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cross it without losing its level. dent can display such an infinite Hence, after a little practice, the variety, and, like a well-discerning shape of these several horizontal connoisseur, can treat each subject lines on the map will give a clearer with a graceful learning. Now to idea to the mind of the shape of the conclude, I can with safety declare, country over which they pass, than that my happiness is truly great this a sight of the country itself can con- day. One circumstance alone, I must vey to the eye. But to come at a except, stands in the way to make it mathematical certainty of the decli- quite complete : I fear my apprevity on any part of the map, we hensions may prove true, that this have the following universal high honour is greater than my

merit. This medal I will treasure PROPORTION.

up with care, which will be ever

dear to my remembrance.” As the perpendicular height of the horizontal lines above each [The above communication has other

just been received by the Editor, in Is to the radius,

a letter from Mr. Churchman, dated So is the horizontal distance be- London, October 27, 1804.] tween the horizontal line, at any particular place, To the co-tangent of the declivity.

For the Literary Magazine. Note. When the horizontal distance, between any two horizontal ON SUDDEN DLATU. lines, on the map, is equal to the perpendicular height of the hori. IWAS lately in a company where zontal lines above each other, the the conversation turned upon the angle of declivity and altitude will most eligible mode of dying. Varieach of them always be equal to 45 ous were the sentiments expressed degrees.

upon this interesting subject. A

lingering and natural death was geSOCIETY AT THE ADELPHI, nerally preferred, because such a LONDON.

one afforded opportunity of peni

tence and reformation, and of arThe honorary medal of this so. ranging all our private affairs. A ciety was voted to Mr. John Church. violent death, if foreseen, possessed, man, fellow of the Russian Imperial indeed, most of these advantages, Academy of Sciences, for his new but then such a death is likely to be improvements in geography, topo. regarded with extreme reluctance; graphy, &c., which was presented whereas it is the quality of disease to him, at the last annual public to slacken the hold which the appe. meeting, by his grace the duke of tites and passions have of life, and Norfolk, president. After answer to disrobe the terrestrial scene of ing a number of questions, Mr. most of its ordinary attractions. Churchman made the following re. This conclusion was not without ply :

objections, but these objections were

overruled by superior arguments, “ May it please the president, and the debate appeared to end, for

« Some great and learned men once, in unanimity. At length an have oftentimes been observed to ne- old gentleman, who had hitherto glect almost every science, except been silent, was asked to give his one : to this alone they have paid so opinion. He modestly observed, that much attention, that they have had the conclusion generally acquiesced but little inclination for any thing else. in implied a life not conformable to Thrice happy are the members of reason or religion. As lite was at the present institution, whose presi- best precarious, it was the duty of

every one, in relation to his own bute to exasperate those evils which safety hereafter, the benefit of his they are designed to lessen or resurvivors, and the honour of his move. name, to be always prepared to One of the means of keeping up die. We ought so to live, that and heightening inequality of forour sudden death can produce no tune is the custom of marrying mischief to ourselves or our sur wealth to wealth. To make the vivors, but that which is insepa. object of our affection happy, by rerable from death in any form.... lieving his poverty, seems to be the These conditions being granted, he most natural expression of love. begged leave to relate the death of A heart, imbued with that passion, Leonard Euler, one of the best and must naturally wish the power of wisest men which the present age conferring obligation on its object. has produced, and one whom it was To raise from poverty to affluence, his most fervent wish to resemble from labour to ease, from hardship both in life and death.

and privation to enjoyment and The company eagerly assenting honour, must unspeakably gratity a to this proposal, he related it in mind, which values another's good these terms:

before its own. Such are the con“ Leonard Euler had retained all clusions of one who should judge his facility of thought to the age of without experience. .. seventy-six, and, apparently, all his Experience teaches a very dif. mental vigour : no decay seemed to ferent lesson. We find that the pothreaten the sciences with the sud. verty of one party is the most insu. den loss of their greatest ornament. perable obstacle to his pretensions. One day, after amusing himself with In the eyes of parents and guardicalculating, on a slate, the laws of ars, marriage is a kind of bargain, the ascending motion of air-balloons, in which each party is supposed to the recent discovery of which was invest the other with all their prothen making a noise all over Eu. perty. Where the property is une rope, he dined with a friend and his equal, the bargain is, of course, unfamily, talked of Herschell's planet, equal. The worth of the ward or and of the calculations which deter- child is the fortune she is to carry mined its orbit. A little after, he with her. If the suitor (or suitress) called his grandchild to his knee, has less, he is rejected of course, and fell a playing with him as he just with the same feelings that men drank tea, when suddenly the cup, reject five dollars in silver, when which he held in his hand, dropped offered in exchange for a bank note from it, and he ceased to calculate of ten. and to breathe.”

