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2,266 British merchantmen were seized by in the minds of the young,” he says, French ships sallying from these stations, the basis of sound knowledge, historical, and this when Britain's trade with Aus- geographical and industrial, is not only a tralia and the East was trivial compared legitimate work, but a primary duty for with its present proportions.
the schools of the country. Especially The fiscal policy of the federated Em- is this true of countries where good govpire need not be greatly different from ernment rests on the intelligence of the what it is now, although a British Zoll
Above all it is true for a nation verein is regarded by many as the true which has the great birthright of free ideal. Trade follows the flag. The four popular institutions, which has more than · millions of people in Australia take more once stood as the bulwark of modern British goods than the fifty millions of liberty, as it may have to stand again, Germany or the sixty millions of the which has traditions behind and prospects United States.
ahead fitted to fire the noblest and purest As to plans of federation these may enthusiasm. largely be left to peaceful evolution when By manifold agencies and influences, once the principle is adopted. Recently then, is the problem of British unity to the influence of Canada, long ignored, be worked out. Our freedom, our national has been felt in treaty-making both in traditions, our institutions, our AngloWashington and in London. Sir Charles Saxon civilization, are the common heriTupper proposes that the members of the
tage of all.
It is the business of all to colonial cabinet be members of the Privy labour for their maintenance and for their Council of England. With him agree security.” Earl Gray, the Marquis of Lorne, W. E. Dr. Parkin will have a splendid opForster and others. Lord Thring sug. portunity, as the head of the Upper gests that the agents-general of the colo- Canada College, to embody this noble nies should have positions akin to those ideal of British education. In the variof the ministers of foreign states.
ous periodicals under our charge we shall Dr. Parkin suggests that conferences endeavour to promote the same broad such as have taken place at Ottawa and patriotism-a loyalty not merely to our Melbourne, bringing the statesmen and city, our province, or our Dominion, but merchants of the colonies into closer touch to the broad Empire of which Canada and sympathy, should be inore frequent. forms nearly one-half, and to the SoverAn Imperial penny postage, he urges, will eign whom we love with no less ardent be more to the nation than the strength affection than any who in any land pray, of many ironclads in the stronger national “God Save the Queen.” sentiment, the deeper feeling
of uational In connection with Dr. Parkin's admirunity which it would evoke. He urges able book on this subject, we suggest the also, discussion of the subject by cham- study of Professor Seeley's “Expansion bers of commerce, workinginen's clubs, in of England,” issued by the same pubthe press, and especially the study of the lishers, and, for our junior readers, history and geographical relations of this Adams' admirable little book on Engworld-wide Empire in the schools and land's colonial dependencies, entitled colleges.
• Around the World with the Union " The cultivation of national sentiment Jack.”
BY RICHARD BURTON.
CHRISTMASTIDE is a time of cold,
THE RIGHT HON. A. J. BALFOUR ON THE STUDY OF THEOLOGY.
Messrs. LONGMANS, GREEN & Co. have published one of the most remarkable books this generation has seen. Its author, its theme, and its contents alike explain the prompt and extensive notice which it received in the press. It has been well said that there are only two subjects which enchain the attention of serious men-politics and religion ; and here the leader of one great party in the House of Commons, a future Prime Minister of England, writes upon the subject of religion. In the work now before us the Right Honourable A. J. Balfour appears as one of the ablest apologists for the Christian religion since the days of Bishop Butler. This volume is entitled “The Foundations of Belief, being Notes Introductory to the Study of Theology. It is very modest of Mr. Balfour to speak of this volume as consisting of notes. It is really a profound investigation of those preliminary presuppositions and prejudices which settle the attitude of men's minds in relation to the Bible before the distinctively biblical argument begins.
Sir William Hamilton was fond of asserting that no question came up in theology which had not previously come up in metaphysics. Mr. Balfour states the same truth when he says that “the decisive battles of theology are fought beyond its frontiers. It is not over purely religious controversies that the cause of religion is lost or won. The judgments we shall form upon its special problems are commonly settled for us by our general mode of looking at the universe ; and this again, in so far as it is determined by arguments at all, is determined by arguments of so wide a scope that they can seldom be claimed as more nearly concerned with theology than with the philosophy of science or of ethics." His object, therefore, is not to discuss particular doctrines, but "to recommend a certain attitude of mind."
