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Corean gentleman in white costume women betake themselves to the promenades, elevated some four or streets and spend their time until five inches upon wooden clogs, one o'clock in the morning, visiting which keep his white-stockinged their friends and indulging in such feet out of the filth that everywhere pastimes as may suit their fancy. abounds. Men and women never The seclusion of women in Corea walk the streets together, and in saves them from being the beasts of



burden, to which their sex is doomed Presbyterian, Anglican, and Roman in Japan and many other Oriental Catholic Churches have established and even some Occidental countries, compounds and erected residences

"The best dwellings are built around for missionaries, houses of worship, a court upon which all the rooms school buildings, chapels and hosopen. This court is sometimes orna- pitals. These are all bright spots mented with shrubs and flowers, in the midst of surrounding gloom and some of them are said to be and a prophecy of what this mounvery pretty. The average house is tain-environed city will be when composed of small rooms, four in Christianity has accomplished its number, and destitute of anything beneficent mission to the Corean that we would call furniture, while people.” Dr. Avison and his wife, the poorest, which far outnumber all from Toronto, are conducting a sucthe others, are hovels of the worst cessful mission in Seoul. class.

Bishop Ninde, of the Methodist "As to public buildings, as the Episcopal Church, who has just reterm is usually employed, there turned from an extensive visit in are none. The palace of the China and Japan, writes thus : king, enclosed within a stone wall People in middle life can rethat separates it from the city, member when foreigners were totally though built at public expense, is excluded from the islands of the the most private and exclusive of Japanese Archipelago. By a strange all, as only those who are connected series of events, to the Christian with the reigning dynasty in an view strikingly providential, the official capacity, or such

traditional exclusiveness was refavoured with a special permit, can laxed at last, and half a dozen of the enter its portals.

principal ports were thrown open "Though a heathen city, Seoul for foreign trade and residence. has no temple of idolatrous worship. " It was not long before the whole The State religion, if any exists, is policy of this sequestered Empire Confucian, and there is a shrine to regarding things foreign underwent wbich the king resorts at stated a remarkable transformation. The times to make offerings to his an- Japanese were ready to throw overcestors. Though Buddhism is more board almost everything national prevalent than any other form of and adopt Western ideas and inreligion, there is not a Buddhist stitutions with rash impetuosity. temple in the city. They have Foreigners were welcomed, praised temples just outside the city walls, and imitated. In the course of the and in many places all through the years, however, the nation's selfcountry, but none in the capital. respect has grown. Western ideas For some offence committed long are still dominant, but the Japanese ago the Buddhist temples were have proved quick learners and feel destroyed and the priests were now quite able to cut loose from driven out of the city, since which dependence on the foreigner. Pertime they have not been permitted haps the highest ambition of the to enter its gates unless in dis- nation to-day is to beat the foreigner guise.

on his own ground. The various “But in the midst of this desert branches of the public service have of human habitations there are a almost entirely dispensed with their few oases. The several nations that foreign helpers. The chairs in the have entered into treaty relations Imperial University are now chiefly with Corea have established lega- occupied by natives. The Japanese tions and erected suitable build- manage their own postal service, ings, and the Methodist Episcopal, operate their railways and telegraphs, train their soldiers and needed and consequently less recollect their customs. The Japanese spected. There is reason for be. own fine steamers, but to gain and lieving that leading minds among keep their share of the carrying them, if not the body of the more trade in the face of strong and thoughtful and ambitious Japanese, keen competition they must con- regard the European nations as

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tinue to employ largely English becoming effete and themselves and American captains.

destined to take their place as the “With the growth of their self- future leaders of the world's advance. reliance, alongside the development "But while the foreigner in Japan of an intense national spirit, which bas dropped somewhat from the is one of the prodigies of their new height of esteem in which he was era, the foreigner has become less once held, he nowhere meets with the contemptuous dislike so often scribes his visit to the Mikado's found in China. There is just now capital : a great amount of national vanity “Tokyo, the Mikado's capital, a in the Mikado's empire. The public city of many conflagrations and feeling is extremely sensitive. The destructive earthquakes, the centre Japanese regard their pupilage as of the Empire, where old and new past and will not allow themselves Japan meet together, and which to be loftily patronized.


every patriotic Japanese hopes to demand to be considered the equals see before he dies. is the commercial, of the most favoured nations, and industrial, and political metropolis certainly with a show of reason. of the country. It has a population

“No doubt there are scores of of nearly 1,500,000, unusually wide unfriendly critics who will brand streets, electric lights, tramways and the new civilization of Japan as a stone bridges, and some very handmere varnish which scraped with a some public buildings. Long the pen-knife will reveal unmollified headquarters of the Shoguns, Tokyo rawness and aboriginal barbarism is intimately associated with the But this is an altogether cynical most brilliant military history of view which will not harmonize with this island kingdom. a wise induction of facts. The “Our first day in the capital was Japanese have no doubt many and the holy Sabbath.

