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blackest stigma on human nature can find a better, have found the with which the annals of politics or secret of living in the midst of soreligion have been stained.

ciety, and of mingling as much of « Though they live under a mo- this world as is consistent with hea. narchy, they have contrived, with ven, and as much of heaven as is the sacrifice of all temporal favours, consistent with making the most of to erect themselves into a govern- this world. ment of their own, approaching as « I have been led to these obser. near to republic as is consistent with vations from a petty circumstance any sort of allegiance to the current which occurred yesterday. I found, government. This is a master-piece on my table, the following printed of policy which has gained them a notice: “ Some of the people, called firm standing in the midst of their quakers, intend to hold a meeting enemies, and which ought to teach this evening, at their place of wor. the rest of mankind that it is prac- ship, in Martin's court, St. Martin's ticable for a virtuous, persevering Lane, to which the neighbours are few to counteract the many. The invited." In expectation of some. quakers have contrived to render thing extraordinary, I attended.... themselves happy in the midst of At the door I was received by one misery, and free, in a great mea. of the friends, who introduced me sure, in the midst of slavery.... to a seat among the elders. The Hence they have all that natural, house was soon filled, and a profound unaffected dignity, and all that silence reigned for a few minutes, manly, cordial spirit of accommo- when one of the brethren rose, and dation which man discovers to man began to speak, but he had not spobefore he becomes degenerate : and ken a minute, when an elder said, hence they regard mankind pretty“ We would take it kind of thee, much as that Cherokee did, who, friend, to sit down." The speaker being introduced at Paris, and shown looked up to see whence the disapevery thing which was supposed ca- probation proceeded, then nodding, pable of delighting or surprising in acquiescence, sat down. Pre. him, was asked, after his eyes had sently, a fine looking, elderly lady, swallowed the objects of a whole of matronly appearance, dressed in week's exhibition, « What astonish- the most elegant simplicity, rose, ed him most?" answered, “ The and, after a warm and impressive difference between man and man :" prayer, delivered, extempore, an and then being questioned “ With animated and edifying discourse, what he was most delighted ?" an, with a flow of elocution, and grace swered, “ He was most delighted to of manner, which, had she been see a passenger help a heavy bur. forty years younger, might have inden upon the back of another.” flamed those passions she sought to

« Although the quakers approach allay. nearer to the religion of nature, not. “There is one defect in the powithstanding their correspondence lity of the quakers, which will for with the world, than any systematic ever subject them to the tyranny of sect which has ever appeared, they the times....they love peace so well still hold to the great principles of they will not even fight for their li. the christian religion, though, in berty. This known principle di. point of orthodoxy, they can hardly vests them of all political consebe termed christians. Most others, quence, when those great political whether eastern sages or western movements are agitated, which saints, have retired from the world sometimes involve the deepest conin the degree they have approached sequences to society : otherwise, brama or Jesus, while the quakers, the quakers would gradually effect contented with this world until they a revolution throughout the world."

\Population of capital
Cultivated acres
Taxes paid by each person
Seamen in war
Seamen in peace
Land troops in war
Population
Land troops in peace
Revenues in dollars
Amount of public debt
Number of acres to each person
Extent in English acres
Number of persons to a square mile
Extent in English square miles!

900,000

110,000
1,800,000,000

150,000

18,000
120,000,000

Ireland.
G. Brit. and

45,000
150,000

100

61
70,000,000| 75,000,000
96,000,000 143,600,000°

250,000
450,000

360,000
180,000,000
44,000,000

240,000
Dominions. |
Austrian

2.40
837

750,000 75,000,000

125,000

500.000
1,125,000,000

225,000

25,000
90,000,000
128,000,000
25,000,000
France.

3.60
200,000

125

For the Literary Magazine. inland nations, having no navy, and

little shipping. The remaining GREAT BRITAIN (IRELAND IN- three, Great Britain, France, and

CLUDED), AUSTRIA, FRANCE, Spain, are naval and maritime naPRUSSIA, AND SPAIN (BEFORE tions, to whom many millions of THE FRENCH REVOLUTION), men, and immense territories, in STATISTICALLY COMPARED. Asia and America, are or have been

subject. France, though a maritime nation, and a naval power, next to England, and far above Spain, is without any foreign possessions..... Great Britain possesses, in Asia, territories equal to 300,000 square miles, with 40,000,000 of subjects. In North America, about 300,000 square miles of territory, and 300,000 subjects. Spain possesses, in Asia, about 75,000 square miles of territory, and 30,000 subjects. In North and South America, about 7,500,000 square miles of territory, and 7,500,000 subjects. Hence it appears that the Spanish empire is far beyond the territorial extent of the Russian, whose immensity has been so often vaunted. The population, European and American, of the first, being compared with the population, European and Asiatic, of the second, is at least equal, while, in all natural advantages, the American provinces of Spain are infinitely superior to the Siberian provinces of Russia.

