there posite, Envy and ill-humour may are two markers of this description. not pourtray an object in worse They will pawn their last rag for "colours than disappointment. But the pleasure of gaming ; and I mybe that as it will, it may not be un- self saw a fellow, opposite the cusamusing or uninstructive to listen to tom-house, in Essex-street, who had the remarks of at least a lively des- seated himself upon the ground, criber.

and, having ventured every penny The first thing, says he, that he had at chuck-farthing, was howlstruck me, upon entering Dublin, ing for the loss of it. was the singular appearance of the They are, in general, of a very women, who are all without either irritable disposition, and will quarhat or bonnet to their head. Even rel with each other upon the most many of genteel appearance parade trifling occasion. On the night of the streets in this manner, and we the prince of Wales's birth-day, I as rarely see a woman in Dublin was walking in Dame-street, when with a hat on, as one elsewhere with a fellow, genteelly dressed, met a her head uncovered.

boy, who was running about with It is impossible to do justice to the his companions. Without saying a exquisite filthiness of the hotels. word, he raised a loaded whip, and Every thing is fine and dirty. Our knocked the boy down. A mob beds had canopies and plumes, with gathered; the fellow made off, and counterpanes and sheets of a most the poor boy was carried, with a

broken head, to the apothecary's. minds of the learned and ingenious,
About three o'clock in the afternoon not the least remarkable, I think
of the next day, I saw a vast crowd is the hypothesis of a celebrated
gathering, and, inquiring the cause, Welch antiquarian, that the society
was told that some person had just of quakers is only a continuation of
killed a porter, whom they were the old bardic institution or reli-
conveying to the dispensary, and gion. In analyzing the principles
that his murderer was to go to New- of the ancient druidical religion, he
gate. In the evening, a boy was is struck by the surprising coinci.
flogged, for some crime or other, al. dence between them and those of
most to death, at the cart's tail; the amiable society of quakers.
and finding that he could not bear It is observable, says he, that this
all his punishment, they removed sect originally appeared under the
him to prison, to take the rest at name of seekers, and very generally,
another opportunity.

if not first, in South Wales. It is
Not a night passes without riot, known that George Fox arranged
although the police stand armed at his system, after availing himself
the corner of every street. Duels, of the experience and labours of
without end, continually furnish sub. William Erbury and Walter Cra-
ject for conversation, and not unfre- dock, natives of that part of Wales
quently topics of fresh dispute. Of where the bardic institution is pre-
all the people I ever met, whether served. The Welch quakers still
educated in the army, the navy, in hold their meetings in the open air,
the universities, or at home, the mostly in a circular inclosure called
Irish are the greatest swearers.- Monwent.
Not a word passes without an oath, The more this matter is consi.
vociferated in the most vehement dered, the more probable it will ap.
manner, and horrid imprecations pear, that thie masterly policy, with
are familiarly delivered, upon the which the quaker sect is internally
most trivial events.

organized and governed, was not But no more of this hideous por- the contrivance of so extravagant a trait. Some other travellers hare, fanatic as George Fox; nor the doubtless, seen things in a very dif systematic tendency of its principles ferent light; but I, who scarcely to reduce all revealed religion to ever travelled further than the corallegory, a likely speculation of his ner of the street in which I was ignorant and turbulent followers. born, cannot decide between the The revolutions of opinion, and fidelity of the rival portraits. I the causes that produced them, conhave a good deal of Irish blood in stitute an inexhaustible source of my veins, and should be very glad curiosity and wonder. No sect was to see the solum natale of my ances- ever more despised, and few have tors vindicated from such dreadful ever been more unrelentingly perimputations. Perhaps some one of secuted, than the friends, for a cenyour readers may be of Irish blood tury after the period commonly asand conversation, and withal pos- signed for its origin; yet, of late sessed of the requisite information, years, its reputation has been graand will condescend to put pen to dually emerging from the abyss of paper, in defence of his calumniated contempt and obscurity. It began country.

INQUISITOR. to attract the regard of two classes

of men, to whose respectful atten

tion it should seem to be less entitled For the Literary Magazine. than to that of any other order in

society. The first class is composed ORIGIN OF QUAKERISM. of those who are either lukewarm

or hostile, with regard to all reliAMONG the whimsical ideas gion. The quaker system being so which have found harbour in the totally exempt from those forens

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and ceremonials, and especially that This conformity between this sect hierarchy or clerical establishment, and the speculative politicians of which are intimately blended with the present age is the chief cause of all other forms of christianity, and the popularity of the former with which they stigmatize as either ab- the latter. It is true, they build up. surd or pernicious, they feel them on a very different foundation ; and selves disposed to think favourably not only different, but irreconcile. of this system. They revere it, not able : but while inferences are the because it is the true form of the same, the diversity of premises is religion of Jesus, but because it pos- overlooked or disregarded. Thus sesses, in their opinion, least of that, the learned antiquary I have quoted or of any religion. Its tenets ap- above is so struck with the coinci. proach nearest to those of their phi dence between the quaker and drulosophy.

idical systems and tenets, that he The second class of its admirers cannot help supposing the former to are those who preach up philan- have originated from the latter. thropic and political equality.Those who deem the simple or popular form of government the best, fancy that they see in the policy of the quakers the purest and most For the Literary Magazine. perfect model of this government. It is very remarkable, indeed, that

A LITERARY WIFE. in the internal order of this society, in its legislative and judicial system, NOTHING is so terrible, to most we see the most extravagant politi. men, as a literary wife. Indeed, cal reveries of Godwin and his fol. nothing is so rare. Whatever a lowers realized. The division of woman is, as to literature, science, the whole society into bodies suffi- or the arts, before marriage, she ciently small to allow all legislative generally lays aside all her learning functions to be performed by the with her maiden state. Other avowhole community assembled, with- cations then engross her attention, out distinctions of rank, property, and either her mind is not suffior even of ser; the deliberations of ciently capacious, or her taste suffitheir public bodies, without any of ciently versatile, to enable her to those forms deemed indispensable divide her time between her old by all other senates; decision in pursuits and her new. One of them these assemblies accomplished with must be neglected for the other, and out vote, or appeal to a majority; the happiness of life is probably projudicial powers united with the le. moted by the preference usually gislative, exercised without precise given, in this dilemma, to the occustatutes, and executed without cor- pations of a nurse and housekeeper. poral punishment of any kind, are One of the most eminent examall characteristic of quaker as well ples of a literary wife on record is as of Godwinian policy.

madame Dacier ; but she was parSome may observe, that the most ticularly fortunate in the direction extraordinary of these institutions which was taken by her literary imply the prevalence of civil laws and her matrimonial inclinations. and civil authority. The truth is, This lady and her learned husband however, that the quaker system is are said to have sympathized in intended for every condition of so- their passion for letters and admiraciety, and would be the sole rule tion of ancient authors; living in and order in a community consistthe utmost harmony to the end of ing entirely of friends, as of one their lives; united by taste and tawhich composed a subordinate divi lents, but still more by affection. sion of a larger community.

In Arabia, where polygamy is alNO. XVIII.

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