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2,266 British merchantmen were seized by French ships sallying from these stations, and this when Britain's trade with Australia and the East was trivial compared with its present proportions.
The fiscal policy of the federated Empire need not be greatly different from what it is now, although a British Zollverein is regarded by many as the true ideal. Trade follows the flag. The four · millions of people in Australia take more British goods than the fifty millions of Germany or the sixty millions of the United States.
As to plans of federation these may largely be left to peaceful evolution when once the principle is adopted. Recently the influence of Canada, long ignored, has been felt in treaty-making both in Washington and in London. Sir Charles Tupper proposes that the members of the colonial cabinet be members of the Privy Council of England. With him agree Earl Gray, the Marquis of Lorne, W. E. Forster and others. Lord Thring suggests that the agents-general of the colonies should have positions akin to those of the ministers of foreign states.
Dr. Parkin suggests that conferences such as have taken place at Ottawa and Melbourne, bringing the statesmen and merchants of the colonies into closer touch and sympathy, should be inore frequent. An Imperial penny postage, he urges, will be more to the nation than the strength of many ironclads in the stronger national sentiment, the deeper feeling of national unity which it would evoke. He urges also, discussion of the subject by chambers of commerce, workinginen's clubs, in the press, and especially the study of the history and geographical relations of this world-wide Empire in the schools and colleges.
“The cultivation of national sentiment
in the minds of the young,” he says, “ on the basis of sound knowledge, historical, geographical and industrial, is not only a legitimate work, but a primary duty for the schools of the country. Especially is this true of countries where good government rests on the intelligence of the masses. Above all it is true for a nation which has the great birthright of free popular institutions, which has more than once stood as the bulwark of modern liberty, as it may have to stand again, which has traditions behind and prospects ahead fitted to fire the noblest and purest enthusiasm.
“By manifold agencies and influences, then, is the problem of British unity to be worked out. Our freedom, our national traditions, our institutions, our AngloSaxon civilization, are the common heritage of all. It is the business of all to labour for their maintenance and for their security."
Dr. Parkin will have a splendid opportunity, as the head of the Upper Canada College, to embody this noble ideal of British education. In the various periodicals under our charge we shall endeavour to promote the same broad patriotism-a loyalty not merely to our city, our province, or our Dominion, but to the broad Empire of which Canada forms nearly one-half, and to the Sovereign whom we love with no less ardent affection than any who in any land pray, "God Save the Queen.”
In connection with Dr. Parkin's admirable book on this subject, we suggest the study of Professor Seeley's “Expansion of England,” issued by the same publishers, and, for our junior readers, Adams' admirable little book on England's colonial dependencies, entitled " Around the World with the Union Jack."
BY RICHARD BURTON. CHRISTMASTIDE is a time of cold, Of weathers bleak and of winds ablow ; Never a flower-fold on fold Of grace and beauty-tops the snow, Or breaks the black and bitter mould. And yet 'tis warm--for the chill and gloom Glow with love and with childhood's glee ; And yet 'tis sweet-with the rich perfume Of sacrifice and of charity. Where are flowers more fair to see? Christmastide, it is warm and sweet : A whole world's heart at a Baby's feet!
THE RIGHT HON. A. J. BALFOUR ON THE STUDY OF THEOLOGY.
