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foundations of a very ancient struc- feet high, to see the old Genoese ture, supposed to be the Temple of Castle, a vast and ruined structure, Jupiter. This hospital was crowded built of solid masonry. with many British soldiers during On our way to the Acropolis we the Crimean War, and the adjacent passed a remarkable “ kitchen midcemetery has many British graves. den," consisting of several layers of We crossed the ancient and pictur. oyster-shells, etc., which is supposed

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esque Caravan Bridge across the to mark the spot of a very ancient river. Over this bridge for hun- population. The walls of the Acrodreds of years has come, on the polis on the summit of Mount Pagus, backs of camels, nearly all the which are very impressive, seen produce of Asia Minor which is from below, are still more so when shipped from Smyrna. We climbed one climbs. Their cliff-like ruins are Mount Pagus, a hill five hundred very extensive. They consist chiefly of works of the Byzantine emperors, a green turban. The tomb is coy. with restorations by the Genoese. ered with Turkish colours, and overOn one side are traces of Cyclo- shadowed by a melancholy cypress pean walls, the great work of Lysim- and surrounded by a low wall, achus, remaining in good order and where a Turkish custodian takes well preserved.

toll from Christian visitors. The Within the area of the Acropolis view from the Acropolis, of the curvare the walls of a ruined mosque, ing bay, the crowded town, the formerly a church in which Poly. cypress groves, cemeteries, the encarp preached, and, below, the girdling hills, the plain and the vaulted arches of a reservoir. The ancient aqueduct, is exceedingly so called "Seven Churches” is a impressive.

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structure some distance from the On our way back to the ship we walls, alleged to be the ancient passed through the crowded and church of which St. Polycarp squalid Jewish quarter. Being was the “angel,” one of the seven Saturday-the Jewish Sabbathchurches of Asia. In the amphi- every body was in holiday dress: theatre of Smyrna the venerable the men in white; the handsome bishop was martyred at the stake. Jewish women in bright colours, On the slope of a hill is shown what with a profusion of gold ear-rings is alleged to be his tomb. It is evi- and ornaments in strange contrast dently that of a Moslem saint, built to the squalor of their surroundings. of brick, plastered (eight feet by ten), The Turkish quarter was, if possible, with a Turkish headstone, bearing still more crowded. The bazaars were all exceedingly interesting, was a school, over which was the filled with curious Oriental wares, appropriate inscription, “The fear rugs, carpets, silks, embroideries, of the Lord,"—or, as the genial Greek jewellery, and Oriental weapons and librarian translated it, “The horror of curios; among the latter a variety God”_" is the beginning of wisdom.” of terra-cotta heads and figures of This same librarian was an enthusi

astic antiquarian, and exhibited with the greatest courtesy the treaures of his admirable museum, including classic fragments from



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Sardis, and a carved fighting cock found at Phochia, an ancient Galatian town, which he declared to be the

origin of the Gallic cock, the emblem supposed classic origin, of which I of France to-day. He showed with bought a small head of Juno, and special pleasure an ancient manualso some brilliant Smyrniote cuf. script of the tenth century, contain: fiehs or silk kerchiefs.

ing the first eight books of the Old We paid an interesting visit to Testament, with some very quaint the library and museum. Near this miniature illuminations.

As I had to make a choice between 343 feet, but the great Temple of foregoing the sights of Smyrna and the Sun, which we saw at Baalbec, the ruins of Ephesus—fifty miles off was almost as large, and its columns by rail—I preferred the former. My were even larger. Seven of the party of friends from Berlin Uni- latter, with their entablature rising versity went out by rail to the seventy-five feet, still remain, while ancient city, and described the at Ephesus not a fragment stands ruins, especially of the great Temple erect. What gives the latter its of Diana, as especially interesting, special interest is its association although scarcely one stone was left with sacred history from the perseupon another. “If the glory of cutions of St. Paul, who fought Ephesus was great,” says a recent with beasts and beast-like men at writer, “ its ruin is remarkable. Ephesus. The story of his visits What remains attests its vastness, is told in Acts xviii., xix. and xx. but of that magnificence naught but From his prison cell in Rome he

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fragments exist. It has a character subsequently wrote the Epistle to of desolation of its own. The popu- the Ephesians. lation has passed away from the Here, also, St. John is believed to site, and of the monuments of mar- have retired after his return from his ble scarcely enough remains above banishment to Patmos. Here, too, acground to mark their sites.” Many cording to tradition, the Virgin Mary of its smaller columns were carried went to live with the beloved disoff to embellish Constantinople, Rome, ciple, and here she died and was Pisa, and other cities. What became buried. Here was held the famous of the many statues that adorned its Council of Ephesus, and here is temples we cannot tell, unless they said to be the tomb of Mary Magwere burned for lime or buried be- dalene. The Grotto of the Seven neath the soil.

Sleepers is a place of interest to The great Temple of Diana was Mohammedans as well as Christians. one of the largest and most famous Tradition reports that during the in the world. It measured 164 by persecution of the Christians in the reign of Diocletian, A.D. 283, seven blue waves of the Mediterranean. men and a dog went here for refuge, It was a most refreshing experience. and, falling asleep, did not wake In the glorious afternoon light our for two hundred years. When they ship warped slowly out of the awoke and entered the city they harbour. The townsfolk came down did not recognize the people, the by hundreds to the quay, which money nor the language; every- looked like the stage of some great thing was changed and the city amphitheatre surrounded by its backhad all become Christian. This ground of mountains. Among our tradition was received by Mahomet new passengers was a lady in a and embodied in the Koran, and the cinnamon-coloured dress. Although Mohammedans have great venera- deck passengers, this lady and her tion for the dog Ketmehr and allow servant took refuge at first on the him a place in Paradise. The flat roof of a small structure isolated

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names of the Seven Sleepers, en.
graved in gold or precious stones,
are supposed to act as a powerful
charm to avert evil, and may be
purchased in the talisman bazaar
=Smyrna was in ancient times a
great school for rhetoricians and
philosophy. It was called the Forest
of Philosophy and the Asylum of
the Muses and Graces. Before re-
embarking on the steamer for Con-
stantinople I joined my Berlin
University friends and rowed to the
breakwater for a final dip in the

from the crowding hundreds of other passengers. Finding this rather a bleak spot to sleep on in the open air she transferred her rugs, her parrot cage and her other belongings to the bridge connecting the fore and after decks, where she improvised a sort of tent by spreading a rug over the railing and effectually obstructing all passage through the gangway. Another of our passengers was a Jewess, who wore a most sumptuous dress embroidered with most beautiful lace. As we glided from the shore the golden sunset faded into olive green and ashen grey, and the red light on the mountains deepened from ruddy crimson

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