The irrational and unscientific attitude of mind which he attacks has been variously called agnosticism, positivism, and empiricism, but he prefers to describe all these phases of infidel thought by the word naturalism. He arraigns all those persons, educated and uneducated, who assert that “the only world of which we can have any real knowledge is that which is revealed to us through sense perception, and which is the subject-matter of the natural sciences."
In the first place he points out the ultimate inevitable consequence of naturalism as thus defined. It is fatal not only to religion, but to morals, to art, and to reason itself. The frost of this kind of scepticism, falsely called scientific, will kill our ideals both of conduct and of beauty, and will destroy philosophy. It will be “ embarassing enough to morality, but absolutely ruinous to knowledge Everything that is noble and morally good in us will be dwarfed and beggared; everything that distinguishes us intellectually and morally from the lower animals will be destroyed. When naturalism has brought forth its perfect fruit, truth, beauty and goodness will have become impossible absurdities.
În Mr. Balfour's own striking words, “If naturalism be true, or, rather, if it be the whole truth, then is morality but a bare catalogue of utilitarian precepts ; beauty but the chance occasion of a passing pleasure ; reason but the dim passage from one set of unthinking habits to another. All that gives dignity to life, all that gives value to effort, shrinks and fades under the pitiless glare of a creed like this.” “The consciousness of freedom, the sense of responsibility, the authority of conscience, the beauty of holiness, the admiration for self-devotion, the sympathy with suffering-these, and all the train of beliefs and feelings from which spring noble deeds and generous ambitions," are “a poor jest," "a deliberate fraud," perpetrated by nature upon us in order to trick us into conduct which promotes the survival of the species to which we belong.
In brief, the attitude of mind which has been pressed upon this generation with such passionate zeal by such men as Mr. Mill, Mr. Matthew Arnold, Professor Huxley, and Mr. Herbert Spencer will, if it ultimately prevails-to quote once more the language of Mr. Balfour—"eat all nobility out of our conception of conduct and all worth out of our conception of life." It will, of course, be said by the illogical that many of those whose doctrine Mr. Balfour attacks are themselves beautiful examples of anintellectual and moral life. But, as Mr. Balfour at once shows, that signifies nothing. In his own striking words : " Their spiritual life is parasitic; it is sheltered by convictions which belong, not to them, but to the society of which they form a part.
It is nourished by processes in which they position. He shows that those who argue take no share. And when those convic- so loudly about the superior certainty of tions decay, and those processes come to
scientific conclusions founded upon sensean end, the alien life which they have perceptions, simply do not know what maintained can scarcely be expected to they are talking about.
Scientific preoutlast them." Happily, men
suppositions, foregone conclusions, and those who profess to be scientific and postulates, are
as those philosophical—are illogical and inconsis- made by the Christian, and are open tent. Many living advocates of natural- to the gravest moral objections, while ism are immeasurably better than their the Christian presumptions are justified creed, but their successors will not exhibit by the practical and highest necessities this noble inconsistency if the views of life. they advocate prevail and the existing We have probably had no volume since Christian environment disappears.
"Butler's Analogy," which has so clearly Mr. Balfour does not stop when he demonstrated that every objection which has shown the hideous immorality of is made to Christianity is equally applicnaturalism. He goes on to prove that it able to the dogmas of its enemies. All is as unphilosophic, irrational, and this, of course, does not prove the truth scientific as it is immoral. Nothing of the Christian religion, but, as Mr. could be more impressive or entertaining Balfour properly says, it is
more than than the skill, wit, and thoroughness with sufficient to neutralize the counter-prewhich Mr. Balfour nises the weapons of sumption which has uncritically governed modern rationalism against itself. David so much of the criticism directed in recent cut off the head of the boastful and times against the historic claims of Chrisdefiant Goliath with his own sword. Mr. tianity. We have no time to dwell Balfour has repeated that happy feat. upon the exquisite style, happy illustraHe shows conclusively that every argu- tions, and epigrammatic humour which ment by which the modern infidel tries to enrich the work. We can only refer our prove the unreality or the instability of readers to the book itself, while we dethe Christian religion, may be used with voutly rejoice that one of our most intenfold greater effect against his own fluential public men has the ability and boasted science.