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN & Co. have In the first place he points out the ultipublished one of the most remarkable mate inevitable consequence of naturalism books this generation has seen. Its author, as thus defined. It is fatal not only to its theme, and its contents alike explain religion, but to morals, to art, and to the prompt and extensive notice which it reason itself. The frost of this kind of received in the press. It has been well scepticisin, falsely called scientific, will said that there are only two subjects kill our ideals both of conduct and of which enchain the attention of serious beauty, and will destroy philosophy. It men-politics and religion ; and here the will be “embarassing enough to morality, leader of one great party in the House of but absolutely ruinous to knowledge." Commons, a future Prime Minister of Everything that is noble and morally England, writes upon the subject of re- good in us will be dwarfed and beggared; ligion. In the work now before us the everything that distinguishes us intellectRight Honourable A. J. Balfour appears ually and morally from the lower animal as one of the ablest apologists for the will be destroyed. When naturalism has Christian religion since the days of Bishop brought forth its perfect fruit, truth, Butler. This volume is entitled “ The beauty and goodness will have become Foundations of Belief, being Notes In- impossible absurdities. troductory to the Study of Theology." In Mr. Balfour's own striking words, It is very modest of Mr. Balfour to speak “If naturalism be true, or, rather, if it of this volume as consisting of notes. be the whole truth, then is morality but It is really a profound investigation of a bare catalogue of utilitarian precepts ; those preliminary presuppositions and pre- beauty but the chance occasion of a passjudices which settle the attitude of men's ing pleasure ; reason but the dim passage minds in relation to the Bible before the from one set of unthinking habits to distinctively biblical argument begins. . another. All that gives diguity to life,
Sir William Hamilton was fond of as- all that gives value to effort, shrinks and serting that no question came up in theo fades under the pitiless glare of a creed logy which had not previously come up like this.” “The consciousness of freein metaphysics. Mr. Balfour states the dom, the sense of responsibility, the same truth when he says that “the de- authority of conscience, the beauty of cisive battles of theology are fought beyond holiness, the admiration for self-devotion, its frontiers. It is not over purely re the sympathy with suffering-these, and ligious controversies that the cause of all the train of beliefs and feelings from religion is lost or won. The judgments which spring noble deeds and generous we shall form upon its special problems ambitions,” are “a poor jest," "a delibare commonly settled for us by our gen erate fraud,” perpetrated by nature upon eral mode of looking at the universe ; and us in order to trick us into conduct which this again, in so far as it is determined promotes the survival of the species to by arguments at all, is determined by which we belong. arguments of so wide a scope that they I n brief, the attitude of mind which can seldom be claimed as more nearly has been pressed upon this generation concerned with theology than with the with such passionate zeal by such men as philosophy of science or of ethics." His Mr. Mill, Mr. Matthew Arnold, Professor object, therefore, is not to discuss par Huxley, and Mr. Herbert Spencer will, ticular doctrines, but “to recommend a if it ultimately prevails—to quote once certain attitude of mind.”
more the language of Mr. Balfour-" eat The irrational and unscientific attitude all nobility out of our conception of conof mind which he attacks has been var- duct and all worth out of our conception iously called agnosticism, positivism, and of life." It will, of course, be said by empiricism, but he prefers to describe all the illogical that many of those whose these phases of infidel thought by the word doctrine Mr. Balfour attacks are themnaturalisın. He arraigns all those persons, selves beautiful examples of an intellectual educated and uneducated, who assert and moral life. But, as Mr. Balfour at that "the only world of which we can once shows, that signifies nothing. In have any real knowledge is that which is his own striking words: “Their spiritual revealed to us through sense perception, life is parasitic; it is sheltered by conand which is the subject-matter of the victions which belong, not to them, but natural sciences."
to the society of which they form a part.
It is nourished by processes in which they position. He shows that those who argue take no share. And when those convic- so loudly about the superior certainty of tions decay, and those processes come to scientific conclusions founded upon sensean end, the alien life which they have perceptions, simply do not know what maintained can scarcely be expected to they are talking about. Scientific preoutlast them.” Happily, men - even suppositions, foregone.conclusions, and those who profess to be scientific and postulates, are as numerous as those philosophical—are illogical and inconsis- made by the Christian, and are open tent. Many living advocates of natural to the gravest moral objections, while ism are immeasurably better than their the Christian presumptions are justified creed, but their successors will not exhibit by the practical and highest necessities this noble inconsistency if the views of life. they advocate prevail and the existing We have probably had no volume since Christian environment disappears.
