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jealous for its rights, resolute in self-defence, determined for its honor and prosperity, confident in its own capacity to reach the highest attainment.

In a struggle like this it may be involved in contests and controversies; it may find rivals; it may be invaded. But it will gather strength from the strife, and be enabled to gain a position which will entitle it to respect, and make it worthy to join hands with all the great empires which are strong enough to reach the loftiest social and civil elevation.

How bravely has our own country toiled on thus far to this end ! Born to an inheritance of great virtues and the greatest opportunities, it has exhausted all its best thought, wearied its most untiring enterprise, vexed the very earth itself, invaded all oceans, and waded through seas of blood, for the accomplishment of its high mission. This mission stands out grandly as the establishment in the world of the American Government, American Industry, American Law, American Progress, American Power, American Genius.

Possessed of a theory of government hitherto unknown and untried, the custodian of that civil system in which human rights are sacredly recognized, and in which human equality is a fundamental law, it is our business as a people to Americanize all who seek protection beneath our flag, and share with us our trials and our prosperity. Let England work out her own problem, and be English still. Let France solve hers, if she can, and God grant that she may solve it to the advancement of civilization and the gain of humanity! Let the nations learn of one another. Let us hope that all of them may unite in a peaceful struggle for that high and prosperous civilization in which all the best thought and enterprise of which man is capable will find scope and recognition.

We fear, however, this happy. ideal will never be realized. Awaiting it, we must accept man as he is, and nations as they are, believing in the power of all to work out their own salvation Arrogating to ourselves nothing but the same great opportunity which we would have all enjoy, we are bound by every consideration of national honor and wisdom to see to it that our own interests and industries are developed until our national success shall compel all men to believe in our national design.

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THE South, — the bright, sunny South, — the illus

trious birthplace of Washington and Jackson, the native land of the orange, the magnolia, and the mocking-bird, — where harsh winter never comes, and where cool and gentle sea-breezes forever fan the summer days! Her soil never wearies in fertility, her temperature never repels productive nature, her rivers stretch unfrozen in quiet magnificence to the sea, and her commerce is floated on almost every side by the murmuring ripples of the ocean wave. Who that has ever sojourned within her borders does not fondly remember the ancient hospitality of her people, the plenty and beauty of her productions, and the exhilarating influence of her genial climate ? And who can now turn to her romantic history without feelings of admiration, pity, and kindness? Who does not love her the more for all the trials she has passed, and for the splendid future before her ? Though the desolation of war swept over her social fabric, though her fences were broken down, her fields given up to rank weeds, her houses burned, her families and kindred broken up and dispersed, yet bravely and nobly has she borne all her misfortunes. Her throes have been to her but as that second birth of the purer Christian life which never dies. Fairer cities will spring from the ashes of the old ; richer and ampler fields will whiten with the vegetable fleece; wider fields of cane will rustle in the night-wind, like rushing waters, and send their sweetness to every clime; schools, factories, and effective implements will crowd into the land ; the clumsy log-cabin will give place to the tasteful and comfortable mansion; ancient feuds will be forgotten in the midst of general prosperity and happiness; and a people who fought so bravely for their political principles will prove to the world that they still possess all the elements of a progressive, bright, moral, and enduring nation.

Ex. 17. - THE SONS OF NEW ENGLAND. — Loring. INE TENTHS of our people, perhaps more, are

toiling on the land, or on the sea, in the workshops, in the professions, in all educational institutions, to furnish themselves and their families with subsistence, to create the material wealth of the community, and to elevate, and refine, and organize, and save society. To the productive and cultivating power of these classes everything else stands secondary To them every avenue is open. From this great multitude spring, in each succeeding generation, the foremost men, who accomplish for us in every service the great results.

It is our laborers who become our inventors, anxious to relieve the burdens and quicken the capacity of toil. It is they who, step by step, advance from the simplest, commonest service up to the highest positions in all the great enterprises which make up our busy life. They build, and organize, and rise into the control of our railroads; they conduct our mills; they guide our ships; they open the paths for capital; they fill our schools; they apply their ingenuity to the soil; they legislate for us; they rise into the highest seats of power.

The farmer's boy,* to whom neither academy nor college was ever opened, spends his youth in clearing the forests, and his manhood in guiding the councils of his country through a great war. A young village merchant † becomes Secretary of the Treasury, and upon his integrity and sagacity the country implicitly relies. The highest judicial officer in the land once labored on the soil. From our work-shops and farms sprang the heroes of the war.

And all over the land stand the tasteful and elegant abodes of those who toiled with their own hands to lay the foundation of their prosperity, — of those who have not forgotten to cultivate themselves as they have progressed, and who remember the intellectual and moral and religious wants of the rising generation.

Ex. 18.




ES, sir! say what you will, this is the day of the

merchant. As in early ages war was the great concern of society, and the very pivot of power, so is trade now; and as the chiefs of old were the notables, - placed at the very top of their time, so are the merchants now.

All things attest the change. War, which was once the universal business, is now confined to a few ; once a daily terror. it is now the accident of an age.

Not for adventures of the sword, but for trade, do men descend upon the sea in ships, and traverse broad continents on iron pathways. Not for protection against vio* Lincoln. † Boutwell.

I Clase.

lence, but for trade, do men come together in cities and rear the marvellous superstructure of social order. If they go abroad, or if they stay at home, it is trade that controls them, without distinction of persons.

Here at least, in our country, every man is a trader. The physician trades his benevolent care; the lawyer trades his ingenious tongue; the clergyman trades his prayers ; and trade summons from the quarry the choicest marble and granite to build its capacious homes, displaying warehouses which outdo the baronial castle, and salesrooms which outdo the ducal palace.

There are now European bankers who vie in power with the dukes and princes of other days; and there are traffickers everywhere whose title comes from the ledger and the desk, fit successors to counts and barons. As the feudal chief took to himself and his followers the soil, which was the prize of his strong arm; so now the merchant, with a grasp more subtle and reaching, takes to himself and followers all the spoils of every land, triumphantly won by trade.

At this moment, especially in our country, the merchant more than any

other character stands in the very boots of the old feudal chief; of all pursuits or relations, his is now the most extensive and formidable, making all others its tributaries, and bending at times even the lawyer and the clergyman to be its dependent stipendiaries.

Ex. 19.




T is eminently true that the laboring classes in a

country like this can profit by nothing except justice. There may be other classes of men who from position or wealth, or from other surroundings, may gain temporary advantages over their fellow-men by a system of injus

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