« ПредишнаНапред »
preme pleasure of conscious goodness: yours shall be the « care of the Eternal Providence, and the prayers and blessings
of Solyman and Almena.'
Such is the epitome of this Eastern Tale, which is interspersed with some entertaining Episodes, and enlivened with several poetical pieces, penned with pleafing harmony and fimplicity of style. The following song, supposed to be written by Almena, while confined in the castle of Sevafir, may serve as a specimen.
Then welcome, wan despair !
For ever I resign.
in silent grief again;
To watch the distant fail :
That only death canft give !
And SOLYMAN may live! Upon the whole, though we do not think the conduct of this piece equal to what might have been expected from a
Writer, Writer, who has given such early specimens of a fine imagination and a lively fancy; yet; when we consider the design and tendency of the story, candour, though it cannot conceal, will shade its few defects, for the sake of the useful indtruction it conveys,
An Enquiry into the Means of improving Medical Knowlege, by
examining all those Methods which have hindered, or increaled, its Improvement in all paft Ages. To which is added, an Explanation of the Motion and Antion of Fire, in and upon the human Body, toth in continuing Life, and in producing and çuring Diseases. By William Hillary, M. D. 8vo.
8vo. 6 s, Hitch,
HIS gentleman, who seems better qualified by his ob
fervation and experience to act in his profession, than by his genius to write with perspicuity and a proper digestion of his subject, informs us in his Preface of his “ purposing to leave this work as a pofthumous tract; but fome perfons of distinction and learning happening by chance to see it, and thinking it contained fome things both new and useful, desired he would publish it now.” Our surprize at this declaration, after the utmost attention to the work, was abated by reflecting, that all persons of distinction might not excel! in diftinguithing; and that fome persons of learning, in other languages perhaps, might be incompetent judges of ours, from their being foreigners.
As to any novelty in this work, it consists chiefly in the unusual style and manner of it, the materials being borrowed from Le Clerc's and Friend's Historics of Phyfic. We do not, however, impute any plagiarisın to Dr. Hillary on this account, as he refers very frequently to the former, and not seldom to the latter; though we may observe, that Compilers at a second or third hand, have a much easier task than the firit researchers into antique knowlege, and that a smaller portion of literature and of penetration, may and does generally fuffice them.
With regard to any great usefulness, which his friends inight discern, and which we seriously think the Doctor intended both to himself and his Readers from this performance ; we are convinced, that if it had contained inuch more than we are able to discern in it, lefs utility must have resulted to his Reades, from the confused and disagreeable manner in which
he retails his materials. For though we should even subscribe to Dr. Hillary's profeffed contempt of accuracy and elegance, which he leaves to fuperficial critics and pedants ; yet his want of perspicuity, from a defect in grammar, in idiom, and in the common use and meaning of some English particles, is truly unpardonable, as it prevents him, and not very seldom, from being intelligible : or else gives his Readers the fatigue of supplying such charms and alterations, as are necessary to make his book read, as we say, with tolerable coherence.
But to come to the matter of his book, which, notwithftanding the many unimportant and tedious repetitions of the very same things, is seldom fo indifferent as the manner of it: the title of the first Section is,“Of the first rise of Medical Knowlege." —And here contenting himself, as others have been forced to do, with hurrying very cursorily through the earliest ages, for want of any medical accounts or treatises; and having mentioned Æfculapius and Pythagoras only, out of a much greater number collected by Le Clerc; he proceeds to contract what that very learned Physician had judiciously selected concerning the character, the writings, and practice of the great Hippocrates. Now, notwithstanding there are of course many truths and just observations in what our Author has read and re-printed on this occasion, it will seem to the Readers of Le Clerc, upon the whole, rather a disagreeable mutilation, than a judicious abstract, of the compleat and well-digested representation which that Writer has given of this great Physician. Among some other trifling remarks, Dr, Hillary tells us, as one proof of the great penetration and assiduity of Hippocrates, “It was by observation and reafoning that he saw that the human body, from its first rudiments to its diffolution, was supported by, and composed of, food *; and consequently the nature of the diet of men was of the greatest importance." Now, seriously, is there that mortal breathing, who is not profound enough to see or observe the first part of this propofition; or who has so little sensibility as not to be daily convinced, that he cannot wholesomely feed like a bird, a beaft, or a fish? It is more material when he evinces, in opposition to such Physicians as affirm Hippocrates to have had no theory, that he had such a one as was constructed on his affiduous observations, and his rational deductions from them, xato Quowy Sewpeww, as he called it;
• For Worms, or Cannibals perhaps.
that is, theorizing according to nature. It is impossible, indeed, from these passages in his works to which Dr. Hillary refers, and from many others, to imagine he did not reason and meditate in his profession in a manly, and often in a very happy manner; especially if we consider his ignorance of the circulation of the blood, and of the sanctorian excretions, his very imperfect anatomy, and his want of many modern physiological discoveries.