“Butler's Analogy," which has so clearly Mr. Balfour does not stop when he demonstrated that every objection which has shown the hideous immorality of is made to Christianity is equally applicnaturalism. He goes on to prove that it able to the dogmas of its enemies. All is as unphilosophic, irrational, and un- this, of course, does not prove the truth scientific as it is immoral. Nothing of the Christian religion, but, as Mr. could be more impressive or entertaining Balfour properly says, it is more than than the skill, wit, and thoroughness with sufficient to neutralize the counter-prewhich Mr. Balfour rises the weapons of sumption which has uncritically governed modern rationalism against itself. David so much of the criticism directed in recent cut off the head of the boastful and times against the historic claims of Chrisdefiant Goliath with his own sword. Mr. tianity.” We have no time to dwell Balfour has repeated that happy feat. upon the exquisite style, happy illustraHe shows conclusively that every argu- tions, and epigrammatic humour which ment by which the modern infidel tries to enrich the work. We can only refer our : prove the unreality or the instability of readers to the book itself, while we dethe Christian religion, may be used with voutly rejoice that one of our most intenfold greater effect against his own fluential public men has the ability and boasted science.
disposition to give so crushing a blow to This section of the volume reminds us. unscientific science and irrational philoof the crushing dialectic and delicious sophy. It is a truly significant sign that humour with which Pascal shattered in England, at any rate, the extreme Jesuit morality in the Provincial Letters. foolishness of agnosticism is being found Mr. Balfour completely riddles the enemy's out.--The Methodist Times.
BORN at last! the great Messiah
Bringeth in the better day,
Lo! the star that leads the way!
Of the shepherds that strange night, How they heard the quiring angels,
And beheld the wondrous light.
The oppressor rides in triumph,
And the weak are in the dust.
Is it vain the hope we trust?
Man his brother fighteth still,
Lies the bright land of good-will.
But the weary world still waiteth,
And the promise long delays; Still the hope-star leadeth onward,
Over dark and dreary ways. Oft the star itself shines dimly
From a sky that clouds obscure ; And the heavens lose their pity
For the crying of the poor.
But though long delayed, it cometh,
Heav'n is not born in a night,
Comes to birth the perfect right.
God unfolds His mighty plan,
“Peace on earth, good will to man !"
POLITICAL FEDERATION OF THE EMPIRE.
SIR GEORGE BADEN-POWELL, K.C.M.G., M.P.
The tens of thousands who witnessed Imperial Federation is the catchword from within, the hundreds of thousands that has seized upon popular favour, and who witnessed from without, and the · its actual, or technical, meaning has been millions who have eagerly read of the lost in the wider fact that the phrase is stately and unique ceremonies by which merely taken to represent this idea of the the Imperial Institute has been inaugur- unity and integrity of our great Empire. ated, were the genuine representatives Yet, for all thoughtful statesmen, the of every part of our wonderful Empire. phrase is the source of much anxious
The Queen and Empress, not less re- pondering. The question is constantly spected than beloved by more than four propounded : What can be actually done ? hundred million subjects, here received, What real, tangible work can be underwith her son and heir-apparent, the will taken that shall secure the substantial ing homage of by far the largest national realization of this great idea ? "party" of the human race; and these The history of the mother country in subjects truthfully pride themselves that the past contains the only reliable inunder her crown they enjoy a freedom dications of the history of the future of more secure, genuine, and well-ordered that mother country and her numerous than the liberty, so often degenerating into colonial offspring. That history is the license, which is the lot of citizens of the tale of successive developments, of a new-fashioned money-ridden republics. series of growths and changes, usually of
Yet this very Empire, to which the such slight comparative importance as Imperial Institute has become a necessity, almost to escape notice. British history was, in its present character, actually non- affords no example of sudden, new reforms, existent fifty years ago. It is a fact that no magnificent paper constitutions, no the British Empire has appropriated three brand-new codes and institutions—it is out of the four areas within the temperate only a record of perpetual growth. zones not hitherto occupied by civilized S o must it be with the consolidation of man. North America, South Africa, and the various component parts of the Australasia have fallen to the British ; Empire ; with the realization of the idea only South America remains for other and spirit of co-operation and unity ; with colonizing races. In reclaiming for the the consummation of what is meant by uses of civilization these vast and fertile the popular phrase, Imperial Federation. areas, the British race has found new Working for this great end is the one opportunities and channels for the in overwhelming political farce-the popular vestment and creation of capital, the will. This may be guided and stimulated development of industries and commerce, by the historian and the statesman ; in and the employment of population both the press and on the platform ; in parat home and abroad.
