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street in a typical old Japanese city delight in the things that prophesy is about thirteen feet wide, and well better days. filled with happy people unencum "In Tokyo, by agreement and bered with excessive raiment. Of appointment, I attended an informal the old temples, dingy and dilapi. conference of representatives of the dated, where pigeons roost and five branches of Methodism engaged money changers sell their little in mission work in Japan. Bishop wares, where the ignorant clap their Ninde was also present. The queshands to wake a sleeping god and tions of special discussion was the repeat their meaningless prayers, unitication of Methodist educational where the Shoguns are buried and interests. There was a free interthe old idols are daubed with paper change of fraternal opinion, and the balls, the prayers of the super- whole matter referred to the several stitious, others have written so much Conferences and missions for official and so well, that I must forbear. action. Some plan of federation is Besides, I prefer progress, and a growing necessity."
BY AMY PARKINSON,
This is the sea,
'Tis but by faith's quick sight and sentient hearing,
But sweetly near
Of the majestic Pean.
THE DOMINION OF CANADA-ITS EXTENT AND RESOURCES.*
BY THE REV. ROBERT WILSON, D.D.
Island. Denmark and Switzerland combined, each rich in the traditions of a glorious past, possess no more acres than are found in New Brunswick. Greece, the land of Marathon and Thermopylæ, is no larger than Nova Scotia. France, chival. rous, heroic France, the empire of Charlemagne, St. Louis and Napoleon, is smaller than Quebec. Great Bri. tain, the land of heroes and historians, of poets and of sages, whose names and deeds are embalmed in death
less song, would require Holland TERRITORIALLY Canada is a great and Saxony to make her the equal country; extending from the Atlan- of Ontario. Austria and Belgium tic' to the Pacific, and from the would be dwarfed if placed beside United States boundary to the Arctic British Columbia Scotland, which Ocean, and embracing within these has given to the world a Knox and, limits about one-sixteenth of the a Chalmers, a Scott and a Burns, whole earth. The historian Robert a Watt and a Stevenson, a Bruce, a son's remarks about America as a Wallace and a Clyde, is not half whole are equally true of Canada. the size of Manitoba. Ireland, upon He speaks of Nature here carrying whose glory-roll are the names of on her work on a scale of peculiar Wellington, Burke, Curran, Dufferin, grandeur. Contrasted with her and scores of others scarcely less mighty streams, the rivers of Europe distinguished, is very little larger are mere brooks. Were her great than New Brunswick. And a dozen lakes found in the Old World they countries as large as Spain could be would be dignified with the name carved out of the territories of Alof seas, and were her vast and berta, Athabasca, Assiniboia and varied resources of river, forest, Saskatchewan. field and mine located on the other O r, to make comparisons nearer side of the Atlantic, poverty would home, take the provinces of the Dodisappear and the nations would minion in detail, and we find that sing for joy of heart.
Prince Edward Island is about as Many have very inaccurate ideas large as Delaware; Nova Scotia owns on this subject, for accustomed to more acres than Massachusetts and think and speak of the continental Vermont combined; New Hampnations the average European is shire, Massachusetts, New Jersey, unable to realize the vastness of the Connecticut and Rhode Island rolled Canadian domain. To illustrate. into one would only equal New The united duchies of Brunswick Brunswick. It would take New and Saxe-Coburg Gotha, which have York, Pennsylvania and Maryland given sovereigns to the proudest to make a Quebec; Ontario is more empires of modern times, are only than two and a half times larger equal in size to little Prince Edward than New York; Manitoba is twice
* Reprinted from Southern Methodist Review.
the size of Massachusetts; British Connected therewith is many an Columbia embraces a wider extent incident of wild adventure and of territory than is found in all the deadly encounter; of patient endurabove named States.