Among the various expedients AN. for producing an equality of condi

tions, I never, till lately, met with any thing like a law prohibiting the

rich from marrying the rich. We For the Literary Magazine. have often seen it recommended,

by speculative visionaries, to divide UNEQUAL MARRIAGES. the property of deceased persons

among all his children, or to give it AN equality of fortune seems to to those among the children who be generally thought a good thing need it or deserve it most. This in human society. Those who ob- rule of distribution has actually ject to it, really object to it as im- taken place among some nations. practicable : not the end do they The Romans endeavoured to equadisapprove, but the means some. lise property, by prohibiting any times employed or proposed to effect man from acquiring, either by pur. this end ; and they disapprove these chase, gift, or inheritance, beyond a means, because they inerely contri- fixed quantity of land. We are told that all these agrarian regula. It is well worthy the attention of tions were ineffectual among that some careful and impartial observer people ; but the Prussian Frederick to trace the various effects of these seems to have succeeded in enforc- institutions : but travellers, who will ing the same rule, within certain stay long enough in the country they limitations. He raised the predial visit, and will take suitable pains to slaves, in some of his Silesian lord- ascertain the truth, are not to be ships, to the rank of freemen and met with. proprietors, but he tied each one down to the property of one farın, of a fixed number of acres, and we are told that his regulations were observed.

It is somewhat remarkable, that For the Literary Magazine. though po system maker has adopt. ed the rule restricting the rich from CRITICAL REMARKS ON AUSTIN's marrying the rich, that this rule LETTERS FROM LONDON. should be actually in force in Spain. Baretti, a traveller in Spain, tells Letters from London, written in us, that the heir or heiress of a 1802 and 1803, by William Austin. grandee cannot marry the heir or heiress of another grandee. If an MR. AUSTIN is a politician. heir fall in love with an heiress, he He is one of those who annex must forego his passion or his inhe great importance to forms of goritance. He must resign his fortune vernment, and suppose most of the to a younger brother, or a coilateral vices and virtues, evils and felicities relation.

of mankind to arise from their poliSome such rule as this must, in- tical condition. He is a friend to deed, be expressly or tacitly adopte the democratic system, and thinks ed in every agrarian system. Fre- the American constitution not only derick's peasants must have had best in itself, but to be best administheir marriages restrained by some tered by those who hold the public such conditions.

offices, and bear legislative sway, at There are several particulars re- present. corded of Spanish manners, which The author's acknowledged pur. accord but little with the austerity pose is to compare the state of Engand seclusion which it has been the land with that of the United States, custom of play-wrights and novelin order to evince the superior hapwrights to ascribe to them. For piness and dignity of his native example, we are told that if a girl country. What renders this work give a ring, or any other token, to chiefly curious or original, is the rea man, as a pledge that she will presentation of impressions such as marry him, the law, after some de- manners and appearances in Eng. lay, will enforce the execution of land would make upon a native of the contract, whether the parents New England. The inferences consent or not. From this rule the drawn by the writer are frequently nobility only are exempted.

indeed peculiar to that part of the There is another circumstance, United States, and he would someby which the crime of seduction is times lead a foreigner into errors, rendered nearly impossible to be by speaking of New England and its coinmitted in Spain, and, when com- institutions, as if they were coinmon mitted, is divested of almost all its to all parts of the union. It is well mischievous consequences. If a sin. known, that in every thing which gle woman happen to be pregnant, can distinguish one civilised commuthe man whom she affirms to be the nity from another, there is a far father is compelled tobe her husband. wider difference between the easting..

ern and the southern states of Ame. is stationed in the yard, and doomed rica, than can be found between to perpetual imprisonment with a America and England.

chain round his neck." The great and fundamental error The following reflections on the in this work will be thought by Jews are highly honourable to Mr. many to consist in the influence as. Austin's judgment and sagacity : cribed to government over the ha. “I have bestowed not a little bits and manners of the people. street reflection on this miserable What others would trace to the race, and feel disposed to speak a state of population and the arts, he word in their favour. If we conis too apt to attribute to the preva- template their situation, even in lence of monarchy and aristocracy England, where they are less peror democracy. He is tinctured with secuted than in any other country, the principles of what has been except the United States, we shall sometimes called the new philoso- find them indirectly driven to prey phy, and which represents the on the public, and compelled, by their whole structure of society to depend disabilities, to a continual counteracentirely in the manner which design tion. Eligible to po office, incapable or accident has distributed political of holding land, or even of possesspower. Almost ever page exhibits ing a house, with the additional some example of this way of think- hardship of being despised, they are

a sort of Indian Parias, and are abThe following is new to us : solutely proscribed from the social