disposition to give so crushing a blow to This section of the volume reminds us unscientific science and irrational philoof the crushing dialectic and delicious sophy. It is a truly significant sign that humour with which Pascal shattered in England, at any rate, the extreme Jesuit morality in the Provincial Letters. foolishness of agnosticism is being found Mr. Balfour completely riddles the enemy's out. --The Methodist Times.
BORN at last ! the great Messiah
Bringeth in the better day,
Lo! the star that leads the way!
Of the shepherds that strange night, How they heard the quiring angels,
And beheld the wondrous light.
The oppressor rides in triumph,
And the weak are in the dust.
Is it vain the hope we trust ?
Man his brother fighteth still,
Lies the bright land of good-will.
But the weary world still waiteth,
And the promise long delays ; Still the hope-star leadeth onward,
Over dark and dreary ways. Oft the star itself shines dimly
From a sky that clouds obscure ; And the heavens lose their pity
For the crying of the poor.
But though long delayed, it cometh,
is not born in a night,
Comes to birth the perfect right.
God unfolds His mighty plan,
“Peace on earth, good will to man !"
POLITICAL FEDERATION OF THE EMPIRE.
SIR GEORGE BADEN-POWELL, K.C.M.G., M.P.
The tens of thousands who witnessed from within, the hundreds of thousands who witnessed from without, and the millions who have eagerly read of the stately and unique ceremonies by which the Imperial Institute has been inaugur. ated, were the genuine representatives of every part of our wonderful Empire.
The Queen and Empress, not less respected than beloved by more than four hundred million subjects, here received, with her son and heir-apparent, the willing homage of by far the largest national "party" of the human race; and these subjects truthfully pride themselves that under her crown they enjoy a freedom more secure, genuine, and well-ordered than the liberty, so often degenerating into license, which is the lot of citizens of the new-fashioned money-ridden republics.
Yet this very Empire, to which the Imperial Institute has become a necessity, was, in its present character, actually nonexistent fifty years ago. It is a fact that the British Empire has appropriated three out of the four areas within the temperate zones not hitherto occupied by civilized man. North America, South Africa, and Australasia have fallen to the British ; only South America remains for other colonizing races. In reclaiming for the uses of civilization these vast and fertile areas, the British race has found new opportunities and channels for the investment and creation of capital, the development of industries and commerce, and the employment of population both at home and abroad.
So gigantic and rapid a development of economic conditions has, not unnaturally, created a proportionate sentiment and pride of far-reaching effect. The national sentiment is now centred on the Imperial ascendency of the race, and throughout all classes the idea of a great united empire has taken such hold that the barest suspicion of treason to that idea suffices to hurl from power the most influential statesman.
The idea of the unity of the race and the integrity of its realms, at one time the ridiculed dream of theorists, at another the impracticable scheme of too-ardent politicans, has become the first article in the avowed creed of every public man. At the last general election there was not a candidate but spoke and wrote of his absolute intention to uphold the unity of the Empire.
Imperial Federation is the catchword that has seized upon popular favour, and its actual, or technical, meaning has been lost in the wider fact that the phrase is merely taken to represent this idea of the unity and integrity of our great Empire. Yet, for all thoughtful statesmen, the phrase is the source of much anxious pondering. The question is constantly propounded : What can be actually done? What real, tangible work can be undertaken that shall secure the substantial realization of this great idea?
The history of the mother country in the past contains the only reliable indications of the history of the future of that mother country and her numerous colonial offspring. That history is the tale of successive developments, of a series of growths and changes, usually of such slight comparative importance as almost to escape notice. British history affords no example of sudden, new reforms, no magnificent paper constitutions, no brand-new codes and institutions—it is only a record of perpetual growth.