ance and heroic daring; of perilous Here, then, is “ample room and enterprises and marvellous escapes, verge enough" to satisfy the most and of scenes and circumstances to ambitious, and within which to which attach a most romantic in. achieve the greatest triumphs in terest, and which have again and the different departments of human again been made “to point a effort. Here, unencumbered on the moral or adorn a tale.” From one hand by many of the laws and its pages we learn how the dusky usages of the Old World, and on the savage was wont to surprise and other free from the perpetual ex- scalp the unsuspecting paleface; citement and revolutionary tenden- how the Frank and Saxon struggled cies of republicanism, the loyal sons for the supremacy; how the paof Britain have had committed to triotic colonist sought to lay broad them the great problem of consti. and deep the foundations of a new tutional government. As the British empire; and how the pious missionis considered the model government ary of the Cross endeavoured to of the Eastern Hemisphere, as the Christianize the native races. It tells only safe and efficient system at all also how, on several occasions, her compatible with extended dominion, sturdy sons, though few in number, it is the object of the Canadian rose in their might and repelled the people to reproduce its counterpart attacks of those who, first by honeyed in the Western.
words and then by force of arms, Canadian history is not very had sought to separate her from the richly adorned with the names of grand old Motherland. With all those who have won immortal fame this the intelligent reader is already on the ensanguined field of war, not familiar. because her sons are destitute of the The climate of Canada has been material out of which heroes are greatly misrepresented and the made, but because, fortunately, op- severity of its winters unduly exportunities for thus distinguishing aggerated. True, she has not the themselves have rarely been afforded. soft and sunny skies nor the balmy But there are other victories than breezes of more southern climes, those won “amid the groans, the but these are more than compencries, the dying strife.” The axe sated for by a happy immunity and the hoe have wrought mightier from many of the diseases inditriumphs than the rifle and the genous to other lands. Epidemics, sword. The whistle of the loco. so destructive elsewhere, are of rare motive is a much more agreeable occurrence, are comparatively light sound than the strains of martial and confined within narrow limits, music. The conversion of the while the general healthfulness and dreary woodland into a fruitful longevity of the people prove the field, and the building of towns and climate to be an exceptionally good cities in the once untrodden wilds, one. As a whole it is dry, healthy, are achievements of far greater value and invigorating; in the North-West than any won in war. The church cattle graze at large all winter, and the schoolhouse, the reading while along the Canadian shores of room and the lecture-hall, are truer the Pacific the Japanese current signs of progress than the most produces the same effects as the formidable ironclad or fortress. Gulf Stream does in England.
The history of Canada, however, Canada is very largely an agriis neither dull nor uninteresting. cultural country, considerably more
than half the whole population being Canada should cast in her lot with engaged in farming operations. Up the United States, says: “Here is to a comparatively recent date the room for future millions that must aid of science was but little sought from Europe come. The United for in this important field of effort, States have nearly exhausted their and nature was allowed to work arable soils and a land hunger has out her processes as best she could set in that only in Canada can be But things are different to-day. appeased. . . . Canada must be Science has joined hands with nature relied upon as the granary from and their combined forces have been whence must come the future food pressed into the service of the supply of the world." farmer. As a consequence the pro- The forest has always furnished ducts of the field have become profitable employment to a large richer in variety and larger in portion of the population. The volume.
principal woods are pine, spruce, In every province there are large cedar, birch and maple. While by areas now under cultivation and reason of fires and reckless cutting still larger ones awaiting cultivation. the sources of supply are being conAlmost every acre of Prince Edward stantly diminished yet such is the Island can be farmed to profit. vastness of the supply yet untouched Various fruits and every kind of that many a long year must pass cereal grain and grass are raised in away ere any want will be felt or immense quantities in New Bruns. inconvenience experienced. We have wick and Nova Scotia. There is no means of ascertaining the amount an abundance of excellent land in produced for home use, but the value Quebec yet unoccupied. Ontario is of the exports for last year ran up an annual exporter of enormous to about $26,000,000. supplies of food products. Manitoba The mineral wealth of the Dowas well and truly described by minion is as yet an unknown quanLord Dufferin as, “ a land of magnifi- tity. From Cape Breton to British cent distances and unlimited possi Columbia valuable deposits of varbilities." Hon. Mr. Seward, Secretary ious kinds are known to exist, but of State in the Cabinet of President to what extent has not been deterLincoln, after a tour through these mined. This much, however, is then newly opened up regions, de- certain, that the supply is practically clared them to be the greatest inexhaustible, at least in the more bread-producing countries in the useful kinds. Until quite recently world.