“ Most of those magnificent compact, and reduced to a state houses round London, which, proud- worse than that of simple nature, ly retiring from the city for the for, in opening their eyes to their benefit of air and prospect, seem condition, they find nothing on which built as much with a view to exter- to rest but the canopy of heaven. nal grandeur as to domestic conve- Now, I would appeal to Tully's Of. nience, are so completely guarded fices, or even to Dr. Johnson, if a with high brick walls, that you man thus situated by force, insidi. might imagine the baron's wars had ously legalised under the sanction not yet terininated, for his house, in of law, ought to be honest; and a double sense, is the owner's castle. whether a man thus circumstanced, Nor can you look into their gardens would not have a moral right to by reason of the fortifications; countervail, by every means in his though you frequently see an elevat- power. Under such restrictions, ed sign at the corner, requesting can a Jew be expected to philanyon to take notice that " man traps" thropise, or, in the moment of bene. are placed there.

volence, can his heart wander out of « The houses in the city, even if the precincts of his own nation, they enjoy ten feet of rear ground, when early sentiments have necessuffer the inconvenience of dark, sarily been contaminated by all the confined air, by reason of high walls, arts of low commerce to which his the tops of which are usually ce- nation is reduced ? A benevolent, mented with broken glass bottles : Hebrew would be a monster. Hence, I do not say to guard against their a Jew's passion cannot be reputation neighbours.

of any kind, but must concentre in "The security of the house in money. Therefore, Shakespeare's which I reside is guarantied in the imaginary Shylock is not exactly following manner. The door has true to nature : a Jew, in such a a double lock, a chain, and two case, would have accepted all the bolts, beside an alarum bell, which money he could have extorted, and is carefully fixed to the pannel every have foregone his revenge. Yet night. A watchman, if he does his this imaginary Shylock has prejuduty, passes by the door once in diced thousands of christians, who thirty minutes. Another watchman never saw a Jew, against the whole

tribe of Israel: while those very are entertaining and judicious. The christains, who read the story of a following portrait of the quakers is certain duke, who demanded a large entitled to no small praise : sum of money from a Jew, and ex. “There is no class of people, in torted four of his teeth before he England, holden in less respect than could extort the money, are greatly the quakers; yet I have seen no surprised at the Jew's obstinacy. sect, in this country, with whom I In short, the Jews owe the christians have been more pleased. With nothing but hatred and revenge, respect to the rest of the world, the whether they revert back to fore quakers certainly are a hopeless and mer times, or regard the present. barren set of people. They hate

“ The operation of those disabili. equally kings and priests. Their conties and restrictions, which the chris- sciences revoltat tythes in any shape, tian imposes on the Jew, is just what therefore the clergy hate them..... ought to be expected. Is a house on Their own meditations serve them fire, he is happy to see it, the old nails instead of preaching, therefore the afford a speculation. Crimes, for religious of most other denominaaught he cares, may multiply with tions dislike them. Their tempe. impunity, he is the last to informn: rance laughs at the physician, and who ever heard of a Jew informer? their honestystarves the lawyer, The more thieves, the more dis while their prudence and foresight tress, the more boundless extrava- exalt them above the active, injuri. gance, the fairer the prospect; to ous hatred of the world, and elevate him private vices are public bene. them above those who despise them. fits. Is the nation ruined, he has “Their decency of carriage, their nothing to lament, having no tie, no unassuming manners, their habitual amor patriæ, no attachment; but he economy, and general spirit of equi. is not quite ready to leave the coun- ty, have long, and will, perhaps, try; a nation in ruins is a Jew fair. for ever, connect them together in a

" If the Jews were more disposed body, co-existent with their present to agriculture, they might find, in maxims. the United States, a resting place, « There is one characteristic and, notwithstanding their religion, which distinguishes the quakers they might flourish as well there as from all other sects: they discover at Jerusalem, or on the more favou- nothing of the spirit of proselytism; rite banks of the Jordan.”

their favourite sentiments partake This work abounds with amusing nothing of enthusiasm ; they hurl and instructive passages. Some no damnation on the rest of the eminent persons are described with world ; tolerant to every body, they considerable eloquence. The great consider all honest men their bre. luminaries of the English bar, Ers- thren. There is not a single trait kine, Gibbs, and Garrow, are pour- in their character incentive to ill. trayed with much force.

will, nor a movement in their conThe cast of politics with which duct which has ever courted persethis work is overspread, will recom. cution. Their humility has never mend it to some, and depreciate its resisted even oppression; in sufferusefulness and merit to others; but ing patient, they are active only in all will probably be pleased, and support of their principles. Remote that in no small degree, with the from all hypocrisy, they have never moral and descriptive portions of sought after temporal power, nor the work. Much information, in has their own system ever operated detail, must not be expected from to the prejudice of others. Yet this it. It is a moral and political des. sect has been persecuted, and its cant, in which characters, scenes, members been put to death!* the and incidents are introduced by way of illustration. These, though few,

* In New England.

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