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pay of this sacred officer is still vated with singular success by Pope, punctually deposited by the sove- and other eminent poets. In the reigns, at the chapel royal, every rhymes of the Della Cruscans it, year, in a purse of red velvet. however, degenerates to absurdity.
Strange, that such gross igno. You may have there dewy drons rance should so long have pervaded from pearly peepers, and muddy a country, which, almost three cen- moans in any measure. turies ago, gave birth to CAMOENS. I recollect a very happy instance
in some Lines on Smoking, in the Port Folio, which conclude
I have just met with a curious And, sadly silent, seeks the sweets of instance of alliteration, which I copy here, to show to what lengths the ancients carried this poetical arti- This is truly what Churchill callfice. It cannot be disputed that the ed apt alliteration's artful aid. harmony of verse is much promoted In the ninth century, Hubaud, a by a skilful alliteration, but the great learned monk, dedicated to the emfault with many writers is, that they peror Charles the Bald (Charles le resort to its artful aid so often, and Chauve), a poem in praise of bald with so much apparent self-gratula. men, every word of which comtion, that they betray a narrow mind, menced with the letter C. more intent on the balancing of a period, or harmony of a line, than Cármina, clarisonce calvis cantate Ca. the novelty of an idea, or the accu
menæ. racy of a sentiment. The instance that induced me to take up my pen
Somewhat allied to this is another is this. My readers must not be art in poetry, which I must illusdispleased at the continual obtrusion trate by an example, as I cannot de. of quotation, throughout this work, signate it by a name. since my professed object is to intro
An author has written a poem of duce such passages as I may meet
2956 verses of six feet, of which the with in the course of my reading,
last only is a spondee, the other five which are distinguished either for being dactyles. The second foot their excellence or absurdity.
rhymes with the fourth, and the last
word of each verse rhymes with Plaudite porcélli ; porcorum pigra pro
that of the subsequent one. It compago
mences thus : Progréditur, plures porci pinguédine Hora novissima, tempora pessima sunt
vigilemus. Pugnantes pergunt. Pécudum pars Ecce minaciter imminet arbiter ille suprodigiosa
premus. Perturbat pede petrosas plérumque pla- Imminet, imminet ut mala terminet, téas;
æqua coronet, Pars portentosè populorum prata pro- Recta remuneret ; anxia liberet, æthera fanat.
Auferat aspera, duraque pondera ménThere are two lines in old Ennius, tis onusta, which are somewhat remarkable in Sobria muniat, improba puniat útraque him, as he is generally supposed to be very negligent in his verses. Ille piissimus, ille gravissimus ecce venit
Rex O tite, tute tati, tibi tanta, tyranne, tu. Surgat nonoreus, ínstat homo Deus, à listi,
patre judex. At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit.
Nor has it been neglected in our " That we must never despair,” own language ; but has been culti. is the title of one of the chapters of a work on the pleasures of study, he must be greedy of praise. It rewhich was written, I believe, in the mains that we prescribe the me. fifteenth century, by Ringelbergius, thods. There are then three gra. a German scholar. It is little known dations in the modes of study: hearamong men of letters, but its singu. ing, teaching, writing. It is a good lar merits ought to rescue it from and easy method to hear, it is better the oblivion into which it is falling and easier to teach, and the best In the chapter I have mentioned, and easiest of all to write. Leche exhorts us, though we should fall tures are dull, because it is tedious headlong a thousand times in our to confine the liberty of thought to ascent, we must begin again every the voice of the speaker. But when time more ardently, and fly to the we teach or write, the very exersummit with recruited vigour ! Let cise itself precludes the tedium. no one be dejected if he be not con- I had intended to close the volume scious of any great advancement at with this extract, but I cannot resist first. The merchant thinks himself the temptation to make another ; happy if, after a ten years' voyage, such is the enthusiasm of admiraafter a thousand dangers, he at last tion, and the power of genius is so improves his fortune; and shall we, commanding. like poor-spirited creatures, give up How mean, says he, how timid, all hopes after the first onset ? how abject must be that spirit, QUODCUMQUE IMPERAVIT ANI. which can sit down contented with MUS OBTINUIT*. Whratever the mediocrity! As for myself, all that mind has commanded itself to do, it is within me is on fire. I had rahas obtained its purpose.
ther, he proceeds, in his nervous Riches must have no charms, manner, be torn in a thousand pieces compared to the charms of litera- than relax my resolution of reachture. Poverty is favourable to the ing the sublimest heights of virtue success of all literary pursuits. I and knowledge. I am of opinion, mean not to throw contempt on that nothing is so arduous, nothing money in general, but on that exor. so admirable in human affairs, bitant wealth, which allures the which may not be attained by the mind from study.
industry of man. We are descended The student must be desirous of from heaven : thither let us go, praise. It is a promising presage whence we derive our origin. Let of success to be roused by praise, nothing satisfy us, lower than the when one shall have done well, and summit of all excellence. The suinto be grieved and incited to higher mit then I point out as the proper aims, on finding himself blamed or scope of the student. But labour outdone by another. He who as- must be loved, and the pleasures of pires at the summit must be pas- luxury despised. Shall we submit sionately fond of glory.
