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rious to the people of the latter than merely by paying a reasonable comof the two former cities ; but this is pensation to the owner. If, therea diversity only in degree; the mis. fore, the government should resolve chief is precisely of the same nature. to change its residence, it would ful

But though there be no obligation, fil every duty, both that arising from arising from an imaginary contract, the sanctity of public faith and that in the government of the United arising from the relations of justice States to continue at Washington, and beneficence which the state there is another obligation incum- bears to all its citizens, by making bent on the legislature in this as in a reasonable compensation to every all other cases : that of consulting one who shall suffer by the change. the happiness and welfare of the ci. Preposterous as it may appear to tizens. In this, as in other cases, some, to reimburse the expences of the legislature ought to intend, in a house built with a view of finding the formation of laws, the good and a tenant in a public officer, and rennot the evil of their country. The dered useless by the removal of that community is composed of individu- officer elsewhere, yet this might be als, and that which affects the hapa done, and the nation, on the whole, piness of individuals has a propor- considerably benefited by the change. tional influence on the well-being of This, though more than the strictthe whole. In resolving to remove est justice demands, would by no from Washington, the congress will means still the clamours of those be wise in proportion to the com- who wish the government to contiprehensiveness of their view ; in nue where it is, not to repair a loss proportion as they extend their re. actually incurred, or prevent one gards to all the consequences of the which the removal would occasion, law. They will be criminal if they but inerely to secure to themselves overlook totally the interest of the the profits which they anticipate inhabitants of Washington, but they from the future progress of the city. will likewise be criminal if they Mankind are as much displeased by suffer the interests of this part to missing an advantage which they outweigh, in their breasts, the in- have in view, as by losing one they terests of all the other parts, or if have in their possession ; and those they inflict an injury upon others by who owned their present propertystaying where they are, greater than before the foundation of the city, that which will befal the people of and whose golden dreams a removthe territory by removing elsewhere. al will dissipate, will be quite as

There is, however, an obvious loud in their reproaches and strenumethod of reconciling all claims. ous in their opposition, as those who The claims of the proprietors of have actually purchased ground and ground in Washington to the pre- built houses since that event, and in sence of congress, let it be ever so consequence of their belief that the sacred, cannot be more so than the city would be permanent. It is evi. right which every man enjoys to dent that the complaints of the first the possession and use of his own deserve no regard. They lose noproperty ; and yet, when the public thing. They merely miss an opporbenefit requires a new road to be tunity of gaining; and if from the carried through a district, or a claims of the latter all that loss be street to be widened in a city, it has deducted which has been already never been thought a breach of jus incurred, by the progress of the tice to extort from every man so city being slower than was genemuch of his ground as the projected rally expected, how small will be avenue requires, in spite of his re- the remaining balance which will sistance or refusal. This outrage justly be chargeable to the account on the sacred right of property is of removal! thought to be completely justified,


For the Literary Magazine. mands a most extensive and roman

tic prospect. Hence the eye looks AMERICAN PROSPECTS. down on the course of the little

river, by some called the Swan, and I HAVE often heard it observed by by others the Clear Water and Petravellers, that America contained lican, beautifully meandering upnothing of the picturesque. This is wards of thirty miles. The valley, very unaccountable. That part of the at once refreshed and adorned by it, picturesque which arises from the is about three miles broad, and is elaborate arrangements of art, and confined by two lofty ridges of equal especially from the architectural height, displaying a most delightful monuments of ancient times, it is intermixture of wood and lawn, and true, we do not possess. No crum- stretching on till the blue mist obbling walls are scattered over our scures the prospect. Some parts of vallies; no ivy-clad tower reposes the inclining heights are covered on the brow of our hills. How with stately forests, relieved by promuch the imagination is inspired montories of the finest verdure, by these memorials of former gene where the elk and buffaloe find rations, with what solemn and en- pasture. These are contrasted by nobling elevation they fill the mind, spots where fire has destroyed the are easily conceived, and these ad. woods, and left a dreary void be. juncts are certainly wanting to the hind it. Nor, when I beheld this scenes of our country. Those who wonderful display of uncultivated are accustomed to see nature con- nature, was the moving scenery of stantly accompanied by ancient tur- human occupation wanting to com. rets or modern obelisks, by palaces plete the picture. and spires, by artificial lakes and “ From this elevated situation I water-falls, grow fastidious. The beheld my people, diminished, as it face of uncultivated nature, which were, to half their size, employed in contains no vestige of other times, pitching their tents in a charming nothing to hint of battles, sieges, or meadow, and among the canoes,

murder, is to them dreary, blank, which, being turned on their sides, • and insipid.