Dr. Hillary seems to prove Dr. Friend's having been mistaken in affirming, that Hippocrates never considered sweating as an instrument of health, but only as a symptom, from which to prognosticate ; and in his adding, there is no remedy directed to provoke a sweat in any of those books allowed to be truly Hippocratic. Besides somé other passages, to which our Author refers on this point, he gives the construction of a sentence or two occurring in the book
TTERI 10wy, concerning the parts, which book has very generally been supposed genuine. Our Author's construction, page 47, contains, in effect, the sense of Hippocrates in this passage, though not as closely rendered, as our idiom will easily admit. We refer to the original below *, at length, for the satisfaction of our learned Medical Readers, as it is pretty express on the point, and makes Dr. Friend's over-light the more remarkable.
The second Section professes to treat-Of the Improvement of Medicine after the time of Hippocrates.--As this is expressed without limitation to any time or period, the Reader might suppose it extended to the present century; but he will find it terminate in the fixteenth. This must be supposed to include the state of Phyfic among the antient Romans, the Arabians, and the Europeans, to that time ; and, indeed, the whole makes a very crude ollio, or medley, under our Author's Cookery. He tells us, “ That as neither Theffalus, Draco, nor Polybus, the two sons and son-in-law of Hippocrates, (who were all Phylicians) have left us any of their works, that are come to our hands, &c. he shall pass them over.”
κ πιων υδωρ θερμον, και μελικραθον, ην οξος συν υδατι, ταυλα δε πιπισκειν ως πλεισα. ην γαρ μη ψυχρoν εσιη το πόλον, θερμον εον, και μενον, εκ τε σωματος τε νοσεοντές αφαιρεει, ήν τε διερηση εν τε διιδρωση. παυλη δε ανοιγόμενον τε και αναπνεον, και κινέμενον το σωμα συμφέρον Fonet, - De Locis in Homine, p. 418. Edit Foësi.
This seems to affirm, that some of their works, which they have never left us, are come to our hands : which is not easily comprehended. We are told literally, p. 75, “ That Celsus blames the dogmatists for pretending to explain fome things, which their then knowlege of the animal economy, without knowing it better, and the laws of motion also, they could not explain.” This we likewise submit to the penetration of our Readers. After some reflections on the ill effects of indulging hypotheses too much, we are told verbatim, “ There have been others, who from too much indolence or pride, to servilely watch and follow nature in such a manner, or were in too great haste to be rich; and þeing pushed on by vanity and conceit of their own abilities, have set themselves up for reformers of the Medical Art, (our Author himself being professedly one] and having by much fattery and great complaisance, and some other low arts, acquired a great name, have imposed themselves upon the credulous and the ignorant vulgar, for men of superior abilities; and have so gained much practice.” This is one of our Author's many extraordinary digreffions ; and though the meaning is evident, in spight of its odd structure, we are at a loss to discover how all this pains, all this Aattery, and all these low arts of other nameless Physicians, are compatible with either indolence or pride. Our Author is not less mysterious, when, having informed us, “ That Dioscorides was so desirous of knowing the real virtues and effects of plants by experience, that he frequently tried their effects upon himself;" (which was as honest as Dr. Storck's taking hemlock before he prescribed it) he repeats the account of his dying by a dose of the Aconitum or Solanum lethale, which are differrent, though deleterious plants: and having observed, “ that Dioscorides described its effects and symptoms, till he laid down his pen and expired his last breath,” our Author adds,
- .“ And thus he lost his life by endeavouring to discover the means of preserving the life of others.” But as he has not informed us that Discorides took any antidote against this poyfon, it looks as if he lost his life in endeavouring to inform pofterity after what manner, and with what symptoms, it poisoned himself; fupposing its poisonous quality to have been previously known.
Dr. Hillary, concluding his abridgment of the Improvements made by the Greek and Roman Physicians with D. Ægineta, who flourished about the seventh century; after fome reflections of his own, the substancc of which is better