The whole extent of the British empire, in both hemispheres, including its nominal allies, but real tributaries, in Hindoostan, is upwards of 1,080,000 square miles, and its subjects above 55,000,000, eminent in wealth, arts, and commerce. The habitable part of the Russian empire does not exceed 1,000,000 square miles. No mean portion of its inhabitants are savages, and only nominally subjects; but the whole population is less than half of that of the British empire.

5

48,000,000
6,000,000
75,000

80

Prussia.

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80,0001
25,000,000
350,000

316
19,000,000
225,000

150,000 | 50,000,000

100,000

40,000
250,000

100,000
220,000,000
64,000,000

128,000,000

12,500,000

200,000

Spain.

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179

865,000

The whole extent of the

above four kingdoms in Europe is, in square miles

Extent of their empire These five are the great king- beyond sea exceeds. doms in the west of Europe. Two Which, together, is equal of them, Austria and Prussia, are to

VOL. III. NO. XVII.

8,435,000

9,320,000

The population, Euro

the truth of the vulgar representa. pean, of the four

tions, in history and poetry, of Rikingdoms is

78,500,000 chard's character and person. Mr. That of the foreign pos

Laing, a very eminent writer, has, sessions of two of them

at a later period, pursued the vindiis upwards of 48,000,000 cation of Richard much further, and

has displayed great sagacity and Which together make 126,500,000 learning, in proving that the title of

Richard was really well-founded ; that it was preferable to that of the sons of his brother Edward, because

their mother bore them at a time For the Literary Magazine. when Edward was lawfully married

to another; that the personal singuRICHARD THE THIRD AND PER- larities of Richard are, if not wholly KIN WARBECK.

untrue, yet greatly exaggerated;

that the cruelties ascribed to him in THE folly and the fallacy of fame early youth were never committed; is an old theme of observation ; but and that, in particular, it was not there are few instances of its absur. Richard but his successor, Henry the dity and injustice more memorable seventh, who was the murderer of than in relation to the character of the duke of York, in the person of Richard the third. Happening to Perkin Warbeck. Mr. Laing thinks be unfortunate in battle, and a rival that one or both the princes, whom king and family stepping into his Richard is commonly supposed to place, his character has been ma- have murdered in the tower, were ligned and mangled without mercy. in reality alive at his death, and One historian after another has re- that the youngest re-appeared long peated the tale of his murders, per- after, in the person of Warbeck. juries, and usurpations; and what This conclusion is supported by facts the grave historian relates to a few, and arguments, which, if they do the poet has rendered familiar to not make it certain, give it at least all mankind.

far more probability than the oppo. If the opinions of mankind were site conclusion can lay claim to. really of any importance to those I am somewhat surprized that who died a century or two ago, poor the curious in these matters have Richard would have a heavy charge wholly overlooked a publication to bring against Shakespeare, whose which appeared at Paris, about play is one of the most enormous.li. 1738, written by Claude Du Bois, bels that ever was uttered against a jesuit, librarian to the count of a human being : enormous not only Lauenstein. His book is voluminous; as to the degree of guilt ascribed to and the title may be translated, Histhe object of it, but as to the lasting torical Collections from the Lauenand extensive nature of the infamy stein Library. Among various exit heaps upon the object. Shakes. tracts and dissertations, purely local, peare's popularity has made the am. in this work, is one which attempts bition of Richard and the revenge to throw some light upon the dark of Shylock equally proverbial, though points of English history respecting both are equally calumnious, and Richard and Warbeck. equally without foundation in histo The compte of Lauenstein, the aury or probability : Shylock, indeed, thor tells us, is in the province of is an imaginary character, but in Cambrai; a princely domain, which Shylock the Jewish nation is tra- has been in possession of the same duced.

family since the days of Louis HuHorace Walpole was the first in tin. In the archives of this family,England who suggested doubts as to which he represents as remarkably

copieus and entire, from a period money and counsel, and in which the anterior to the crusades, he found a leading personages of the English series of papers, connected with the court perform very different parts, history of Edward the fourth and and appear in very different lights Richard the third. Lauenstein, it from those assigned to them in the seems, was a populous and wealthy commonly received histories; he district, where arts and trade had proceeds to explain the motives of immemorially flourished. At the the king in keeping the princes in a accession of Edward, Charles XVII rigorous captivity, till the eve of the was count or lord of Lauenstein; arrival of the earl of Richmond. he was famous for his attention to When that event took place, it was the manufactures of the lordship, concerted between the king and one branch of which he entirely Prague, that the captive princes engrossed into his own hands, and should be delivered to the latter, transacted business at foreign marts, and transported by him to the Low like the Medicean princes, by means Countries, where they were to re. of factors or agents. He drove a main, under the special guardiangreat trade at London, where he ship of the count of Lauenstein. This maintained a commercial agent, removal was effected with the utwhose command of ready money most secrecy, and the princes were made him extremely useful to the safely lodged in the castle of LauenEnglish princes, and gave him no stein, by the time that Henry VII small influence at the English court. was fully seated on the throne. At the accession of Richard, this In this castle they were reared agent was named Mark Prague, a and educated with the utmost care. man of learning and ability, and who They were taught to consider Riwas a careful and intelligent observer chard as their benefactor, not their of all public transactions. Mark enemy; first, in sparing their lives, Prague maintained a frequent cor- and next, in placing them out of the respondence with his principal, and reach of his jealous and sanguinary detailed all political transactions in successor, from whose temper and his dispatches, with great micuteness. views they had much more to dread From this correspondence Du Bois than they ever had from Richard. forms the narrative he has given to Edward, the eldest of these printhe world in this collection.