liament and in private. But it can only So gigantic and rapid a development of grow to be an overwhelming force by economic conditions has, not unnaturally, reason of its being broad based upon the created a proportionate sentiment and true economic necessities of the case. pride of far-reaching effect. The national Statistics clearly show that, while of sentiment is now centred on the Imperial the total imports into the United Kingascendency of the race, and throughout dom one-tenth only is manufactures, of all classes the idea of a great united the exports no less than four-fifths conempire has taken such hold that the sists of manufactures. On the other hand, barest suspicion of treason to that idea while of the total imports into India and suffices to hurl from power the most in the colonies at least one-half is of manufluential statesman.
factured articles, of the total exports The idea of the unity of the race and the nineteen-twentieths is made up of foods integrity of its realms, at one time the ridi- and raw materials. culed dream of theorists, at another theim- Such leading facts indicate the true practicable scheme of too-ardent politicans, economic relations between England and has become the first article in the avowed her colonies, and afford very substantial creed of every public man. At the last reasons for the faith that the public has general election there was not a candidate in the Empire, and the determination but spoke and wrote of his absolute inten- not to fritter away that Empire.-Forttion to uphold the unity of the Empire. nightly Review.
A NOTABLE SCHOLAR.
SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, who died in England recently, was a striking example of a type of Englishmen in whom are united the highest energy of character, great executive ability, and strong intellectual tastes. He rendered service of very high importance in three distinct departments-politics, the Army, and diplomacy. In all these fields his reputation was of a high order. He was also one of the best-known scholars of his time, dividing with his brother George a distinction which has made the name of Rawlinson illustrious the world over. Born in Oxfordshire, sons of an oldfashioned country squire, the two brothers, George and Henry, were destined, in the old-fashioned way, the older for the State and the younger for the Church. They were both sent to school at Ealing, and the younger, George, continued his education at Trinity College, Oxford, while Henry, the older, was sent off to Bombay to begin service in the Army. He was active, energetic, and faithful. He had the qualities which have made the English soldier a type of a good fighter and a brave man. He also had the dash which many young Englishmen have, and which bears evidence to the constant strain of heroism and adventure in the English blood. His famous ride of seventy-two miles from Poonah to Panwell sixty-two years ago was made in three hours and seventeen minutes. Not long after this exploit he was sent to Persia, where he spent six years familiarizing himself with many parts of the empire, rendering efficient service in reorganizing the army of the Shah, and, above all, making his name memorable by reason of his imperishable service to scholarship in deciphering the famouscuneiform inscriptions. It was characteristic of him that, four years after his fainous ride, he was painfully, and at the peril of his life, spelling out cuneiform characters on the polished face of a rock between three and four hundred feet from the ground. Supported by a ladder resting on a narrow ledge at an elevation which would have made most people helpless by reason of giddiness,
this daring young man slowly copied the inscriptions, unveiled the secret of the cuneiform characters, and gave a new historical science to the world. It was this feat which won for him the title of the “Father of Assyriology," and it is unnecessary to say that the work which has been done in this department is hardly second in inportance to that in any other field of knowledge.
The man who had rendered this service to scholarship was, however, a man of action quite as much as a man of knowledge. At the end of six years he left Persia and became the British political agent at Kandahar, perforining Through the first Afghan war services to the English Government notable at once for their delicacy, their difficulty, and their danger. His name was constantly mentioned in the despatches from the field. But his heart was in his work as a scholar, and, putting aside an advanco in position and salary, he took a humbler position at Bagdad in order to bring himself into contact with the material which he wished to study. Under the commission of the British Museum he superintended the excavations at Babylon and Nineveh which had been begun by Layard, and he copied and translated a great number of ancient inscriptions and sent them to England. In 1859, with the title of Major-General, he was sent to Teheran as British minister. In 1863, returning home, he entered Parliament. As a writer he was very much overshadowed by his brother, Professor George Rawlinson, but his book on “England and Russia in the East,” in which he took the position that Herat, as the key of India, must always be kept safe from Russian occupation, holds a high place among books of its class. His London house was a museum of archæology, and to the end of his life Sir Henry was an enthusiastic student in a department which he had contributed so largely to create. So long as the English race breeds men of such temper and force its influence as a world-power will remain intact. — The Outlook.
Thine to work as well as pray, Clearing thorny wrong away;
Plucking up the weeds of sin, Letting heaven's warm sunshine in.