presented their reddened bottoms in Of those scenes, however, which contrast with the surrounding verare composed of the rude members dure. At the same time, the proof nature, of valley, precipice, and cess of gumming them produced stream, it cannot be conceived that numerous small spires of smoke, America is more destitute than which, as they rose, enlivened the other countries; and those districts, scene, and at length blended with which have been settled eighty or a the larger columns that ascended hundred years, cannot be denied to from the fires where the suppers abound with all those ingredients of were preparing. It was in the the picturesque, which arise from a month of September when I enjoyed full, though recent, population. a scene of which I do not presume

I have no where met with a more to give any adequate description ; characteristic prospect than occurs and, as it was the rutting season of in the travels of Mackenzie. It is the elk, the whistling of that animal worthy of the study of the Claudes was heard in all the variety which and Poussins of the age, and will be the echoes could afford it." read with uncommon interest by the people of a future age, who are acquainted with such scenes only by For the Literary Magazine. description. “ T'he precipice on which I

PEMMICAN. stood," says this ingenious traveller, THE Canadians and northern “ rises upwards of a thousand feet Indians prepare meat in a way de. above the plain beneath it, and com- serving of imitation. Armies, and all those whose business it is to tra. the minute clans of Italy the rer vel in desolate countries, without being a hereditary dignity, and permuch equipage, in great numbers, taining to a certain family, a petty or with great expedition, would find revolution, by banishing this ruling their account in a knowledge of the family, and substituting an annual mode of making pemmican. The and elective chief instead of a perfollowing is the method of preparing petual and hereditary one, of course it :

involved the ancient title in disgrace The lean parts of the flesh of the and odium. In the course of a thoularger animals are cut into thin sand years, this state underwent the slices, and placed on a wooden most extraordinary changes : from grate, over a slow fire, or ex- a territory ten miles square, and a posed to the sun, and sometimes to population of two or three thousand, the frost. These operations dry the territory enlarged into five milit, and, in that state, it is pound. lions of square miles, and their num. ed between two stones; it will bers swelled into a hundred millions. then keep for several years. If, Still the head of this nation, though however, it is kept in large quanti- endowed with unlimited and hereties, it is liable to ferment in spring ditary power, adventured not to inand summer, when it must be ex- sult the prejudices of the Romans so posed to the air, or it will soon de- much as to assume the title of rer. cay. The inside fat, and that of the The title they bore was imperator, rump, which is much thicker in which really meant, in its original, wild than in domestic animals, is no more than a successful military melted down and mixed, in a leader, was addressed tumultuously boiling state, with the pounded by soldiers in a conquering army to meat, in equal proportions ; it is their general, and was retained by then put in baskets or bags, for the the chiefs of the state as their peconvenience of carrying it. Thus culiar distinction, in addition to the it becomes a nutritious food, and is legal or civil titles of dictator, coneaten without any further prepara. sul, censor, pontifex maximus, and tion, or the addition of salt, spice, or tribunus plæbis. any vegetable or farinaceous sub. The chiefs of the conquered nastance. A little time reconciles it tions and tribes were called reges, to the palatc.

and this name, by belonging to strangers and subjects, became gradually to imply, in itself, less power and

less dignity than imperator, the ap. For the Literary Magazine. pellation of the head of the Roman

state. The barbarous tribes who ON THE TITLE OF EMPEROR. destroyed this mighty state, and

parcelled out its provinces among BONAPARTE having lately as- themselves, generally retained their sumed the title of emperor, as the pristine title of rex. Ancient opigreatest his ambition could aspire nion had consecrated that of impeto, naturally suggests an enquiry in- rator, not only to a more extensive to the significance and history of this dominion than any of these invaders envied title. The veneration and had acquired, but to a power whose splendour still annexed to this title residence and centre should be Italy. is a striking proof of the perma. The title, therefore, was perpetunence of political forms and national ated long after the empire that perideas. At very early periods, in tained to it had shrunk almost to the history of Europe, the chief of a limits as narrow as those of ancient tribe or nation seems to have been Latium. Italy itself, however, was distinguished by an appellation equi- finally overwhelmed, and the name valent to the Roman word rex, or of emperor became extinct, till, in the English word king. In one of process of time, one among the bar

barian kings arose, who extended princes, though the Roman pontiff, his dominion over Italy and many in spite of very strong solicitations, of the western provinces of the fal always refused to sanction this pre. len empire. Pontifex maximushad tension in him and his successors. meanwhile become the title of the It is now easily perceived by head of the Roman religion, and the what motives Bonaparte, whose pow. Roman religion had become that er is as absolute as that of any prince not only of the new dynasties who in Europe, and whose subjects are had started up in the Roman em. more numerous and potent than any pire, but of tribes who continued to other of its nations, should be satisdwell far beyond its ancient limits. fied with no title less than that By the consent of Rome and Italy, which usage and opinion has consi. and the pontifex maximus, this dered as the highest. He has, mighty chief was installed impera. therefore, dubbed himself emperor. tor Romanorum, and his posterity This dignity, being hereditary in retained this title, with its preroga. him, was of course superior to that tives, till Italy fell under subjection to of the German or Roman emperor, a new family, the seat of whose pow. which, though really hereditary, is er was placed in a country which nominally elective. The Austrian, lay beyond the limits of the ancient therefore, to be even with the empire. This chief being a prince Frenchman, has, we are informed, of Germany, and Germany forming determined to assume this title as one great political body, subordinate a hereditary appendage. Some to one head, this head became em. hints have been given us, indeed, peror, and Germany forming the that Spain and Prussia are seized largest portion of his empire, ac. with the same mania. If the new quired the title of the German em. line of French emperors continues, pire.