So must it be with the consolidation of the various component parts of the Empire ; with the realization of the idea and spirit of co-operation and unity ; with the consummation of what is meant by the popular phrase, Imperial Federation.
Working for this great end is the one overwhelming political farce--the popular will. This may be guided and stimulated by the historian and the statesman ; in the press and on the platform ; in parliament and in private. But it can only grow to be an overwhelming force by reason of its being broad based upon the true economic necessities of the case.
Statistics clearly show that, while of the total imports into the United King. dom one-tenth only is manufactures, of the exports no less than four-fifths consists of manufactures. On the other hand, while of the total imports into India and the colonies at least one-half is of manufactured articles, of the total exports nineteen-twentieths is made up of foods and raw materials.
Such leading facts indicate the true economic relations between England and her colonies, and afford very substantial reasons for the faith that the public has in the Empire, and the determination not to fritter away that Empire. - Fortnightly Review.
A NOTABLE SCHOLAR.
SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, who died in this daring young man slowly copied the England recently, was a striking example inscriptions, unveiled the secret of the of a type of Englishmen in whom are cuneiform characters, and gave a new united the highest energy of character, historical science to the world.
It was great executive ability, and strong in- this feat which won for him the title of the tellectual tastes. He rendered service of “Father of Assyriology,” and it is unvery high importance in three distinct
necessary to say that the work which has departments-politics, the Army, and dip- been done in this department is hardly lomacy. In all these fields his reputation second in inportance to that in any other was of a high order. He was also one field of knowledge. of the best-known scholars of his time, The man who had rendered this serdividing with his brother George a dis- vice to scholarship was, however, a man tinction which has made the name of of action quite as much as a man of knowRawlinson illustrious the world over. ledge. At the end of six years he left Born in Oxfordshire, sons of an old- Persia and became the British political fashioned country squire, the two brothers, agent at Kandahar, perforining Through George and Henry, were destined, in the first Afghan war services to the Engthe old-fashioned way, the older for the lish Government notable at once for their State and the younger for the Church. delicacy, their difficulty, and their danger. They were both sent to school at Ealing, His name was constantly mentioned in and the younger, George, continued his the despatches from the field. But his education at Trinity College, Oxford, while heart was in his work as a scholar, and, Henry, the older, was sent off to Bombay putting aside an advanco in position and to begin service in the Army. He was salary, he took a humbler position at active, energetic, and faithful. He had Bagdad in order to bring himself into the qualities which have made the Eng- contact with the material which he wished lish soldier a type of a good fighter and a to study. Under the commission of the brave man.
He also had the dash which British Museum he superintended the many young Englishmen have, and which excavations at Babylon and Nineveh bears evidence to the constant strain of which had been begun by Layard, and he heroism and adventure in the English copied and translated a great number of blood. His famous ride of seventy-two ancient inscriptions and sent them to miles from Poonah to Panwell sixty-two England. In 1859, with the title of years ago was made in three hours and Major-General, he was sent to Teheran as seventeen minutes. Not long after this British minister. In 1863, returning exploit he was sent to Persia, where he home, he entered Parliament.
As a spent six years familiarizing himself with writer he was very much overshadowed many parts of the empire, rendering by his brother, Professor George Rawefficient service in reorganizing the army linson, but his book on England and of the Shah, and, above all, making his Russia in the East,” in which he took the name memorable by reason of his im- position that Herat, as the key of India, perishable service to scholarship in deci- must always be kept safe from Russian phering the famouscuneiforminscriptions. occupation, holds a high place among It was characteristic of him that, four books of its class. His London house years after his famous ride, he was pain- was a museum of archæology, and to the fully, and at the peril of his life, spelling end of his life Sir Henry was an enthusout cuneiform characters on the polished iastic student in a department which he face of a rock between three and four had contributed so largely to create. So hundred feet from the ground. Supported long as the English race breeds men of by a ladder resting on a narrow ledge at such temper and force its influence as an elevation which would have made most a world-power will remain intact. — The people helpless by reason of giddiness, Outlook.
Thine to work as well as pray,
Plucking up the weeds of sin,