to be extinguished for ever, without Thus have the first qualities, in- honour, without remembrance,&vdades dispensably requisite in a youth de- cuden stridedsypérol, without having done voted to study, been mentioned. He any thing like men? must aim at the highest points; he Such are the qualities required, must love labour ; he must never such is the ambition recommended despair ; he must despise money ; by this eloquent German, and, from
my own short experience of the • The sentence which follows this pleasures and pains of study, I hesi. quotation does not express the terseness
tate not to give my feeble applause and energy of the original : but its force
to his exhortation. Let the student is fully displayed in the language of an be animated by the laurels of fame, English writer:
which never fade, and spring for
ward, alert and vigorous, to the Speak the commanding words I WILL, Olympic prize. Let not his indusand it is done.
try be remitted by lassitude, or bis ambition daunted by a temporary has been filled with this single obdisappointment, but let him reflectject, and grief and detestation has on the reputation of Shakespeare excluded or supplanted every other and Johnson, over whose tombs pe sentiment. It is true, that similar rennial honours will ever bloom with horrors and disasters have taken unabated lustre. Let him consider place in the Greek republics, and that eloquence can force the reluc- in the ancient and modern ones of tant wonder of the world, and make Italy ; but we are little affected by even monarchs tremble on the what is distant, and a summary nar. throne. This is the glorious tri- rative takes no hold of the imagi. umph of knowledge, and the brilliant nation. Athens, Rome, and Floreward of industry.
rence were the scenes of commoCENTO. tions and bloodshed quite as dread
ful, and, in proportion to their population and territory, quite as ex
tensive, as France has lately been. For the Literary Magazine. But the eulogists of civil liberty sel
dom allowed these parts of the picIS A FREE OR DESPOTIC GOVERN- ture to engage their attention. They
MENT MOST FRIENDLY TO HU- fixed their thoughts upon individual MAN HAPPINESS?
cases of military heroism, patriotic
magnanimity, or intellectual vigour, A FEW years ago, this would and these being, as they conceived, have been thought a most absurd, the genial products of civil liberty, as well as impudent question. It they admitted no side views or imwould have been deemed an insult pertinent retrospects to damp their to the common understanding of admiration. Now, however, it is every man born in Great Britain not uncommon to perceive a resemor America, to suppose this question biance between the history of the susceptible of doubt or controversy. old and the new republics. The A revolution has certainly been ef- fruits of ancient liberty, in genius fected in many minds, with regard and heroism, begin to dwindle into to this question, within the last fif- nothing, in our eyes, while the tales teen years. Many of those, who of massacre, confiscation, and exile once considered the superiority of are listened to with new deference political freedom as a point alto- and new emotions. gether beyond dispute, and as sup. It would probably be difficult, at ported, not only by intuitive, self- this time, to meet with a strenuous evident truth, but by the loud and advocate of that kind of liberty, uniform attestation of experience, which is necessarily productive of, have now gone over to the opposite or attended with, foreign and intesopinion. Many have, at least, found tine wars; and yet I was lately in their convictions shaken, and if they company with such a one, with have not entirely abjured their an- whose eloquence and ingenuity I cient creed, begin, at least, to per- was so much pleased, that I took ceive that the truth of it is not quite the first opportunity of putting his as clear as they once imagined. declamation on paper.
The cause of this silent revolu. Men are destined, says he, to tion in human opinions is well known play in human life for manifold to be the horrors and disasters of stakes of unequal importance. The the French revolution. The scenes merchant plays for profit, and haof this revolution having taken place zards his property. The warrior under our own eyes, our sympathy plays for victory or conquest, and has been irresistibly affected. The hazards his life. Every one who story being familiarly known to us, seeks fortune, preferment, or hoin all its circumstances and details, nour, hangs in suspence between the im. gination, if I may so speak, the opposite events of success or dis
appointment. What was staked the defence or advancement of their among the ancients, in their nation. Country : and in no quarter of the al quarrels, was of greater impor- world was the military character tance than is risked at war, by the held in higher esteem. Those naofficer or soldier, in any modern na- tions, at the same time, in other retion. When captives were retain: spects, show marks of felicity supeed in servitude, or sent to the mar- rior to what has ever been displayket for slaves, the soldier exposed ed in any other quarter of the world not only his life but his personal or age of mankind. In their very freedom. This violation of human- language, there is evidence of geni. ity was enforced by the Romans in us or intellectual ability, superior all their wars, and by the Greeks put to that of other nations. The order in practice in their contests, not only and form of their expression kept with barbarous nations, but even pace with the order and discriminawith one another. During the Pe- tion of subjects to be expressed, with loponnesian war, and for many years all the possible varieties of relation, after it, the republics of Greece were, and with all the subtilties of thought at home, almost always distracted and sentiment beyond what is exemby furious factions, and abroad in- plified in any other known instance, volved in sanguinary wars, in which 'They led the way also in all the each sought not merely superiority forms of literary composition or disof dominion, but either completely course, under which the human geto extirpate all its enemies, or what nius is displayed. Their poets, was not less cruel, to reduce them historians, orators, and moralists, into the vilost of all states, that of preceded those of other nations, domestic slavery; and to sell them, and remain unequalled by those man, woman, and child, like so that came after them. Their sculpmany head of cattle to the highest tors, painters, and architects, exbidder in the market.
