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many important and weighty writings appeared from time te time in the world. The French had formerly the reputation of excelling all other nations in what is called the Beaux Arts; but at present they can claim no superiority in this respect over the German Protestants. In settling the lower and higher schools, and in all their regulations for the advancement of Learning, much indeed wanted reformation ; but yet no people come up to us Germans, even in this respect. In Germany are thirty-fix unive.sities, seventeen Proteitant ones, and seventeen Roman-Cathilic ones, with two other mixed ones, viz. those of Erfurth and Heidelberg. The number of riding academies, colleges, Gymnasia and Latin schools, is here also very great. We have likewise academies and societies for the sciences, as namely, the Imperial Leopoldine academy of the Nature Curiosi, the academy of sciences at Berlin, the fociety of sciences at Gottingen, the academy of the usefu sciences at Erfurth, the society of liberal arts at Leipfic, and the learned society at Duisburg; to which we may also add, the Latin focicty of Jena,
“ There is no one fpecies or branch of learning which has pot already been cultivated among the Germans, or which has not even been carried by them to a greater perfection. I shall briefly touch on thc principal merits and inventions of the Germans in certain particular branches of learning. The theological sciences are not more indebted to any pcople than to the Gerinan Protestants, as it is also to be hoped they will be still carried on by them to a greater height. The Germans have likewise merited not a little from the Roman jurisprudence. Ritterhusius, Fụnceius, and Burgermeister, have explained the laws of the twelve tables. Heineccius has applied himself to the Edittum perpetuum; Ritter, to the Codex Theodosianus.In the science of phyfic their deserts are likewise considerable; and, in latter times, Stahl and Hoffmann in particular have cont:ibuted largely to improvements in it, and acquired the reputation of universal teachers. With respect also to the vegetable kingdom, the Germans have exceeded all others : Rivinus was the first who paved the way, and from him it is that all the rest have borrowed their instructions. The fame which he acquired with regard to the greater and more perfect plants, Dellenius afterwards obtained with respect to the molles and sungi. In the arts too of diffection and healing, or surgery, Heifter has made considerable discoveries and im proveinerts, and in a manner given the latter a quite new. form, as he has taught how to go about many dangerous
operations operations in a fafe manner; so that he also may be styled ar universal teacher. In chymistry, no nation has performed greater things than the Germans. The beautiful porcelaine of Miinia, the phosphorus, the ruby-glass, the Prußian-blue, and the many excellent medicines, which are of universal benefit, are testimonies of their discoveries therein. No one will dispute the extraordinary reputation of the very able persons, Neumann, Zimmermann, Pott, and Marggraff, in chymistry. In philofophy the renown of the Germans is mighty, but that in particular of the great Leibnitz and Wolfius immortal, notwithstanding some parts of their philofophy have met with no unjust opposition. Wolfius not only first introduced the mathematical method into philosophy, but also greatly improved the whole body of philosophy, particularly ontology, and enlarged the speculative part of it with cosmology, and the practical with the philosophia practica universalis. The law of nature too has been greatly illustrated by Puffendorff, Thomasius, and Wolfius. The invention and prosecution of the Æfthetics, which contain the first principles of all the Beaux Arts, do honour to the merits of Alex. Gottl. Baumgarten, and Geo. Fr. Meier. Natural philosophy has been enriched by the Germans with important difcoveries and inventions. 'To mention only a few, Otto von Gueriche found out the air-pump; and Kepler, that explication of the ebb and food, which at present is deemed the most probable. The Germans were also the first who began to make experiments with ele&trical globes. Many other important truths I am obliged to pass over in silence. The mathematics in particular have been enriched with the aerometry by Wolfius, and by other Germans, with other important propositions and discoveries. Leibnitz, for instance, has rendered himself famous by the important discovery of the differential and integral calculation : and, with respect to astronomy, Simon Marius first discovered the satellites of Jupiter; Kepler found that the curve line, in which the planets move, is an ellipfis, &c. &c.
“ In the vast extent of history the Germans have laboured greatly. The doctrine of Politics was first principally taught in the universities in Germany, and no whers have such lectures been more frequented, or the subject better and with greater freedom handled, than there. It was a German, namely, Martin Behaim, of Nurenberg, that first discovered the fourth part of the world, afterwards called America ; and it is the Germans that have published the best books on
Geography, Geography. In philology they have also laboured with the greatest reputation, but their fondness for it is in our days fomewhat abated.
“ In the Beaux Arts the Germans have also distinguished themselves in a very extraordinary manner.