ces, was of a meek, pliant, devout According to this narrative, it temper, who willingly resigned all appears that Mark Prague had ad- those hopes, with which the nume. vanced, at particular times, various rous partizans and great popularity sums of money to the duke of Glou- of his house might have inspired cester. In consequence of this ser- him, not only through a conscienvice, and of his personal merit, he tious belief of his defective right, had greatly advanced in the favour but from an aversion to the crimes and confidence of the duke, and had and perils of royalty. He readily become, in some respects, his confi- consented to conceal his birth, and dential counsellor. This situation a marriage with the heiress of Lau. made him acquainted with the cha. enstein gave him in due time the racter and genuine motives of Ri. sovereignty of that county. chard, whom he represents as influ. The younger brother, Richard, enced by a firm persuasion of the was of a different disposition. He illegitimacy of his nephews and was restless, enterprising, and ambi. nieces, and of his own legal right to tious. He did not so easily acquiesce the crown. After a detail of trans- in his exclusion from dignities, to actions leading to his elevation, to which popular opinion, with whatwhich the Lauenstein factor contri- ever reason, gave him a plausible buted in no small degree, both by and practicable claim. He rejected

the sober and prudent counsels of For the Literary Magazine. his brother, and, after he had risen to manhood, he left Lauenstein in MEMOIRS OF CARWIN THE pursuit of fortune, and went to his

BILOQUIST. aunt, the duchess of Burgundy. The rest of his history is pretty well Continued from vol. II, page 252. known, and his miserable fate tended only to confirm the unambitious THE books which composed this principles of his brother, who at- little library were chiefly the voya. tained a great age in the quiet and ges and travels of the missionaries prosperous administration of his lit- of the sixteenth and seventeenth ile principality. We are told that centuries. Added to these were he was present, in disguise, at the some works upon political economy coronation of Elizabeth, when he and legislation. Those writers who was near ninety years of age. have amused themselves with re

Edward was desirous of consign- ducing their ideas to practice, and ing all the particulars of his early drawing imaginary pictures of nahistory to oblivion. This end he tions or republics, whose manners effected imperfectly. Instead of or government came up to their destroying, he only deposited the standard of excellence, were, all of letters and archives connected with whom I had ever heard, and some his history in a tower or closet, little I had never heard of before, to be frequented, and usually appropriate found in this collection. A translaed to antiquated and useless records. tion of Aristotle's republic, the poliHere they were found, nearly de- tical romances of sir Thomas faced by time and neglect, in the Moore, Harrington, and Hume, eighteenth century, by the Lauen- appeared to have been much read, stein librarian, whose curiosity left and Ludlow had not been sparing of no nook unvisited and unexplored. his marginal comments. In these As this was now a point of mere writers he appeared to find nothing curiosity, he easily obtained the con- but error and absurdity; and his sent of the ruling count, the lineal notes were introduced for no other descendant of Edward, to publish end than to point out groundless them.

principles and false conclusions..... The truth or falsehood of this tale The style of these remarks was alhas no connexion with the interests ready familiar to me. I saw noor concerns of the present age, but thing new in them, or different from the imagination easily identifies our the strain of those speculations with own existence with that of men who which Ludlow was accustomed to flourished a thousand years ago. indulge himself in conversation with Hence it is that enlightened men me. have spent laborious years in clear- After having turned over the ing up the incidents of a remote leaves of the printed volumes, I at age ; in discussing the existence length lighted on a small book of and settling the merits of Arthur maps, from which, of course, I could and Charlemagne. There are many reasonably expect no information, ingenious persons in the world, on that point about which I was though perhaps there are few of most curious. It was an atlas, in them in America, who think it a which the maps had been drawn by matter of great importance to ascer. the pen. None of them contained tain the true character of Richard any thing remarkable, so far as I, the third and of Perkin Warbeck. who was indeed a smatterer in geoTo such I may venture to recom- graphy, was able to perceive, till I mend Du Bois' book, as well worthy came to the end, when I noticed a their attention.

map, whose prototype I was wholly CURIOSO. unacquainted with. It was drawn

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