Europe will no doubt be crouded With respect to Italy and Ger. with self-created emperors, and this many, the title is accompanied by title, sacred and venerable for eighgenuine prerogatives and preceden- teen centuries, will, like all other ces, but, in the rest of christian Eu- things, become insignificant by berope, the supreme dignity among its coming common. potentates has always been assigned

R. M. to the emperor in consequence of the veneration that followed this dignity in ancient Roman times, and which has been transmitted For the Literary Magazine. though the medium of popular opi. nion. For a long time this dignity, IMPROVEMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, in Europe, like that of pope, was

TOPOGRAPHY, &c. thought to be indivisible, and the simple phrase, "the emperor," was IT is a matter of the utmost imalways clearly understood. At the portance, to every country, to possess commencement of the eighteenth a complete knowledge of the ground. century, however, the lord of the Now, since the sciences of geogra. Russian deserts, whose domains phy and topography appear heretowere situated without the pale of fore imperfect, an easy and accurate the great European republic, was method of laying down maps of seized with a strong desire of be. mountainous countries and estates coming a member of that great re- will perhaps prove useful, as it will public. He imagined himself entit. show, at a single view, the true led to enter on the scene in the most shape and comparative height of the dignified guise, and therefore claim- ground, without the art of painting. ed the name of imperator, which Seeing mountains are apt to seems to have been either expressly eclipse each other, a perspective or tacitly allowed to him by other view is seldom very extensive, the


rules of which fall short of giving will show all the ground that can be an accurate idea of any hilly coun- irrigated, where navigable canals try, because such a view, put upon may be cut, and where highways paper, if strictly true in one parti- and rail roads may be laid out on cular place, can be so in no other. the best and most level ground. The altitudes of mountains appear 4th. The subterranean treasures in proportion to the distance from of the mineral and fossil kingdoms the eye, and no rule in geometry are generally found in strata ; if has proved sufficient to determine not truly horizontal, they make a distances from any single station. certain angle with the horizon. A Neither can a bird's-eye view of an map on this projection will enable estate ascertain the depth of vallies the mineralogist to examine any one or the height of mountains.

stratum, at places far distant from Because it is equally capable of each other, with more ease and acshowing the true shape of any curacy. ground, above or below water, the 5th. Commanders of armies are proposed improvement may be suce acquainted with the many advancessfully applied to sea charts, tages always to be gained from the which will prevent much confusion, possession of high ground. Thus arising from the tiresome method of we are enabled to give the compadistinguishing soundings by great rative height of every hill, also the multitudes of figures, and will be best rout where the heavy burthens found to possess the following ad- may be drawn up with the most vantages, with many others, too te. ease. dious to mention : 1st. One great pleasure of travel

EXPLANATION. ling lies in seeing the infinite variety in different countries composed of To lay down the shape of Great uneven ground. This method will Britain. First an accurate map of afford, at a single view, the true the outlines is laid down, in the shape of the surface, and will excommon way.

common way. Then horizontal

Then hor tend the pleasures of a journey to lines are run all round the island, at the shades of retirement.

100, 200, 300, 400 feet above the 20. Experience has sufficiently ocean. These may be taken with shown, that the inhabitants of low a good theodolite and spirit level grounds are subject to the yellow annexed. To prove the work, the fever, and other kinds of sickness, courses and distances will be cast which those living at places elevated up with tables of the difference of to a certain degree are not subject latitude and departure : if no error, to. A map on this improved plan each line will end where it began; will point out the most proper situa- and if the bearing and distances of tions for building dwelling houses; these several horizontal lines are it will be useful to the botanist for truly laid down on the map, the discovering or cultivating some crooked courses of them will clearly kinds of plants, which flourish best show the true shape of the ground at particular distances above the over which they pass, as the dislevel of the sea; and will describe tances between the horizontal lines the line of vegetation on the sides of will be proportioned to the declilofty mountains, whose tops are co- vity. For example, if any horizonvered with eternal snow.

tal line passes on the side of any 3d. Some high lands are known steep hill or cleft, as at Dover, it to produce good grain, while low will incline towards the ocean, or land affords grass inore abundantly: approach the next horizontal line but most grounds produce good grass, below it. Again, when the same over which a moderate quantity of line crosses a valley, the said line running water can be conveyed. A will naturally incline towards the plan of any country, in this way, centre of the island, until it can

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