the immense coal-fields of the NorthThat declaration is being verified West were comparatively valueless by the logic of events. Each year on account of their remoteness from sees a heavier yield than the one the sea and the lack of facilities for preceding it, and the resources of the transportation. But the building of regions referred to are such as to the Canadian Pacific Railway and defy all calculation as to what may its numerous branches, has made be produced. In the Budget speech them available, not only for the of Mr. Foster, the Finance Minister, furnishing of fuel for the prairie during a late session of Parliament regions but for export as well. The the gratifying statement was made value of the exports last year that the value of the farm products amounted to over $5,800,000. What exported during the last fiscal year the developments of the future along amounted to over $50,000,000, being this line may be it is impossible to an increase of more than $6,000,000 determine, but that they will be of a over the year before. Mr. Wiman, gigantic character no prophet's eye who is extremely anxious that is needed to foresee.
Of the value and extent of the tion of their skill, art and ingenuity, Canadian fisheries it is impossible to is a condition of dependence and speak in exaggerated terms. From subserviency both individually and Hudson's Bay to the Bay of Fundy, nationally. The power to turn rude embracing some ten thousand miles materials into things of beauty and of broken and indented coast, with usefulness, is a potent means of harbours, bays, inlets and rivers promoting the public prosperity. Of innumerable, are to be found the this we have in Great Britain a richest fisheries in the world. Here most striking example. In her we a good and beneficent Creator an- behold the greatest power on earth, nually provides for the use of man occupying a position of unequalled an abundance of the most valuable and unprecedented importance, and of the finny tribes, and to these holding a recognized supremacy waters for more than two centuries upon the ocean, without any special have the hard y fishermen of Britain, natural advantages securing to her France and the United States re- such an amplitude of power and sorted to share in the profits of the dominion. So insignificant in size trade. For their possession many a that were she drowned in the depths battle has been fought, and when of the sea she would hardly be France was finally driven from the missed, with a climate and soil by American continent, she still clung no means the best, without forests, to a few insignificant islands, and with comparatively little water by diplomacy succeeded in obtaining power, and rejoicing in but few of from her victorious rival certain Nature's bounties, yet despite all fishing privileges which have been this taking the lead of all the world of incalculable benefit to her people. in activity, power, wealth, influence For the right to fish in these waters and splendour, laying every nook American statesmen have written, and corner of creation under tribute, and threatened, and all but involved wielding a sceptre over an empire the two nations in war. These things on which the sun never sets, and speak volumes and show the estimate giving laws, language and literature placed upon this trade by those best to nearly one-fourth of the world's competent to judge. About seventy population. To this proud position thousand persons are engaged in she has largely been led by the the business itself, besides those on manufacturing skill and genius of shore who are employed in the her people. manufacture of boats, nets, barrels, During the last few years Canada and other requisites. More than has made large advances along this thirty-one thousand vessels and boats, line. Many articles previously valued at $4,840,000, are required to brought from abroad have been carry it on, and the total value of produced at home, and some of production of 1894 was in the neigh these in such abundance that after bourhood of $20,700,000—one-half of supplying domestic needs heavy which was sent to other countries. exportations have been made to the
But manufactures are indispen- Motherland, the United States and sable to national greatness. With other countries. Looking at her out them there can be little of vast and varied resources, the words private or public wealth, little of of Mr. Wiman will scarcely be civilization, little of independence called extravagant when he says: as a commonwealth, and little of political importance and power. To “Canada possesses the potentialities of
wealth in minerals, in agriculture, in furnish food for others to live upon,
timber and in coal to as great an extent and raw materials for others to work in the Maritime Provinces as New York over and grow rich by the applica- and Pennsylvania combined . . . Ontario