In the art of music in particular they may boast of the works of a Telemann, a Handel, a Graun, a Bach, and a Hafre. Some of their Poets have sung lo excellently, as to vie with the greatest of foreign bards. The merits of the Germans, with respect to the art of painting, are so considerable, as to claim the first place after the Italians. Albert Durer, John Colker, Peter Paul Rubens, Lucas Cranach, Joachim von Sandrat, &c. have obtained immortal renown. The first copper-plates appeared in Germany; and about Nurenberg the surest traces of the invention of engraving are to be met with. Albert Durer also etched in copper before the Italians. Mezzotinto was discovered by the Hessian Lieutenant-Colonel von Sichem, in 1648 ; and wooden cuts are also the invention of a German. --Civil archite?ure has been likewise considerably improved by Goldmann and the younger Sturmius ; and military architecture, by several Germans. Berthold Schwarz, who was probably cotemporary with Albertus Magnus, in the thirteenth century, found out at Cologne how gun-powder might be made serviceable in the art of war. The first dir
covery of the art of printing cannot with justice be refused the Germans; for it is highly probable that John Guttenburg ' in Mentz was the first inventor, and supported by John Faustus, with whom afterwards coming to a rupture, he betook himself to Harlem. The mariner's compass was probably also discovered, or at least greatly improved, by a German. For the advancement of some of the above-mentioned arts, academies have also been established in Germany. At Vienna, in particular, is an academy for painting, sculpture, and architecture; as also at Berlin : and at Dresden and Nurenburg are acadenies for painting; and at Augsburg is the Imperial Franciscan academy of the Beaux Arts."
In regard to commerce, Germany enjoys all kinds of advantages. It borders on the German ocean, the Baltic, and the Gulf of Venice; is watered also by many navigable rivers, and is situated in the heart of Europe : so that it can commodiously export as well the superfluity of its home commodities and manufactures, as likewise attract to itself those of foreign countries.
The goods which are exported out of Germany, into the neighbouring and remote countries, are corn, tobacco, horses, lean cattle, butter, cheese, honey, syrup, wine, linen, woollen stuffs, yarn, ribbands, filk, and cotton stuffs, Nurenburg wares, goat-skins, wool, all sorts of wood, particularly that kind which is fit for thip-building, iron-plates and stoves, cannon, ball, bombs, tin-plates, steel-work, copper, brasswire, porcelaine, mirrors, glasses, beer, Bệunswic mum, tartar, smalt, zaffer, Prusian blue, and many other things.
“ Germany (adds our Author) is not without mechanics of all sorts, and manufactures also in great abundance. A variety of these last in particular has been introduced and improved among them, since the time that many thousands of the reformed, who quitted France on the score of religion, came and settled in Germany. All forts too of manufactures are from time to time becoming more extensive and perfect among them, which the French, Dutch, and English, are very fensible of, as the vent of their manufactures daily decreases in Germany. As the filk manufactory is daily attempted to be carried ftill to a higher pitch of perfection, to which, in the King of Prussia's dominjons in particular, a very extraordinary attention and highly worthy of imitation is paid, it is not to be doubted but that will be more and more improved. At prefent they make velvets, beautiful filks, rich stuffs, and halffilks, with a variety of woollen stuffs, and all manner of cloths, ribbands, lace, very large quantities of fine and coarse linen, bombazin, canvas, fustian, ticking, very fine and coarse woollen hose, caps, gold and silver galloon, embroidered work, fine hats, tapestry, Spanish rough and smooth leather. They work all sorts of metals for ornaments, vefsels, tools, wire, &c. in the best manner; and they make fine clock-work. There are, besides these, manufactories of paper, tobacco, and snuff; and Nurenburg is famous for its unspeakable quantities and varieties of ingenious works in wood, ivory, metal, stone, glass, &c. which are exported to all parts of the world, though ti ir vent now-a-days is not, by a great deal, lo considerable aş forinerly.”
Our Author now proceeds to give a short historical account of Germany, of the prerogatives and power of the Emperor, the privileges of the Electors, and the election of the Emperor; but for these particulars we refer to the work itself, as the extract we have given will enable our Readers to form some judgment of the Author's manner*, and likewise of the value of his work, the remainder of which, we are told, will be comprehended in two large volumes in Quarto.
The Theory of Religion, in its absolute internal State. By the
Rev. John Orr, M. A. Archdeacon of Ferns. Svo. 5s. bound. Millar.
THE reputation which the Author of this Treatise has
acquired by the two Volumes of excellent Sermons which he has publihed, renders it unnecessary for us to say any thing of his character as a Writer. In the performance now before us he explains and inculcates, in a plain, easy, and familiar manner, the most important truths and principles that can employ the thoughts of reasonable and accountable creatures. His style and manner, though not elegant, are nevertheless sufficiently adapted to that clafs of Readers for which he professes to write, viz. such persons of plain underflandings, as are desirous of placing their scheme of religion and morals on a rational foundation, but who have neither leisure nor opportunity to search for that foundation, in more elaborate performances. As his book is principally intended for Readers of ordinary capacities, he industriously avoids all abstruse and intricate speculations and reasonings, for explaining and illustrating his main argument, and has recourse to obvious facts and plain observations; and, indeed, in a great mcafure, to our inward consciousness, feeling, and experience. He delivers his sentiments with openness and freedom, with candour and seriousness; and appears sincerely defirous of promoting the best interests of mankind. If he has any where used any
keenness of expreífion, it is only in regard to Lord Bolinbroke, whose profligate principles, and outrageous abuse of the most respectable characters that have ever appeared in the world, deserve, he tells us, to be animadverted upon with much greater severity than they have yet been.
His Treatise is divided into three parts. In the first he confiders the Nature and End of Religion,its rise and progress
* We have fomewhat abridged our extract, as the Author's Nyle is extremely verbose. This indefatigable Compiler is never tired of enuineraring particulars, whether important or otherwise. After the whole of Mr. B's performance is finished, Mr. Millar fhould give us an abridgement of is. The work deferves it.