We went out, grave faults. They are very far not for to see' old Buddhist and from political or social perfection. Shinto temples, but to attend service In some important regards they are in Christian churches. First we as yet far behind what we call the stopped at the Greek cathedral, one Christian commonwealths. If this of the most imposing buildings in were not so we should have little all Japan. Built by Bishop Nicolai warrant for sending hither hundreds - who has been the most successful of missionaries at great expense and missionary in the country-it ocother costly sacrifices; nevertheless cupies a commanding position, and the sympathetic observer will not is really a gem of architecture. The fail to regard the new civilization service, attended by about 150 perof this island empire as a vigorous sons, was elaborate and very rituaand substantial growth which de- listic, but to me rather impressive. serves hearty recognition and gen- The venerable bishop and his ten or erous confidence. Seriously faulty twelve native priests were clad in as Japanese morality in many of gorgeous vestments. They swung its phases undoubtedly is, the best incense until the clouds were dense minds of the nation are alive to and the odours intense, while inthe value of character. The Jap- toning prayers and chanting psalms anese are not only the politest of to the congregation which stood or people but are humane as well. sat or bowed on the floor. They are seeking to remodel their “I learned much of Bishop Nicolai's jurisprudence and bring it into work—unique and in some respects harmony with the best modern unequalled. He has about twenty standards. They have proved their thousand members, and all these bravery in the field, yet shown have been gathered with the aid of themselves merciful to a fallen foe. but one other foreign missionary. They have not only been faithful to With a genius for leadership of the their treaty obligations, but capable highest order, he has organized an of generous interpretations and

army from among the people for gratuitous favours."

the conquest of their own country. Bishop Galloway, of the Methodist While not accepting his doctrines, Episcopal Church, South, thus de- and having no toleration for his

ritualistic practices, no one can men, in their native dress and properly study the religious forces undress, looked very much like the of Japan without taking this re- coolies pulling our jinrikshas; but markable man and his great cathe- they had English, German, and dral into account.

Japanese books on science, engineer"Leaving the cathedral we visited ing, political economy, etc., in their the Methodist Tabernacle, a large hands, and were diligently making modern brick structure, built by Dr. notes. May be some of these blowzyEby, of the Canadian Methodist headed fellows will yet be counsellors Mission. The doctor is now absent of the Mikado, or historic names in in Canada, and the congregation is the world's literature. These young not so large as formerly. Instead of Japanese are diligent and critical a sermon that morning, some good, readers. orthodox brother was conducting a “The National Museum—the Smithclass-meeting Both the building sonian Institute of Japan-contains and the service gave me a genuine a large and creditable collection, ilMethodist home feeling, although I lustrating very strikingly the natuunderstood not the testimonies given, ral, national, and industrial history and only the tunes that were sung. of the Empire. Hours could be Thank God, we are a witnessing spent there to profit. people, whether in America or in "At Aoyama (Green Mountain), the isles of the sea—whether in the a beautiful suburb of Tokyo, Queen's dominions or the Mikado's is located the Anglo-Japanese ColEmpire.

lege of the Methodist Episcopal “We visited the Imperial Univer- Church. The grounds comprise sity-the Daigaku, founded in 1856, twenty-five acres, and are quite and already the educational pride elevated-overlooking the city and of Japan. Some of the buildings the sea for a great distance. I very are modelled after those at Oxford much regretted to see the large University, England, including those brick dormitory and Goucher Hall beautiful quadrangles. There are so badly wrecked by the recent twenty schools in the university, earthquake. Over twenty thousand embracing everything from law to dollars will be necessary to repair veterinary medicine. The calendar, the damage. Our brethren bave a stout volume in English of 214 here a fine plant, and are doing pages, reads very much as do the good work. annuals of American universities, " Returning to the city, we called except as to degrees conferred. If at the Canadian Methodist schools, this university, with its 1,500 stu- and found that the earthquake had dents, were brought under Christian shaken the foundations there also. influence, the day of Japan's redemp- To Mr. Crummy, the president, whom tion would be near at hand. Though I afterward met, and from whom not positively Christian, it is the pro. I received much valuable informaduct of Western thought. Such an tion, a debt of gratitude is hereby organization, and such a national acknowledged. All these and other spirit to sustain it, were not possible buildings and institutions are the before Commodore Perry anchored representatives of new Japan. Their his flagship in Yokohama bay. architecture, together with the dress

“ Near the university is the large of the better classes, the width of Tokyo Library, with over three hun- the streets, and the construction of dred thousand volumes. I noticed the business houses, indicate an that the large and well-regulated evolution from the old Japan which reading-rooms were crowded with lived a hermit, went naked, and quiet, eager students. Many young beheaded foreigners. The average

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