celled those of every other nation ; From this account of the Greeks, and the same genius which rose some are disposed to infer, they were towards every object, in which excela wretched people, but I question the lence or beauty could be required truth of the inference. The fortunes or exhibited, gave also the most of men do not always decide their masterly examples of civil, political, feelings. Cervantes wrote his ad- or military virtues; and, in the ventures of Don Quixote in a prison; whole, gave the most irrefragable and, from so vigorous an exercise of evidence of minds no way sunk by all his faculties in that situation, we the sense of oppression, or the gloohave reason to conclude that a per- my prospect of hazard impending son may not be wretched though in from the loss of liberty, or the fear prison. The human mind gave si- of slavery, to which they were exmilar proofs of felicity no where posed. The ease and alacrity with more conspicuous than in Greece, which they moved on the highest And if human life be compared to a steps of the political, the moral, and game, it was played among ancient intellectual scale, abundantly shownations, and the Greeks in particu- ed how much they enjoyed that life lar, on a stake no less indeed than and freedom of which they were so that of freedom as well as life. But worthy, and which they so freely their example should lead us to risked in the service of their counthink that the spirits of men are not try. And if the hazard of blessings greatly damped by the risks which which they staked in every public they are made to run in the service contest had at all any effect on their of their country. The first citizens minds, their example may serve to in every Grecian state, with this prove that men are not unhappy in prospect of contingent slavery before proportion to the stake for which them, took their post with alacrity they contend ; or, perhaps, what is in the armies that were formed for verified in the case of other players
VOL. 111. NO. XVIII.
as well as in theirs, that persons who and the scope which is given to all are used to a high stake cannot con- the noble faculties of the human descend to play for a lower; or mind. that he who is accustomed to con- f I mistake not the interests of tend for his freedom or his life can human nature, they consist more in scarcely find scope for his genius in the exercise of freedom, and the inmatters of less moment.
dulgence of a liberal and beneficent A warden of the English mar- temper, than in the possession of ches, on a visit to the court of Scot. mere tranquillity, or what is termed land, before the accession of James exemption from trouble. The trials to the throne of England, said he of ability which men mutually afford could not but wonder how any man to one another in the collisions of could submit to so dull a life as that free society, are the lessons of a of a citizen or courtier : that, for school which Providence has openhis own part, no day ever past in ed for mankind, and are well known which he did not pursue some one to forward instead of impeding their for his life, or in which he himself progress in any valuable art, whewas not pursued for his own. It is ther commercial or elegant. the degradation of fear, the guilt of In their social capacity, the most injustice or malice, to which the important objects of attention, and mind of man never can be reconciled; the most improving exercises of not the risks to which the liberal ability, are enjoyed by the memmay be exposed in defending his bers of a free state : forms of gocountry, or in withstanding iniquity. vernment may be estimated, not
We are, for the most part, ill qua. only by the actual wisdom or good. lified to decide what is happy or ini- ness of their administration, but serable in the condition of other men likewise by the numbers who are at a distauce. The inconveniences made to participate in the service which we see, may be compensated or government of their country, and in a way which we do not perceive. by the diffusion of political delibera. And there is in reality nothing but tion and function to the greatest ex. vileness and malice that cannot be tent that is consistent with the wiscompensated in some other way. dom of its adıninistration. Even those we call slaves are amus. While those who would engross ed in the performance of their task, every power to themselves may and, when it is over, are observed gravely tell us, that the public good to be playsome and cheerful beyond consists in having matters ordered other men. They are relieved of in the manner they conceive to be any anxiety for the future, and de- right, we may venture to reply, that volve every care on their master. it consists still more in having pro
We estimate the felicity of ages per numbers admitted to a share in and nations by the seeming tran. the councils of their nation : that quillity and peace they enjoy ; or though the proverb, in some cases, believe them to be wretched under should fail, and safety should be the agitations and troubles which wanting in multitude of counsellors, sometimes attend the possession of yet the multitude of council is in itliberty itself. The forms of legisla- seif a greater public advantage than ture, which imply numerous assem- the talents of any single person, blies, whether collective or repre. however great, can otherwise prosentative, have been often censured cure for his country. Single men as exposing men to all the inconve- may choose a measure or conduct a niences of faction or party division; service better than might be obtainbut, if these inconveniences are to ed in any concourse of members; be dreaded, they nevertheless may but numbers do more in a succession be fairly hazarded, for the sake of of ages than any single man could the end to be obtained in free go- do; and human nature is more intevernments, the safety of the people, rested in having nations formed to